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PAUL'S LETTERS TO 
TIMOTHY AND TITUS 



Other Books In The BIBLE STUDY TEXTBOOK SERIES: 



ACTS MADE ACTUAL 

ROMANS REALIZED 

THE CHURCH IN THE BIBLE 

SACRED HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY 

HELPS FROM HEBREWS 

THE GLORIOUS CHURCH OF EPHESIANS 

THE GOSPEL OF JOHN VOL. I 

GUIDANCE FROM GALATIANS 

THE GREATEST WORK IN THE WORLD 



BIBLE STUDY TEXTBOOK 



PAUL'S LETTERS TO 
TIMOTHY AND TITUS 

A NEW 

• Commentary 

• Workbook 

• Teaching Manual 

Don De Welt 

Professor of Ozark Bible College 
Paraphrase by James MacKnight 



College Press, Joplin, Missouri 



Copyright 1961 

Don De Welt 

All Rights Reserved 



DEDICATION 

To the one who first brought me 
the message of life. — Archie Word 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS : 



Permissions to quote from the following books have been obtained 
from the copyright owners — ■■ 

From Augustana Book Concern: 

The Interpretation Of St. Paul's Epistles To The Colossians, 
To The Thessalonians, To Timothy, To Titus And To Philemon 

by R. C. H. Lenski 

From Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. 
The Pastoral Epistles by Donald Gutbrie 
The Pastoral Epistles by E. K. Simpson 
New Testament Epistles by John H. Bratt 

From Tjondervan Publishing House: 

Commentary On The Pastoral Epistles by Patrick Fairbaim 

From Dr. Wilbur Smith: 

Outline Of I Timothy 

From Baker Book House: 

New Testament Commentary by William Hendricksen 
The Epistles To Timothy by Russell Bradley Jones 
New Testament Epistles by Victor E. Hoven 

From Moody Press: 

Titus And Philemon by D. Edmond Hiebert 

First Timothy by D. Edmond Hiebert 

The Pastoral Epistles by Homer A. Kent, Jr. 

From Gospel Advocate Company: 

New Testament Epistles by David Lipscomb 

An Introduction To The Epistles Of Paul by Leslie G. Thomas 

From Christian Standard: 

Studies In The Epistles And Revelation by W. B. Taylor 
Bible Teacher And Leader — article by Lewis C. Foster 



Contents and Analytical Outline 

Page 

PREFACE 9 

PROLOGUE 11 

GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO I & II TIMOTHY 

AND TITUS 13 

PAUL'S FIRST LETTER TO TIMOTHY 

I. SOUND DOCTRINE, 1:3-20... 34 

1. Danger to sound doctrine, 3-11 

2. Example of sound doctrine, 12-17 

3. The preacher and sound doctrine, 18-20 

II. PUBLIC WORSHIP, 2:1-15 47 

1. Prayer, 1-7 

2, Men and women in worship, 8-15 

III. CHURCH OFFICERS, 3:1-6 60 

1. The elder, 1-7 

2. The deacon, 8-13 

3. The importance of instructions, 14-16 

IV. FALSE TEACHERS, 4:1-16 75 

1. Their coming, 1-5 

2. The preacher and the false teachers, 6-10 

3. The true service of God, 11-16 

V. CARE OF MEMBERS OF THE CHURCH, 5:1-6:2 91 

1. Care of young and old, 1,2 

2. Care of widows, 3-16 

3. Care of elders, 17-25 

4. Care of slaves, 6:1,2 

VI. THE MINISTER HIMSELF, 6:3-21a 109 

1. Motives, 3-10 

2. Proper walk, 11-16 

3. Faithful ministry, 17-21 a 

CONCLUSION, 6:21b 128 

PAUL'S LETTER TO TITUS 

GREETINGS, 1 : 1-4 137 

I. THE CARE OF THE CHURCH, 1:5-16 141 

1. The selection and qualifications of elders, 1:5-9 

2. The description and refutation of false teachers, 1:10-16 

7 



II. THE CONDUCT OF CHURCH MEMBERS, 2:1-15 153 

1. Older men, 2:1-2 

2. Older women, 2:3 

3. Young : women,- 2:4-5 

4. Young men, 2:6-8 .-■■'! 

5. Slaves, 2:9-10 

6. The motive for conduct, 2:11-15 

III. CHURCH MEMBERS IN SOCIETY, 3:1-11 169 

1. As citizens, 3:1-2 

2. The motive for proper conduct, 3:3-7 

3. Truth and error, 3:8-11 

CONCLUSION, 3:12-15 u........ ...... _....,. ........ 182 

PAUL'S SECOND LETTER TO TIMOTHY 
INTRODUCTION 1:1-5 

1. 1. SALUTATION 1:1,2 ...: t , H 191 

2. PAUL'S GRATITUDE 1:3-5 ...„. ..>... 192 

PART ONE .■■>■;-.-■■■ 
EXHORTATIONS 1:6-2:26 

1. DO NOT BE ASHAMED 1:6-18 ,. 195 

a. Timothy 6-11 

b. Paul 12-14 

c. Onesiphorus 15-18 

2. BE STRONG IN THE SERVICE OF CHRIST 2:1-26 208 

a. As a child 1,2 

b. As a soldier 3,4 

c. As an athlete 5 

d. As a farmer 6-13 

e. As a workman 14-19 

f. As a utensil 20-23 

g. As a bondservant 

PART TWO 

WARNINGS 3:1-4:5 

1. RECOGNIZE THE COMING APOSTASY 3:1-9 233 

2. WITHSTAND THE APOSTASY 3.:.10-17 239 

3. PREACH THE WORD 4:1-5 „ 246 

PART THREE 

TESTIMONY 4:6-18 

1. ASSURANCE IN THE FACE OF DEATH 4:6-8 251 

2. REQUEST FOR TIMOTHY TO COME TO PAUL 4:9-15 253 

3. PRAISE FOR HIS LORD 4:16-18 256 

CONCLUSION 4:19^22 

1. PERSONAL REFERENCES 4: 19;21 259 

2. BENEDICTION 4:22 ..... l 261 

8 



PREFACE 

For those who do not have a copy of a Bible Study 
Textbook it might be helpful to say a word as to their 
purpose: 

Here is a series of books unique in format and content, 
We have but one intention in these publications; To 
prompt the personal study of the Word of God. 

We shall discuss every verse, but our discussion will be 
entirely subservient to our higher purpose. The constant 
question shall be "do you understand the meaning of the 
divine writer?" We shall lend whatever aid necessary 
to help you discover his meaning. It is not at all enough 
to simply say "here is what is meant," and then in so 
many words state it. No personal discovery by the 
student has been made by a teacher's plain statement of 
fact, 

We want a creative study of the Bible. We desire to 
produce the situation and the tools by which you build 
your beautiful temple of Bible knowledge, Here are teach- 
ing aids that truly teach — The Bible Study Textbooks. 

Don De Welt 



PROLOGUE 

My heart was made happy when brother De Welt requested 
that I give this prologue concerning his comments on First and 
Second Timothy and Titus, He is my "Timothy" and being 
such, I know him and his background, and what we can expect 
from him in this field, 

Brother De Welt is a talented man in his presentation 
as well as being a deep student of the Word of God. His many 
books now in print give evidence of his labors and their wide 
acceptance. He is a man of deep convictions based on study. 
I expect this latest effort to surpass his former works, because 
this is his strongest field, evangelism. 

He has had much experience in evangelism, and has had 
years of proving by test his ideas as he has trained young men 
to "do the work of an evangelist." This book should be very 
practical. 

I appreciate brother De Welt because of his character. He 
is one of God's scarce personalities who appreciate the efforts 
of others. He is quick to express gratitude for the part others 
have played in his life and he deserves heaven's blessings 
upon his own labors. 

I pray God will bless the efforts put forth in this work 
especially planned for Evangelists. 

Sincerely, 



A. Word. 



11 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

There are several very important questions to be answered 
before we can proceed with an exegetical study of the letter of 
Paul to Timothy, 

1. Did Paul actually write this letter? Of course we know I 
Timothy 1:1 says he did, but there are those who hold a 
different opinion, Why would anyone deny the plain state- 
ment of the text as to the authorship? Such a conclusion 
is based upon a presupposition, It is presupposed by some 
that the books of the New Testament were not written in 
the first century nor by the persons whose names they bear. 
What shall we say to these things? It would be an easy matter 
to simply deny the accusation, but this would also be a 
presupposition. It is not the purpose of this text to give 
an exhaustive study of the subject. Others have done a 
splendid service in answering this charge, We refer you to 
them for the details necessary, Read: New Testament 
Commentary — Exposition of The Pastoral Epistles by Wm. 
Hendriksen pp, 4-33; The Pastoral Epistles by Homer A. 
Kent, Jr. pp. 24-71; An Interpretation Of St. Paul's Epistles 
To the Colossians, to the Thessalonians, to Timothy, to Titus 
and to Philemon, by R, C. H. Lenski pp. 473-484. The 
Pastoral Epistles by Donald Guthrie pp. 11-53. 

2. Where was Paul when he wrote these letters? Was Paul in 
jail at Rome awaiting his execution? Was Paul released after 
his first imprisonment? These questions might not appear 
pertinent to our study, but they most assuredly are. Here is 
another question of vital importance: Does the book of Acts 
contain a continuous, complete record of the life of Paul? 
At this juncture someone is sure to ask, "what difference does 
it make?" Well, it just so happens that there are events 
mentioned in I and II Timothy and Titus that can not be 
harmonized with the account of Paul's life in the book of Acts. 
There are two possibilities: (1) We do not have a record 
of all the events in Acts. (2) These events took place after 
the Acts account, and just before Paul's death. The second 
position is the one most commonly accepted, A careful 
reading of the book of Acts will convince one that it would 
be almost impossible to open up areas for the inclusion of 
the following events: 

13 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

a. A trip to Crete. On this trip Paul was accompanied by Titus. 
Paul left Titus on the isle to carry on the work Paul had 
started. Read Titus 1:5. The only mention of Crete in Luke's 
second treatise has to do with the shipwreck. Read Acts 27:27- 
28:11. Where was Titus? Where is indication that a group 
of churches was established on the island at this time? 

b. Paul's trip into Macedonia from Ephesus. At this time 
Timothy was left at Ephesus to minister to the church. Read 
I Timothy 1:2. If you have read the Acts account you know 
of Paul's two visits to Ephesus. The first visit is eliminated 
as he is going the wrong direction. Read Acts 18:19-22. Paul 
was going to Palestine, not Macedonia. The second visit is 
recorded in Acts 19:1 — 20:1. In Acts 19:22 we are told 
that Timothy and Erastus had been sent ahead into Mace- 
donia. When Paul left Ephesus for Macedonia as near as 
we know Timothy was not at Ephesus but already in 
Macedonia. 

c. A visit to Timothy at Ephesus from whatever place Paul 
wrote. Read I Timothy 3:14. At what time in the Acts 
account. did Paul visit Timothy at Ephesus? It could not 
have been in either of the recorded visits. In the first visit 
the church had not been established, and Paul arrived before 
Timothy. In the second visit Timothy was with him. 

d. Paul was in Nicopolis. Read Titus 3:12. Where is this place? 
It is not easy to answer this question. It is quite possibly 
on the eastern coast of Achaia — or is it on the coast of 
Macedonia? The important point is: Paul was there. Rut 
when was he there? Why? No mention of this is made in the 
Acts account. No break is made in the Acts record (unless 
we make one) for such a visit. 

e. Paul was at Miletus. Read II Timothy 4:20. Paul's visit to 
Miletus on his way to Jerusalem (Acts 20: 15-38) does not 
fit the tenor of II Timothy 4:20. Acts does not mention 
Trophimus. 

1'. Paul left a cloak and parchments at Troas. Read II Timothy 
4:13. Paul was twice at Troas as recorded in Acts 20:6, 7 
and II Cor. 2:12-14; in neither visit can we fit the present 
instructions; most especially would we reject the reference 
in II Corinthians 2: 12-14. The urgency of the visit mentioned 
in II Corinthians 2:12-14 precludes the circumstances of II 

14 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

Timothy 4:13. Is it at all likely, that upon the way to 
Jerusalem with a party of seven representatives from the 
churches, that Paul would have paid a leisurely visit to the 
house of Carpus? Perhaps so, but no mention is made of it. 

g, // Timothy 4:20 seems to suggest that Paul was at Corinth. 

In this verse Paul is apparently discussing an itinerary of 

which we know nothing in the Acts record. This visit to 

Corinth could have been only on the part of Erastus, without 

Paul, but the context seems to suggest otherwise. 

h. Please read II Timothy 1:16, 17, 2:9 and 4:6. Now read 

Acts 28:30, 31 . . . Note the difference in the description 

of the imprisonments. We conclude that there were two 

imprisonments. The first one, described in Acts 28:30, 31, 

from which he was released. During this period of liberty 

Paul wrote the letters of I Timothy and Titus. Quite 

possibly I Timothy was written first from somewhere in 

Macedonia. To say which of these letters was written first 

is an impossibility, but the facts fit together better when we 

assume I Timothy of first composition. 

In answer to our original question we can say: Paul wrote 1 

Timothy in the year 62 or 63 AD. after release from Roman 

imprisonment, while he was somewhere in Macedonia. Very 

shortly after in the same year Paul wrote to Titus. Upon his 

second arrest while in the Roman prison in 64-68 A.D., probably 

in 67 A.D., he wrote the last of his letters — // Timothy. 

For the benefit of those who read these words and do not 
know the background of Paul's epistles we present a brief outline 
of their composition. Before he was imprisoned Paul wrote: 

1. On his second journey he wrote from Corinth the epistles 
of I & II Thessalonians. 

2. On his third journey he wrote I Corinthians from Ephesus; 
II Corinthians from Macedonia, possibly Philippi; Galatians 
and Romans from Corinth. 

3. While in prison in Rome for two full years he wrote the 
following letters: Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, and 
Philemon. 

4. After his release he wrote I Timothy and Titus. After his 
second arrest he wrote II Timothy. Anyone is free to disagree 
with the time and place of the writings of these letters. All 
we say is that we have decided after two decades of study, 
that this is the most reasonable .arrangement. 

15 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

3. T o who were these letters addressed? To Timothy and Titus 
to be sure but what do we know of these men? First as to 
Timothy: 

a. Paul first saw this young man in the city of Lystra on his 
first missionary journey. (Acts 16:1,2) Acts 20:4 seems to 
indicate Lystra as his home in contrast to Gaius of Derbe. 
In the strictest sense of the term this young man Was a "half- 
breed", for whereas his mother Eunice and grandmother Lois 
were Jewesses, his father was a Greek. (Acts 16:1; IITimothy 
1:5). The text would seem to indicate that his father was 
not a believer, even in the Jewish Faith. Timothy had not 
been circumcised thus indicating the lack of interest on the 
part of the father. There was no lack of interest on the part 
of his mother or grandmother, for they were devout students 
of the Old Testament scriptures and taught Timothy from 
them. Although it is not so stated it is probably true that 
Timothy, his mother and grandmother were all converted 
on Paul's first journey. Two or three things could have 
prepared Timothy for his acceptance of Jesus as the Messiah: 

(1) A knowledge of the Old Testament scriptures. When Paul 
pointed out "of whom the prophets spoke" he was as ready 
to be baptized as Was the eunuch of Acts 8. 

(2) The. consistent though difficult life of. his mother and grand- 
mother offered a grand example to him. Did they accept 
their Messiah first, or was it their son who did? Timothy saw 
in the day by day living of Eunice and Lois that the scriptures 
could be translated into life; this he wanted, and this he did. 

(3) He was a witness of the devotion and sufferings of the Apostle 
Paul. This alone without his previous knowledge and home 
life could have been inadequate. It undoubtedly was inade- 
quate for many others who lived in Lystra. Timothy saw 
the unswerving devotion, the undying zeal, and the unselfish 
love of Paul among those who hated him and stoned him. 
Was it the tears that streamed down the face of Timothy as 
he stood over the broken body of Paul that Paul remembered? 
(Cf. II Tim. 1:4). What did Timothy feel when Paularose 
from the place of stoning to return to speak to the very ones 
who sought his life? (Acts 14:20). If Timothy felt a spiritual 
kinship to Paul it was surely a mutual matter for Paul refers 
to him as: "my child," "Genuine child in faith," "beloved 

16 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

child," We conclude that Timothy was one of Paul's converts 
to Christ upon Paul's first evangelistic tour. 

Paul took him to help upon the second visit to Lystra, (Acts 
■16:1-3). Because of labor for Christ on Timothy's own initia- 
tive, Paul chose him to work with him. We wonder what 
"program of evangelism" was being followed by Timothy in 
the wild barbarian towns of Derbe, Iconium, and Lystra? 
Probably the one originated by our Lord when he said "Let 
your light shine before men," 

Timothy's reputation for faithfulness was well established 
when Paul returned to Lystra, Timothy was not working 
for a "promotion" to the office of evangelist, He worked for 
Christ because he loved lost souls and his Lord. Kent suggests 
Timothy might have taken John Mark's place who left Paul 
on the first journey. 

Before Timothy left his mother and home to travel with Paul, 
he must "become all things to all men, that by all means he 
might win some." (I Corinthians 9:20), Paul requested that 
Timothy be circumcised. Paul did this that any unnecessary 
delay and argument with Jews might be avoided. If Timothy 
was to enter the synagogues with Paul and share in the 
services, this rite was essential. 

Perhaps it was when Paul chose Timothy, that the hands of v 
the elders of Lystra, Derbe and Iconium, along with the 
hands of Paul, were laid upon the head of Timothy, thus 
ordaining him for the work he was about to do, (I Timothy 
4:14; II Timothy 1:6). There were evidently two "gifts" 
given here: the "gift" of the office of evangelist through the 
hands of the presbytery or eldership, and the "gift" of super- 
natural powers by the hands of Paul. 

Timothy traveled with Paul and Silas upon their second 
evangelistic tour. (Acts 16:2-4; 17:14, 15; 18:5; I Thessa- 
lonians 1;1; 3:2-6; II Thessalonians 1:1). While upon this 
journey he was sent back to Thessalonica to help the recently 
established church in that city. 

Timothy was with Paul again on his third missionary journey. 
(Acts 19:22; 20:4; II Corinthians 1:1-19). It would seem 
Timothy was given the special task of carrying not only the 
message of the gospel, but the messages of the Apostle Paul; 
both written and oral. He was sent by Paul to Corinth to bear 

17 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

the Apostle's special instructions (I Corinthians 4:17; 16:10). 
Timothy was to return to Corinth in company of Paul at a 
later time on the same journey (Romans 16:21). We can 
believe the last statement, if we believe the epistle to the 
Romans was written from Corinth. 

e. When Paul was imprisoned at Rome, Timothy was one of the 
few who visited him there. (Philippians 1:1; Colossians 1:1; 
Philemon 1 ) . While Paul was in prison, he sent Timothy on 
yet another errand. (Philippians 2:19-23). 

f. Hebrews 13:23 speaks of an imprisonment for Timothy of 
which we have no other record. 

g. The particular concern of our study is: where was Timothy 
when he received Paul's letter or letters? I Timothy 1:3; II 
Timothy 1:16-18; 4:19 seem to leave little doubt that he 
was in the city of Ephesus, at work with the church in this 
great city. We refer you to another Bible Study Textbook 
for further information about this church and city. (Read 
from THE GLORIOUS CHURCH pp. 12-16) 

h. Timothy did not have an easy field in which to labor. A 
most important question has to do with the position or office 
held by Timothy, and whether it has any example for us. 
There seems to be a rather unanimous opinion among com- 
mentators, that Timothy was an apostolic representative, or 
one who acted for the apostle Paul in Paul's absence. We 
quote from Homer A. Kent who holds this view with a number 
of others: 

"The functions which Timothy fulfilled in the early church 
should not be confused with the present-day pastor. Rather, 
in those formative days of the church, he seems to have been 
one of several who helped to carry out the transition from 
the times of the apostles to the post Apostolic era of the 
church. In the beginning of the church, the authority of the 
apostles brought into being the church, and served to guide 
and instruct it. Although it seems clear that from the begin- 
ning local churches were congregationally controlled, still the 
influence of the apostles was strong. Timothy, therefore, was 
an apostolic representative. He exercised the guidance and 
counseling ministry that Paul would have performed had he 
been present. Titus occupied a similar position (Titus 1:5). 
Thus it is probably not correct to visualize Timothy as the 

18 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

pastor of the local Christian church at Ephesus. Rather, he 
was Paul's official delegate to assist the Ephesian church with 
its officials in conducting affairs in the proper manner," 
(The Pastoral Epistles pp. 19, 20) 

What shall we say to these things? Is there an office of 
evangelist today? We advance four reasons for believing we 
do have a present day office of evangelist: 

(1) The nature of the work assigned to the evangelist makes the 
office a perpetual one, Their job was to convert sinners, to 
feed the flock of God, to teach the ignorant, While time 
endures, this will be necessary. Therefore the office must be 
perpetual, 

(2) Evangelists from the beginning received their commission 
from churches, and not directly from Christ, as did the 
apostles ■ and prophets, This can be shown in the case of 
Timothy, in which the hands of the eldership or presbytery 
were laid upon him. (Acts 14:1-3, I Tim. 4:14). The 
imposition of the hands of the eldership (probably of Lystra 
and Iconium) was for the purpose of setting him aside for 
the work upon which he was embarking. Paul laid his hands 
upon Timothy (II Tim. 1:6) to impart to him those miracu- 
lous gifts, which in that age were necessary in order to enable 
him to fulfill the commission which he had received from 
the church of Lystra and Iconium. Since we still have local 
churches after the order of those of that day, we have the 
prerogative of setting aside evangelists. 

(3) Paul told Timothy to choose certain faithful men and commit 
to them what Paul had committed to Timothy. (II Tim. 2:2). 
This hardly needs comment; it is only necessary to ask, what 
was the work of Timothy, and then realize that he was to 
commit that work to others and then they in turn were urged 
to commit the work to others. If this admonition was followed 
by Timothy and those who succeeded him, we have the 
permanence of the office assured! 

(4) The office has actually been continued from the beginning 
to the present day. That "evangelist" was the name by which 
these servants of the church were usually designated in 
primitive times, seems evident from the testimony of several 
of the Christian fathers, Eusebius, for instance, the learned 
Bishop of Caesarea, A.D. 315-340, thus speaks of evangelists 
who lived and labored during the reign of Trajan A.D. 98-117. 

19 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

4. What do we know of Titus? We quote from Bible Teacher and 
Leader- — article by Lewis C. Foster: "The parents and home 
community of Titus are not known. It is made clear, however, 
that he was a Gentile; and he was at Antioch of Syria either 
fourteen or seventeen years after Paul became a Christian. 
(See Galatians 1:18; 2:1). From this time on he was a close 
companion of Paul, entrusted with important tasks and held 
in high esteem by the apostle. It is strange that his name 
does not appear in the book of Acts. Since Luke omits his 
own name also, it has been suggested that Titus was a 
relative . of the author, or in some way was so close to him 
that Luke deliberately refrained from mentioning him by 
name. At any rate, we can conclude that Titus was included 
in the company that went to Jerusalem from Antioch when 
the question of keeping the old law was disturbing the church. 
Acts makes it clear that "certain other of them" went up with 
Paul and Barnabas to Jerusalem (Acts 15:2), and then we 
read explicitly in Galatians 2:1 that they took Titus with 
them. After this occasion, Titus does not figure in the New 
Testament records until Paul is at Ephesus, on his third 
missionary' journey, and is writing to the church at Corinth. 
Here it becomes evident that Titus, along with an unnamed 
brother, had been sent by Paul to Corinth to represent Paul 
and the gospel, perhaps to deliver Paul's first letter to them, 
and to defend the. right. Later Paul, failing to find him in 
Troas, became so anxious to know of the state of affairs in 
Corinth that he advanced to meet the returning Titus in 
Macedonia. Here,Paul's heart was made glad when he learned 
from Titus that the Corinthians had accepted his rebukes and 
corrections in a proper way. Out of comfort and relief Paul 
Wrote his second epistle to them. In all there are seven 
references to Titus in 2 Corinthians (2:13; 7:6, 13, 14; 8:6, 
. 16, 23; 12:18). From this we also learn that Titus had special 
responsibilities in making the collection for the poor in 
Jerusalem. Following this we know nothing of the move- 
ments of Titus until Paul addressed a letter to him in Crete. 
It becomes evident that after Paul's release from his first 
Roman imprisonment, he did missionary work on the island 
of Crete and left Titus there to lead in the continuing work, 
even as he left Timothy at Ephesus. In this epistle Titus is 
asked to join Paul at Nicopolis as soon as he is contacted by 
Artemas Or Tychicus (Titus 3:12); but whether these plans 

20 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

were carried out we do not know. In his last epistle Paul 
states that Titus has gone to Dalmatia (2 Timothy 4:10), It 
seems unfair to suppose that this was against Paul's wishes, 
as was the desertion by Demas (2 Timothy 4:10). Rather, 
Crescens had gone to Galatia and Titus to Dalmatia as Paul 
had directed them, Since no previous word had been given 
of work done in Dalmatia, this may have been a missionary 
enterprise into a new field, Dalmatia was northwest of 
Macedonia, and may have been Titus' next destination after 
a stay at Nicopolis, Some suggest that Titus was older than 
Timothy (compare I Timothy 4; 12 and Titus 2:15) and 
was chosen for situations that demanded the stronger and 
more understanding character. The apostle calls Titus "mine 
own son" (Titus 1:4), He also accepts him as his "brother" 
(2 Corinthians 2:13) and his "partner and fellowhelper" 
(2 Corinthians 8:23). Although Titus is not called an "over- 
seer" in the sense of an elder or bishop, nevertheless he was 
a capable shepherd for the Christian flock as a representative 
for the apostle Paul in the service of the Lord. It is impossible 
to measure the power of his influence in the church, but we 
can be sure it was great." 

What was the purpose or purposes of these letters? Obviously 
the purpose was to prepare Timothy to do an effective work 
for Christ in Ephesus. The church had been established in 
this great city for some years before. Paul himself had 
labored in Ephesus for a longer period of time than at any 
other place. (Acts 20:31). Titus was sent or "left" on the 
isle of Crete for the same purpose. The letters are not only 
personal but official. 

The epistle of II Timothy has less of the general instructions 
for the church than those of I Timothy and Titus. The 
student will note the sense of authority in the words of I 
Timothy. Timothy was expected by Paul to deliver the 
instructions he gave him to all the churches in Ephesus; and 
perchance also to the seven churches of Asia, Titus was 
likewise to use the letter of Paul as an authoritative document 
in his work among the churches in Crete. 

The question has been raised as to our relationship to these 
letters. Are we to conclude that Timothy and Titus were 
special personal representatives of Paul, and therefore such 

21 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

instructions as found in these letters were given only and 
exclusively to them? No one wants to hold this position with 
all its implications, for there is too much in these letters 
applicable to present day church administration; particularly 
is this true of the eldership. (See I Timothy 3:1-11). Why 
hold the position at all if we are not willing to accept its 
implications? We are all willing to conclude that these two 
men had powers we do not now possess, but what work were 
they to do apart from the exercise of supernatural powers 
that we cannot fulfill today? 

On what shall we base our conclusion that Timothy and Titus 
were to act in Paul's place in Paul's absence? Can we not 
carry out in our community what Paul told Timothy to do 
in the community of Ephesus? We yet have the heavenly 
oracles, and the same need. The letters were written as an 
encouragement to the men who received them; as a means 
of setting the churches in order. But these letters were also 
written as a grand means of establishing the kingdom of God 
in the world today! 

5. How shall we outline this book? 

Here are four examples by men who have done it: 
WILBUR SMITH 
First Timothy Outlined 

Everyone agrees that the outlining of the pastoral epistles is quite 
difficult, since they were not written with the idea of carrying 
through a logical, argument, as were the letters to the Ephesians 
and the Romans. I have spent some, time attempting to outline 
the First Epistle of Timothy, and have taught the pastoral epistles 
here at the Fuller Theological Seminary in an elective course. 
At last I think I have worked out, together with my students, 
what might be considered as satisfactory an outline as can be 
constructed. Some of my readers might like to have such an 
outline possibly to insert in the margin of this portion of the 
New Testament. 
Salutation, 1:1, 2 
I. Paul's First General Charge to Timothy, 1:3-20 

1 . A charge regarding the need for constant watchfulness lest 
false doctrines appear, 1 3-11 

2. A word of encouragement by Paul's review of his own 
experience, 12-16 

22 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

3, A doxology, 17 

4, An exhortation to be faithful to his original call to the 
ministry, 18-20 

II, Certain Aspects of Life in the Christian Church, 2:1 — 3:16 

1, The practice of prayer, 2:1-8 

2, The place of women in the church, 2:9-15 

3, Qualifications for church officers, 3:1-13 

a. for bishops, 1-7 

b, for deacons, 8-13 

4, A personal exhortation to Timothy, 14, 15 

5, A doxology, 16 

III, A Prophecy Concerning Apostasy in the Last Days 4:1-5 

IV, The Characteristics that Should be Displayed by a Good 
Minister of Christ, 4:6-16 

1. In general, 6-11 

2, In particular, 12-16 

V, Ideals of Conduct for Certain Groups in the Church, 5:1-6:2 

1. Respect for the aged, 5:1,2 

2. The conduct of women, 5:3-16 

3. The work of the elders, 5:17-22 

4. A general exhortation, 5:23-25 

5. The relation of master and servants, 6:1,2 

VI, Final Exhortation and Warnings, 6:3-21 

1. Some perils to be avoided, 3-10 

2. A final charge to Timothy^ 11-14 

3. A doxology, 15, 16 

4. A warning to the rich, 17-19 

5. A concluding word of warning to Timothy, 20, 21 

HOMER A. KENT 

Outline of I Timothy Chapter One 

Introductory Matters (1:1-2) 

I, CHARGE CONCERNING SOUND DOCTRINE (1:3-20) 

A, The Danger to Sound Doctrine In Ephesus (vv. 3-11) 

1 , Teachers who taught another doctrine. 

2. Teachers who failed to use God's Law properly. 

B. The Outstanding Illustration Of The Results of Sound 
Doctrine (vv. 12-17) 

1. Paul's former life of Lawkeeping was a life of unbelief. 

2. Paul's present life in the ministry was the result of 
mercy and grace, 

23 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

3. Paul's conversion was planned as a pattern to future 
believers. 
C. The Responsibility Of The Minister Toward Sound Doctrine 
(vv. 18-20) 

1. The responsibility expressed by formal charge. 

2. The responsibility illustrated by two examples. 

Outline of I Timothy Chapter Two 

II. CHARGE CONCERNING PUBLIC WORSHIP (2:1-15) 

A. Prayer in Public Worship (vv. 1-7) 

1 . The kinds of prayer. 

2. The objects of prayer. 

3. The reason for prayer. 

4. The basis for prayer. 

B. Men and Women In Public Worship (vv. 8-15) 

1 . Conduct of the men. 

2. Conduct of the women. 

Outline of I Timothy Chapter Three 

III. CHARGE CONCERNING CHURCH OFFICERS (3:1-16) 

A. Office of the Overseer (vv. 1-7) 

1. Nature of the office. 

2. Qualifications for the office. 

a. General qualification. 

b. Moral qualification. 

c. Mental qualifications. 

d. Personality qualifications. 

e. Domestic qualification. 

f. Christian experience. 

g. Reputation. 

B. Office of the Deacon (vv. 8-13) 

1. Nature of the office. 

2. Qualifications for the office. 

a. Personal character. 

b. Spiritual life. 

c. Christian experience. 

d. Morality. 

e. Domestic relations. 

3. Qualifications for women servants. 

4. The encouragement for deacons. 

C. The Importance Of This Charge To the Church (vv. 14-16) 

24 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 
Outline of I Timothy Chapter Four 

IV, CHARGE CONCERNING FALSE TEACHERS (4; 1-16) 

A, The appearance of False Teachers (vv, 1-5) 

1 , The time of these teachers, 

2, The description of these teachers, 

3, The teaching of these teachers, 

4, The refutation of these teachers, 

B, The Duty of the Minister Toward False Teachers (vv. 
6-10) 

1, Constructive teaching, 

2, Godly living, 

3, Faithful laboring. 

C, The Encouragement of the Minister Toward a Constructive 
Ministry (vv, 11-16) 

1 , In public life, 

2, In personal life. 

Outline of I Timothy Chapter Five 

V, CHARGE CONCERNING VARIOUS MEMBERS OF THE 
CONGREGATION (5:1-6:2) 

A. The Pastoral Care of Old and Young Members (vv, 1, 2) 

1. The persons involved. 

2. The nature of the pastoral care, 

3. The manner of pastoral care. 

B. The Pastoral Care of Widows (vv. 3-16) 

1, The kind of widows. 

2, The treatment of widows, 

C. The Pastoral Care of Elders (vv. 1 7-25) 

1 , The honoring of elders. 

2, The discipline of elders, 

3, The selection of elders, 

D. The Pastoral Care of Slaves (6:1,2) 

1, A slave should serve his unsaved master respectfully. 

2. A slave should give his Christian master even more 
service, and not look down upon him. 

Outline of I Timothy Chapter Six 

VI, CHARGE CONCERNING THE MINISTER HIMSELF (6:3- 
21a) 

A. The Minister is Charged to Avoid Improper Motives 
(vv. 3-10) 
1. The evidence of wrong motives. 

25 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

2. The nature of wrong motives. 

3. The prevention of wrong motives. 

4. The results of a wrong motive. 

B. The Minister is Charged to Maintain a Proper Walk 
(vv. 11-16). 

1 . The nature of a proper walk. 

2. The performance of a proper walk. 

3. The incentive for a proper walk. 

C. The Minister is Charged to Perform a Faithful Ministry 

(vv. 17-21a) 

1 . This is accomplished by directing men toward spiritual 
goals. 

2. This is accomplished by guarding the deposit of the 
faith. 

D. Conclusion (6:21b) 

D. EDMOND HIEBERT 

AN OUTLINE OF I TIMOTHY 

THE SALUTATION, 1 : 1 ,2 

1. The Writer, v. 1 

2. The Reader, v. 2a 

3. The Greeting, v. 2b. 

I. THE CHARGE TO TIMOTHY CONCERNING FALSE 
TEACHERS, 1:3-20 

1. The Charge to Timothy to Preserve the Purity of the 
Gospel, vv. 3-11 

a. The nature of the charge, vv. 3,4 

1 ) The impartation of the charge, v. 3a 

2) The contents of the charge, vv. 3b, 4 

b. The aim of the charge, v. 5 

c. The reason for the charge, vv. 6-11 

1) The failure of the false teachers, vv. 6,7 

2) The true knowledge concerning the law, vv. 8-11 

a) The nature of the law, v. 8 

b) The purpose of the law, vv. 9, 10 

c) The harmony of this view with the Gospel, v. 11 

2. The Apostle's Thanksgiving for His Relation to the Gospel, 
vv. 12-17 

a. The thanksgiving for his appointment to God's service, 
v. 12 

b. The description of the one appointed, v. 13a 

c. The explanation of the appointment, vv. 13b-16 

26 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

1) The outpouring of God's grace on him, vv, 13b, 14 

2) The purpose of God's grace through him, vv, 15, 16 
d, The doxology of praise, v, 1 7 

3, The Renewal of the Charge to Timothy, vv, 18-20 

a. The duty of Timothy, vv, 18, 19a 

b. The shipwreck of certain men, vv. 19b, 20 

II. THE INSTRUCTIONS CONCERNING CHURCH ORDER, 
2:1-3:16. 
1, The Regulations Concerning Public Worship, 2:1-3:16. 

a. The duty of public prayer, vv. 1-7 

1 ) The nature of public prayer, v. 1 a 

2) The scope of public prayer, vv, lb-2a 

3) The result of such praying, v. 2b 

4) The reasons for such prayer, vv. 3-7 

a) Its intrinsic nature, v. 3 

b) Its accord with God's will, v. 4 

c) Its accord with Christian doctrine, vv. 5, 6 

d) Its accord with Paul's ministry, v. 7 

b. The manner of public prayer, vv. 8-10 

1 ) The praying of the men, v. 8 

2) The adorning of the women, vv. 9, 10 

c. The position of the women in public worship, vv. 11-15 

1) The command concerning the woman, v. 11 

2) The restriction upon the woman, v. 12 

3) The vindication of the restriction, vv, 13-15 

a) The vindication from the order of Creation, v, 13 

b) The vindication from the story of the fall, vv. 
14,15 

2, The Qualifications of Church Officers, 3:1-13 

a. The qualifications for a bishop, vv, 1-7 

1 ) The desirability of the office, v. 1 

2) The qualifications for the office, vv. 2-7 

a) The first seven qualifications, v. 2 

b) The second seven qualifications, vv. 3-6 

c) The qualifications as to community standing, v. 7 

b. The qualifications for deacons, vv. 8-12 

1) The personal qualifications of the deacons, vv. 8, 9 

2) The testing of deacons, v. 10 

3) The qualifications of the women (deaconesses), v. 11 

4) The domestic qualifications of deacons, v. 12 

c. The reward of faithful service, v. 13 

27 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

3. The Personal Word to Timothy in View of Christian Truth. 
3:14-16 

a. The purpose in writing to Timothy, -vv. 14, 15a 

b. The nature of the church, v. 15b 

c. The substance of Christian, truth, v. 1 6 

III. THE ADVICE TO TIMOTHY IN VIEW OF THE CHARGE, 
4:1-6:2 

1. His Personal Work in View of the Apostasy, 4:1-16. 

a. The objective warning against false teaching, vv. 1-5 

1 ) The prediction of the apostasy, v. la 

2) The characterization of the apostates, vv. lb, 2 

3) The teaching of the apostates, vv. 3-5 

a) The nature of the teaching, v. 3a 

b) The refutation of the teaching, vv. 3b-5 

b. The subjective fortification against error, vv. 6-16 

1 ) The fortification through a faithful ministry, vv. 6-1 1 

a) The characteristics of a good minister, v. 6 

b) The activity of a good minister, vv. 7-9 
( i ) Neg. — The refusal of myths, v. 7a 

(2) Pos. — The. exercising of himself unto god- 
liness, vv. 7b-9 

c) The motivation of the good minister, v. 10 

d) The duty of the good minister, v. 1 1 

2) The fortification through becoming conduct as a 
minister, vv. .12.-16 

a) The indication of his personal duties, vv. 12-14 

(1) To make his youth respected because of his 
example, v. 12 

(2) To attend to the public services, v. 13 

(3) To exercise his gift, v. 14 

b) The exhortations diligently to fulfill these duties, 
vv. 15, 16 ' 

2. His Official Work with Various Groups, 5:1-6:2 

a. The attitude in dealing with individual members, 5:1,2 

b. The duty in regard to widows, 5:3-16 

1 ) The duty of supporting widows, vv. 3-8 

a) The command to honor genuine Widows, v. 3 

b) The definitive classification of widows, vv. 4-6 
■ (1) The widow having children, v. 4 

(2) The widow who is a genuine widow, v. 5 

28 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

(3) The widow living in pleasure, v, 6 
c) The instructions concerning parental support, 
vv. 7, 8 

2) The instructions concerning the enrollment of 
widows, vv, 9-15 

a) The qualifications of those enrolled, vv, 9, 10 

b) The rejection of the young widows, vv, 11-13 

(1) The command to reject the young widows, 
v, 11a 

(2) The reasons for the rejection, vv, llb-13 

c) The apostolic directive for young widows, vv, 
14, 15 

3) The duty of a believing woman, v. 16 

c, The duty toward elders, 5 : 1 7-25 

1) The duty of honoring good elders, vv, 17, 18 

a) The statement of the duty, v, 1 7 

b) The substantiation of the duty, v, 18 

2) The instructions concerning the trial of an elder, 
vv. 19-21 

a) The caution in receiving an accusation against 
an elder, v. 19 

b) The judgment upon the sinning, v, 20 

c) The impartiality in the judgment, v, 21 

3) The advice concerning the ordination of elders, v. 22 

4) The suggestion concerning Timothy's use of a little 
wine, v. 23 

5) The enunciation of principles for testing candidates, 
vv. 24, 25 

d. The instructions concerning the slaves, 6:1, 2 

1 ) The duty of slaves toward unbelieving masters, v. 1 

2) The duty of the slave of a believer, v, 2a 

3) The duty of Timothy to teach these things, v. 2b 

IV. THE CONCLUDING INSTRUCTIONS AND EXHORTA- 
TIONS TO TIMOTHY, 6: 3-21 a 

1 , The Description of the False Teacher, vv, 3-5 

a, The identification of the false teacher, v. 3 

b, The verdict on the false teacher, vv, 4,5 

2. The Relation of Godliness and Wealth, vv. 6-10 
a. The gain of true godliness, vv, 6-8 

1) The gain of godliness with contentment, v. 6 

2) The nature of godly contentment, vv. 7, 8 

29 



I TIMOTHY 

b. The danger to those seeking wealth, vv. 9, 10 

1 ) The nature of the danger, v. 9 

2) The reason for the danger, v. 10a 

3) The verification of the danger, v. 10b 

3. The Exhortation to an Active Life in View of Christ's 
Return, vV. 11-16 

a. The characterization of the one addressed, v. 11a 

b. The statement of the specific duties, vv. lib, 12 

c. The restatement of the charge, vv. 13-16 
1 )■ The solemnity of the charge, v, 13 

2) The contents of the charge, v. 14a 

3) The termination of the charge, vv. 14b-16 

a) The statement of the termination, v. 14b 

b) The explanation of the termination, vv. 14b-16 

4. The Charge Concerning the Rich, vv. 17-19 

a. The persons to be charged, v. 1 7a 

b. The contents of the charge, vv. 17b, 18 

1 ) Neg. — - The dangers they are to avoid, v. 1 7 b 

2) Pos. — The duties they are to fulfill, v. 18 

c. The encouragement in carrying out the charge, v. 19 

5. The Final Appeal to Timothy, vv. 20, 21a 

a. The positive appeal to guard the deposit, v. 20a 

b. The safeguard in rejecting the spurious, vv. 20b-21a 
THE BENEDICTION, 6:21b 

DONALD GUTHRIE 

I TIMOTHY: ANALYSIS 

I. THE APOSTLE AND TIMOTHY, i. 1-20 

(a) Salutation, i. 1, 2 

(b) The contrast between the gospel and its counterfeits, 
i. 3-11 

(c) The apostle's personal experience of the gospel, i. 12-17 

(d) The apostle's charge to Timothy, i. 18-20 

II. WORSHIP AND ORDER IN THE CHURCH, ii. 1 - iv. 16 

(a) The importance and scope of public prayer, ii. 1-8 

(b) The status and demeanour of Christian women, ii. 9-15 
■(c) The qualifications of Church officials, iii. 1-13 

(d) The character of the Church, iii. 14-16 

(e) Threats to the safety of the Church, iv. 1-16 
(i) The approaching apostasy^ iv. 1-5 

(ii) Methods of dealing with false teaching, iv. 6-16 

30 



I TIMOTHY 

III. DISCIPLINE AND RESPONSIBILITY, v, 1 - vi. 2 

(a) Various age groups, v. 1, 2 

(b) Widows, v. 3-16 

(i) Widows in need, v, 3-8 
(ii) Widows as Christian Workers, v. 9, 10 
(iii) Younger widows, v, 11-16 

(c) Elders, v. 17-20 

(d) Timothy's own behaviour, v, 21-25 

(e) Servants and Masters, vi, 1, 2 

IV, MISCELLANEOUS INJUNCTIONS, v, 3-21 

(a) More about false teachers, vi, 3-5 

(b) The perils of wealth, vi, 6-10 

(c) A charge to a man of God, vi. 11-16 

(d) Advice to wealthy men, vi, 17-19 

(e) Final admonition to Timothy, vi. 20-21 

6, How will you outline the letter? Please make up your own 
outline. Do this by reading the epistle no less than five times, 
Check the four outlines as you read the letter. If you can not 
agree with the partitioning of the commentators you are 
under no obligation to accept such, You are obligated before 
God to attempt a careful analysis for your own understanding; 
and that you might be able to teach others. 

AN EXEGETICAL STUDY OF 1 TIMOTHY 

We prefer a dividing of the text in the following order; 
Introduction l';l, 2 

I. Sound Doctrine 1:3-20 

1, Danger to sound doctrine. 3-11 

3, Example of sound doctrine. 12-17 

3. The preacher and sound doctrine. 18-20 

II. Public Worship 2:1-15 

1, Prayer. 1-7 

2, Men and women in worship. 8-15 

III. Church Officers. 3:1-16 

1, The elder. 1-7 

2, The deacon. 8-13 

3, Importance of instructions, 14-16 

IV. False Teachers 4:1-16 

1 . Their coming. 1-5 

2. The preacher and the false teachers, 6-10 

3. The true service of God. 11-16 

31 



1:1,2 I TIMOTHY 

V. Care of Members of the Church. 5:1-6:2 

1 . Care of young and old, 1,2 

2. Care of widows. 3-16 

3. Care of elders. 17-25 

4. Care of slaves. 6:1,2 

VI. The Minister Himself . 6:3-21a 

1. Motives. 3-10 

2. Proper walk. 11-16 

3. Faithful ministry. 17-21 a 
Conclusion 6:21b 

We shall follow this outline throughout the rest of our study, 

INTRODUCTION 1:1,2 

Text 1:1,2 

1 Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus according to the commandment 
of God our Saviour, and Christ Jesus our hope: 2 unto Timdthy, 
my true child in faith: Grace, mercy, peace from God the Father 
and Christ Jesus our Lord. 

Thought Questions 1:1,2 

1. When, and where, and why did God "command" Paul to be 
an apostle? 

2. In what sense can God be referred to as our "Saviour"? 

3. Christ is "our hope" in a particular sense; explain. 

4. Is there any significance in the arrangement of the name 
"Christ Jesus" instead of Jesus Christ? 

5. Why call Timothy a "true child"? Did Paul mean there were 
some who were not? 

6. Show the inter-relation of the words: grace, mercy, peace. 
Could we arrange these words in a different order? Should we 
do so? Why? 

Paraphrase 1:1,2 

1 I Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ, write this, epistle by the 
commandment of God, the contriver of our salvation, and of the 
Lord Jesus Christ, on whose death, and not on the, sacrifices of 
the law, our hope of eternal life is founded, 

2 To Timothy, who is my genuine son in the faith, being like- 
minded, with myself: May gracious assistances, merciful deliver- 
ances, such as I have obtained, and inward peace from God our 
Father, and Christ Jesus our Lord, be multiplied to thee, 

32 



I TIMOTHY 1:1,2 

Comment hi ,2 

Vs. 1, Although this is a personal letter it carries Apostolic 
authority, It is to be read to others and referred to, again and 
again for divine confirmation of these things taught by Timothy, 
The reference to Paul's apostleship was not for Timothy's benefit, 
but for those of Ephesus among whom Timothy was working. 
Is Paul stating here that God commanded him to be an apostle, 
or that God commanded him to write the letter? We much prefer 
the thought of his apostleship, It seems artificial to supply the 
thought that God commanded him to write. We can recall 
immediately when and where God called or commanded him to 
be an apostle, The word "apostle" means "one sent", There 
were some persons designated as apostles, who were sent from the 
churches. (Cf. Phil. 2;25, II Cor. 8:23, Acts 14:14) There were 
only twelve and Paul as apostles of Christ Jesus, or sent from 
Christ Jesus, 

Why say Christ Jesus and not Jesus Christ? Remember that 
each name has a meaning. The writer is not using the order 
with no thought. The office of the Christ, i.e. "the anointed one" 
is more prominent here. In its context we can see why. Paul 
is "one sent" by the "anointed one" and this is in accord with 
the command from such, 

God is here called "our Saviour". The expression is found only 
in the Pastorals. Why? Could it be that Timothy and those of 
Ephesus needed to be reminded of the ultimate source of our 
salvation? Christ could never have provided our salvation if God 
had not sent Him. Paul said elsewhere — "in hope were we 
saved" (Romans 8:24). It is God who saved us, but it is Christ 
Jesus who provides the hope in such salvation. Thus Paul is 
commanded by the "fountain of our salvation" and "the embodi- 
ment of our hope" to be an apostle. 

Vs. 2. Are we to understand that Paul is addressing Timothy as 
his son in the faith or is he referring to the genuiness of Timothy's 
Christian character? There is a division of opinion on this point. 
Since Timothy was a convert of Paul, and since he did refer to 
such relationship in other places, such would not be unusual here. 
The issue to decide, is whether Paul wants to relate Timothy to 
himself, or to what Paul has just written. Paul spoke of his own 
relationship to God and Christ; what is the relationship of 
Timothy? Is Timothy a genuine child of "the faith"— or a 

33 



1:3-7 I TIMOTHY 

genuine child of Paul's in the faith? Which is it? Are not both 
true? 

The divine blessing pronounced by Paul on Timothy is a most 
interesting one. In other epistles "grace and peace" are in the 
greetings, but nowhere do we find "mercy" except in the Pastorals. 
Why would Timothy need mercy— perhaps more than others? 
Mercy has to do with God's acceptance in spite of our failures. 
Was Timothy in some, special need of such treatment? Perhaps 
he was. Some see an inter-relationship between these words. 
Grace first, to forgive our past sins, mercy to overlook our present 
failures, this results in peace in our hearts. 

How did Paul imagine such blessings would be bestowed? In 
obedience to the divine laws of God we shall have the divine 
benefits attached thereto. 

Fact Questions 7:7,2 

1. Explain the use of the word "apostle" both generally and 
specifically. 

2. What is the application of the word "command" as here used? 

3. Specify just how God becomes our "Saviour". 

4. Jesus is "our hope" in what areas? 

5. In what sense Was Timothy a "genuine child"? 

6. Show the inter-relationship of: "grace, mercy and peace." 

1. SOUND DOCTRINE 1:3-20 

1, DANGER TO SOUND DOCTRINE 3-11 
a. False Teachers. 3-7 

Text 1:3-7 
3 As I exhorted thee to tarry at Ephesus, When I was going into 
Macedonia, that thou mightest charge certain men not to teach a 
different doctrine, 4 neither to give heed to fables and endless 
genealogies/ which minister questionings, rather than a dispensa- 
tion of God which is in faith; so do I now. 5 But the end of the 
charge is love out of a pure heart and a good conscience and 
faith unfeigned: 6 from which things some having swerved have 
turned aside unto vain talking; 7 desiring to be teachers of the 
law, though the/ understand neither what they say, nor whereof 
they confidently affirm. 

Thought Questions 7:3-7 

7. What seems to be the specific purpose of this letter to 
Timothy? 

8. How would Timothy know if the doctrine of certain men was 
false or true? 

34 



I TIMOTHY 1:3-7 

9. Just imagine such teachers in our churches today; how .could 
we carry out Paul's instructions? 

10, Why were such persons so interested in fahles and genealo- 
gies? Where did they find them? 

11, Paul did not want "questionings"; he did want "a dispensa- 
tion of God"; Explain the difference, 

12, What is meant by saying "the end of the charge"? Is Paul 
suggesting that some of the teachers in Ephesus did not have 
a pure heart? 

13, How could anyone teach that which he did not know? Explain, 

14, What were these men confidently affirming? 

Paraphrase 7:3-7 

3 As I entreated thee to continue in Ephesus, when I was going 
into Macedonia, I now, by commandment of God, require thee 
so to do; that thou mayest charge the Judaizers not to teach 
differently from the inspired apostles of Christ. 

4 Nor to inculcate fabulous traditions, invented to prove that men 
cannot be saved unless they obey the law of Moses; and uncertain 
genealogies, by which every Jew endeavors to trace his descent 
from Abraham, and which by their uncertainty occasion disputes, 
rather than the great edification which is through a right faith 
only, 

5 Now the scope of the charge to be given by thee to these 
teachers is, that instead of inculcating fables and genealogies, they 
inculcate love to God and man proceeding from a pure heart, and 
directed by a good conscience, and nourished by unfeigned faith 
in the gospel doctrine. 

6 From which things some teachers having swerved, have in their 
discourses turned aside to foolish talking; talking which serves no 
purpose but to discover their own folly, and to nourish folly in 
their disciples, 

7 As thou mayest know by this, that they set themselves up as 
teachers of the law of Moses, though they understand neither 
what they themselves say concerning it, nor the nature of the 
law they establish. 

Comment 1:3-7 

Vs. 3. It is just as important to conserve the results as it is to 
obtain them. Paul was as concerned about the faith of the 
Christians in Ephesus after they became converts as he was 
before they accepted. The "grevious wolves", and the perverse 

35 



1:3-7 I TIMOTHY 

teachers from among the elders at Ephesus, had evidently arisen. 
(Acts 20:29,30). The purpose for Timothy's stay in Ephesus was 
a doctrinal problem. He was to do a job of teaching. Paul felt 
it to be a very urgent matter. There was and is a norm of truth. 
Any deviation from this norm is serious and must be corrected. 
The correction is going to be authoritative. Timothy is to give 
orders as a superior officer in the army of God. Those in the 
army of God are to give heed. Any teaching,, different from, or 
added to the one already delivered by the apostles, is to be rejected 
and corrected. 

Vs. 4 The particular (although evidently not the only) diffi- 
culty in the area of teaching, had, to do with a certain type of 
pedigree tracing. Evidently it meant a great deal to be able to 
show that Abraham (or some other illustrious Jewish leader) was 
your great-great-great grandfather. In the attempt to trace such 
descent, certain stories would be discovered about ; your relatives, 
which were in truth but fables, Endless questions could be asked 
and discussed. For an example of this , practice, the Jewish Book 
of Jubilees would be a, good source. This did not help anyone- 
least of all did it promote the cause of Christ in Ephesus, It must 
be corrected! 

Vs. 5. Paul wants Timothy to know that he is not simply to 
authoritatively contradict such false teachers, but to, in the cor- 
rection, produce pure hearts, good consciences, and unhypocritical 
faith. Could it be that such false teachers were teaching as they 
did because they had none of these virtues? It would seem then 
that their fine-spun name tracing was a smoke-screen for a sinful 
heart. How much false doctrine has moral implications, only God 
can know. 

Vs. 6. Paul specifically states in this verse that some of the teach- 
ers (elders?) had missed the mark. How easy it is to be caught 
up in some side issue and miss the purpose of God. Much class 
discussion today is as vain and empty as that described here by 
Paul. It needs correction for the same reason. 

Vs. 7. How could anyone confidently affirm that of which he 
was ignorant? It is not to: be understood that these teachers were 
entirely ignorant of the law of Moses; indeed they professed to 
be ''specialists" in the Law. They majored in minors and missed 
the whole purpose of the very subject they were professing to 
teach. Worse yet, they taught a different purpose than that 

36 



I TIMOTHY 1:841 

intended by God. If these teachers understood the true meaning 
of these fables, they would never have taught them, It is sad 
and serious to be spiritually blind, but how tragic to observe the 
blind leading the blind to the ditch! 

Fact Questions 1:3-7 

7, Why did Paul leave Timothy in Ephesus? 

8. If there was no New Testament in the day when Paul wrote 
to Timothy, what would Timothy use as a standard of truth? 

.9, Why the great interest of some in genealogies? 

10. Why did the discussion about genealogies become unprofit- 
able? 

11. What is the meaning of the phrase; "the end of the charge"? 

12. What was "the mark" or "the target" missed by these 
teachers? 

b, Misuse of the Law. 8-11 

Text 1:8-11 
8 But we know the law is good, if a man use it lawfully, 9 as 
knowing this, that law is not made for a righteous man, but for 
the lawless and unruly, for the ungodly and sinners, for the unholy 
and profane, for murderers of fathers and murderers of mothers, 
for manslayers, 10 for fornicators, for abusers of themselves with 
men, for menstealers, for liars, for false swearers, and if there be 
any other thing contrary to the sound doctrine; 1 1 according to 
the gospel of the glory of the blessed God, which was committed 
to my trust. 

Thought Questions 1:8-1 J 

15. In what sense can we say the law is "good"? 

16. How could the law be used "unlawfully"? 

1 7. How does the list of sins here given relate to the persons with 
whom Timothy was dealing? 

18. Why give such an extended list? Is there some particular 
significance in the grouping? 

19. Why have law at all if men are going to be unrighteous? 

20. What is the distinction between a "manslayer" and a "mur- 
derer of fathers"? 

21. What would be a modern name for "Menstealers"?; for 
"abusers of themselves with men"? 

22. Explain verse 1 1 in context. 

Paraphrase 1:8-11 

8 I acknowledge indeed that the law of Moses is an excellent 

37 



1:8-10 I TIMOTHY 

institution, if one use it agreeably to the end for which it was 
given. 

9 Now we know this, that the law is not made for justifying a 
righteous man, but for condemning and punishing the lawless 
and disorderly, namely, atheists and idolaters; persons polluted 
with vice and who are excluded from things sacred, murderers of 
fathers and murderers of mothers, those who slay others unjustly; 

10 Fornicators and sodomites, man-stealers, liars, those who per- 
jure themselves; and if any other practice be opposite to the 
doctrine which preserves the soul in health, the law was made to 
restrain and punish it. 

1 1 This view of the law I give according to the glorious gospel of 
the infinitely and independently blessed God, with the preaching 
of which I am entrusted. 

Comment 1:8-11 
Vs. 8. Paul does not wish to create the impression that he has 
rejected the law of Moses. Some prejudiced Jews might so con- 
clude by what he has just said. The law does indeed have a good 
purpose. It is not to serve as a source of name hunting. There 
is a play on words in this verse: "use the law lawfully". These 
Jewish leaders were so proud of being law teachers, and at the 
same time in their practice they were actually "unlawful," 
Vss, 9 & 10. The true use of the law is now to be shown. 
Christians do not need the law. They serve a higher law: the law 
of love, and as a result are not affected by the prohibitions of 
the law of Moses. If these false teachers were teaching the law 
to the Christians in Ephesus, what Paul has written would indeed 
contradict their work. Why this long list of persons affected by 
the law? Maybe the law teachers were so completely ignorant 
of the law that they needed this elementary information. It 
could have been some of these teachers were practicing some of 
the sins here mentioned. In this case they would be condemned 
by the very subject they were teaching. 

Commentators see a similarity in Paul's prohibitions here, to 
those of the Ten Commandments. Note this table of comparison 
as given by Homer Kent: 

The first table of the Decalogue is covered in general terms: 
I Timothy 1:9, 10 Exodus 20:1-17 

Lawless and disobedient 1 . Thou shalt have no other gods 

before me. 
Ungodly and sinners 2. Thou shalt not make unto thee 

any graven image. 

38 



I TIMOTHY 1:8-11 

Unholy and profane 3, Thou shalt not take the name 

of the Lord thy God in vain, 

4, Remember the sabbath day to 

keep it holy, 

By these three pairs of words the second table is covered more 

completely: 

Father-smiters and mother- 5, Honor thy father and thy 

smiters mother, 

Murderers 6. Thou shalt not kill, 

Fornicators, Sodomites 7, Thou shalt not commit adul- 

tery. 
Kidnappers 8, Thou shalt not steal, 

Liars, perjurers 9. Thou shalt not bear false wit- 

ness. 
Any other thing. 10. Thou shalt not covet. {Ibid, 

pp. 87, 88) 
Vs. 11. The above information as to the proper use of the law is 
in perfect agreement to, and a part of, the Good News entrusted 
to Paul. The Gospel (or the Faith) would teach that sinners 
are to be brought under the judgment of God by the law. When 
they are thus shown to be guilty and condemned before God's 
righteous law, they will hear with eagerness the Good News that 
"Christ died to save sinners". Such Good Tidings are described 
as being "of the glory of the blessed God", or of the "glorious 
gospel". The word "glory" could be understood as "character"; 
thus the Good News shows forth the character of God. Indeed 
it does: God is shown as one of infinite love and wisdom, "that he 
himself might be just, and the justifier of him that hath faith in 
Jesus." (Rom. 3:26) 

Fact Questions 1:8-11 

13. Paul has not rejected the law; others have. Show how they 
have. 

14. Is the law misused in our teaching today? How? In what 
sense is the Christian free from the law? 

15. Why does Paul make reference to the Ten Commandments? 

16. Paul says the Gospel has something to say about the law — 
what is it? 

17. In what way does the Gospel manifest the character of God? 

2. EXAMPLE OF SOUND DOCTRINE. 12-17 

Text 1:12-17 
12 I thank him that enabled me, even Christ Jesus our Lord, for 

39 



1:12-17 I TIMOTHY 

that he counted me faithful, appointing me to his service; 13 
though I was before a blasphemer and a persecutor, and injurious: 
Howbeit I obtained mercy, because I did it ignorantly in unbelief; 
14 and the grace Of our Lord abounded exceedingly with faith 
and love which is in Christ Jesus. 15 Faithful is the saying, and 
worthy of all acceptation, that Christ Jesus came into the world 
to save sinners; of whom I am chief: 16 howbeit for this cause 
I obtained mercy, that in me as chief might Jesus Christ show 
forth all His longsuffering for an ensample of them that should 
thereafter believe on him unto eternal life. 17 Now unto the 
King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only God be honor and glory 
for ever and ever; Amen. 

Thought Questions 1:12-17 

23. Please be able to relate this section with the whole chapter. 
How do verses 12-17 relate to what has proceeded arid what 
follows? 

24. In what way did Christ enable Paul to enter His service? 

25. In what sense did Christ count Paul "faithful"? Refer to verse 

12, ■ ■' ■•■..= : 'J ;.!_:'■' ■ v.. 1 ' •■■ 

26. Define each of the thfeewords inverse 13. 

27. Is Paul saying in 13b that he was saved in his ignorance? 
If not, what is he saying? ' ^ . 

28. Just how is the word "grace' ? to be understood as in verse 14? 

29. Show the relationship between the three words: grace, faith, 
and love, as inverse 14l < ' ■-.,.■ 

30. Why refer-to the statement in verse 15 as "a faithful saying"? 

31. Give the meaning of the word "chief" as here used by Paul. 

32. Paul gives two reasons for his obtaining mercy, one in verse 

13, and one in verse 16; explain the one in verse 16. , 

33. Paul's conversion should be a great encouragement to all — 
Why? ' 

34. Define three characteristics of God as found in verse 1 7. 

Paraphrase 1:12-17 

12 Now I thank Christ Jesus our Lord; who strengthened me for 
preaching it (the glorious gospel), by bestowing on me the gifts 
of inspiration and miracles, because he knew that I would be 
faithful to my trust, when he appointed me to the apostleship; 

13 Who was formerly a defamer of him and of his doctrine, and 
a persecutor of his disciples, and an injurious person in my be- 
haviour towards them. But I received pardon because I acted 
from ignorance, being in a state of unbelief, and fancying that I 
was doing God service. 

40 



I TIMOTHY 1; 12-1 7 

14 And in thus pardoning me, and making me his apostle, the 
goodness of our Lord hath super-abounded toward me, accom- 
panied with the faith and love which is required by Christ Jesus, 
but in which I was greatly deficient formerly. 

15 This saying is true, and worthy of cordial and universal 
reception, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners, 
of whom, on account of my rage against Christ and his disciples, 
I reckon myself the chief; I mean of those who have sinned 
through ignorance, 

16 However, though my sin was great, for this cause I received 
pardon, that in me, the chief of those who sin through ignorance, 
Jesus Christ might show forth the greatest clemency in forgiving 
offenders, for an example of mercy to encourage them who should 
in future ages repent and believe on him, in order to obtain 
everlasting life, 

17 Now, ravished with the goodness of God, in making me an 
example of pardon for the encouragement of future penitents, 
I say, to the Ruler of the ages, who is immortal and invisible to 
the wise God above, be honour and glory, for ever and ever. Amen. 

Comment 1:12-17 

As Donald Guthrie has stated, "This section appears to be a 
digression" , . . . but it is not. Paul has said that the "end of 
the charge was love out of a pure heart, and a good conscience 
and faith unfeigned". These qualities Paul obtained from the 
"Good News" or the Sound Doctrine. Timothy can now present 
to these law teachers an example of the results of the right use 
of the Law and the Gospel. Paul is saying, "If Christ can change 
me, and He did, then He can change anyone; preach it!" Cease 
dabbling in law speculation. 

Vs. 12. The gratitude of the Apostle is genuine. The enabling 
power of Christ and God are a favorite theme of Paul's letters. 
He is to say: "I am what I am because of the grace of God" — 
(I Cor. 15:10), "My grace is sufficient for thee." (2 Cor. 12:9), 
"I can do all things through Christ who strengtheneth me". 
(Phil. 4:13) 

As to just where and when and how Christ enabled Paul, 
we need but refer to the place "nigh unto Damascus". There are 
three records of this event: (Acts 9, 22, 26). Perhaps the order 
of names in this verse is significant: Christ, which means "the 

41 



1:12-15 I TIMOTHY 

anointed of God", "Jesus", which means Saviour, "Our Lord", 
which means Sovereign. This is the one who is well able to 
enable. How could Paul be counted "faithful" before he was 
converted? We understand this Word, to mean "trustworthy" as 
here used. Christ knew the character of Paul from the time of 
his birth (Gal. 1:15). It was because of this dependable quality 
that he called him. Because of his sin Paul felt unworthy to be 
called or counted trustworthy. How wonderously precious must 
Christ have been to Paul that he could thank Him for calling him 
into a life of privation, imprisonment and death. And yet he 
was glad to share in this service. 

Vs. 13. Here is an elaboration of the reason for the thankfulness. 
Paul says of himself that he was: "a blasphemer i.e. one who 
speaks against" — and this he did openly and often; "a persecutor" 
—he not only spoke against Jesus himself but in his persecution 
he "strove to make others blaspheme" (Acts 26:11). To sum- 
marize his evil work he says he was "injurious" or a violent, 
insolent man. He was the most loathsome of men. Still speaking 
of his appointment to the service of Christ, Paul uses the word 
"mercy". He says he obtained mercy because he did all that he 
did against Christ in ignorance and unbelief. He was unlike his 
countrymen who had access to the knowledge of Jesus as their 
Messiah. He was unlike some who refused to believe in spite of 
the evidence. Is not Paul's word applicable to all who obtain 
mercy? It is only when we are informed and believe, that we are 
granted mercy. 

Vs. 14. What is called "mercy" in vs. 13 is called "grace" in vs. 
14. Of course the emphasis in vs. 14 is upon the "unmerited 
favor" shown to Saul of Tarsus. In vs. 13 the thought of meeting 
the need of Saul is in the forefront with the use of the word 
"mercy". "Where sin abounded, (as in the life of Paul), so grace 
did abound more exceedingly" (Romans 5:20). The love and 
confidence Christ had for Paul overflowed, and received in kind. 
Paul responded with faith and love for the one who so loved and 
trusted him. In it all was a deep awareness of his own un worthi- 
ness. 

Vs. 15. It might be well to say just here that the expression: 
"Faithful is the saying", seems to be the preface to a statement 
used in Paul's day which Paul here adapts to his purpose. There 
are five such "Faithful sayings" in the Pastorals. They are found 

42 



I TIMOTHY 1:15-17 

in: I Tim. 3:1; I Tim, 4:8, 9; II Tim, 2:11-13; Titus 3:4-8a; and 
here in I Tim, 1:15, We might refer to these five sayings as 
"slogans" or "axioms", They were current and very popular in 
Paul's day, Such sayings summed up "The Faith", The saying 
in vs. 15 expresses the very heart of the gospel (Cf. I Cor. 15:1-4). 
Paul calls Timothy to recall this reliable saying and relate the 
apostle to it, Christ came to save sinners. He saved me, and I 
indeed was the chief of sinners, so deeply in need of saving, 
There is much to be said to present day application of this grand 
statement. We are sorely tempted to become homiletical instead 
of exegetical, 

Vs. 16. Here we are introduced to another reason for the mercy 
shown to Paul. Vs, 13 attributes God's grant of mercy to ignor- 
ance and unbelief on the part of Paul. Vs. 16 attributes the 
purpose of mercy to the presenting of an example to the world of 
God's longsuffering. Paul is saying that what happened to him 
is a sketch of what could happen to anyone. The power of Christ 
is seen in Paul. No one is too sinful, or too stubborn, or too 
ignorant to receive mercy. Paul was to demonstrate this in his 
own preaching. He came to know it was true as he saw "barbar- 
ians" converted to Christ and by Christ. Paul's experience gives 
the bold outline of God's Power and Mercy. The personal details 
will be different as each person fills them in to complete the 
picture of his own life experience with Christ, Paul's Damascus 
encounter will ever remain the outline sketch of God's infinite 
mercy. 

Vs. 17. A spontaneous expression of joy and adoration is so 
typically Pauline. The past three verses are cumulative in their 
feeling; a climax is reached at the end of verse sixteen, hence 
the doxology of verse 17 is a natural response. 

God is the king of "ages" — all ages. In the context we might 
say that He is also the Saviour of all men of all ages. AH the 
qualities of God here described should be associated with the 
thought of His providing salvation in Christ. Notice: He is king, 
therefore able to save. He is ruler over all men of all ages and 
hence can save all of them; He is not subject to corruption; He 
shares His nature with man and thus gives him an eternal sal- 
vation; He is invisible to mortal eye; He is of Spirit-quality thus 
superceding this temporal sphere. God is the only one who could 
and does save; to Him we ascribe all honor and adoration without 
end. Amen. 

43 



1:18-20 I TIMOTHY 

Fact Questions 1:12-17 

18. How does this section develop the purpose of the charge? 

19. Discuss the subjective and objective aspects of Christ's en- 
abling power with Paul. 

20. How are we to understand the word "faithful" as used in 
verse 12? 

21 . Give the meaning of the three words used to describe Paul 
in verse 13. 

22. Explain the relationship of ignorance and* mercy. 

23. In what sense did grace "super-abound"? 

24. In what way was Paul "chief" of sinners? 

25. State five ways in which Paul is an example to all who 
would be saved? 

3. THE PREACHER AND SOUND DOCTRINE 18-20 

Text 1:18-20 
18 This charge I commit unto thee, my child Timothy, according 
to the prophecies which led the way to thee, that by them thou 
mayest war the good warfare; 19 holding faith and a good 
conscience; which some having thrust from them made shipwreck 
concerning the faith: 20 of whom is Hymenaeus and Alexander; 
whom I delivered unto Satan that they might be taught not to 
blaspheme. 

Thought Questions 1:18-20 

35. State in one sentence the charge that Paul gave to Timothy. 

36. What were the "prophecies" mentioned in vs, 18? Cf. I Tim. 
4:14; II Tim. 1:6. 

37. Whatever these prophecies were, Timothy was going to use 
them to help him in the battle of , the faith. Explain. 

38. Show the great importance of sustaining the proper relation- 
ship of faith with conscience. 

39. Show how the figure of a shipwreck is appropriate. 

40. Two men are to be taught a lesson; how and why? 

Paraphrase 1:18-20 

1 8 This charge to the Judaizers, not to teach differently, I commit 
to thee, son Timothy, to deliver to them; and t I do it amiably to 
the revelations which were before made to me concerning thee, 
and which I now mention, that through the recollection of these 
revelations and the honour which was done thee by them, thou 
mayest strenuously carry on the good warfare against the enemies 
of truth in Ephesus. 

44 



I TIMOTHY 1:18-20 

19 In carrying on this warfare, hold fast the true faith, and at 
the same time a good conscience, using no improper methods in 
spreading the gospel; which faith and good conscience some 
teachers having put away from worldly motives, with respect to 
the faith have made shipwreck; they have corrupted the gospel, 
and destroyed their own souls, 

20 Of whom are the two Judaizing teachers Hymenaeus and 
Alexander, whom, for their obstinately persisting willfully to 
corrupt the gospel, I have delivered to Satan to be by him 
tormented with bodily pains that they might be taught by a 
chastisement miraculously inflicted on them not to revile either 
Christ, or his doctrine concerning the salvation of the Gentiles, 
Let the faithful in Ephesus avoid these wicked teachers. 

Comment 1:18-20 

Vs. 18. Please notice the reference here to the charge mentioned 
earlier in Verse 3. What Paul has said between Verse 3 and 
Verse 18 would prepare Timothy to deliver the charge and 
accomplish the purpose for which it was given. Paul is here 
saying that his willingness to entrust Timothy with the high 
responsibility of such a charge can be found in "the prophecies 
that led the way" to Timothy. There are many and varied 
comments about the meaning of the phrase before us. We have 
preferred a comparison of I Tim. 4:14 with this text to offer an 
explanation. We might also compare II Tim. 1:6 in this con- 
nection, The gift of prophecy was exercised when the hands of 
the elders were laid upon Timothy. It could have been that Paul 
exercised such a gift when he laid his hands upon Timothy. In 
either case we would say that someone looking ahead by the 
power of this prophetic gift saw the wonderful possibilities in this 
young man. 

Naturally the prophetic promises were mentioned to Timothy 
in such a way as to impress themselves upon his heart, By 
recalling them he could use such encouragement to help him in 
"warring the good warfare". Perhaps Timothy was to remember 
such inspired words concerning himself and take heart that, if 
those who were guided by the Holy Spirit believed in his ability, 
who was he to hesitate? 

Vs. 19. It is not to be imagined that Timothy did not have faith 
or a good conscience. It is rather to introduce the reason for the 
defection of some, that Paul exhorts Timothy to hold faith and 
a good conscience. "What God hath joined together let not man 

45 



1:18-20 I TIMOTHY 

put asunder"— When faith and conscience are separated there is 
always : shipwreck ahead. Are we to understand that these men 
wrecked the ship of The Faith or wrecked their own personal 
ship of faith? We must conclude it is a subjective matter. To 
discuss whether these men were lost or not in this experience 
surely seems to be beside the point. Such men were in deadly 
danger; they were in the grasp, and under the power of Satan; 
to remain in such a condition would result in only one end, 
Vs. 20. Several were involved in the problem outlined by Paul, 
but only two are mentioned by name. It would seem that only 
when nothing more could be done are "certain ones" designated. 
It is futile to try to identify the Alexander mentioned here with 
the several over Alexanders mentioned in the New Testament. 
The Hymenaeus here mentioned can be identified with the one 
in II Timothy 2:17, 18; 4:14. How could Satan become a teacher 
against blasphemy? This is not easy to answer. Perhaps the 
answer is in the character of those being disciplined. 

Fact Questions 1:18-20 

26. Explain the use of the term "charge" as found in Vs. 18. 

27. Show the possible connection between I Tim, 4:14 and Vs. 18. 

28. Why are faith and conscience inseparable? 

29. What was wrecked in the shipwreck? 

30. Why name the two men of Vs. 20? 

31. How would Satan be able to teach them not to blaspheme? 

EXEGETICAL EXAMINATION ON I TIMOTHY 
CHAPTER ONE 

1 . Give from memory an outline of this chapter. 

2. Explain the "commandment" of God as in Verse 1. 

3. Tell why you believe what you do about Timothy's relation- 
ship to Paul as his child. 

4. Explain "endless genealogies" — why endless? 

5. Define: "dispensation of God which is in faith". 

6. What is: "the end of the charge"? 

7. In what sense is, "the law good"? 

8. Why list all the sinners of Verses 8-11? 

9. Give the meaning of the phrase: "contrary to the sound 
doctrine". 

10. Give the meaning of the word, "faithful", as in Verse 12. 

1 1 . Why Would God grant mercy to someone who acted in ignor- 
ance and unbelief any more readily than He. would to one 
who did not? Or is this the meaning of the phrase? 

46 



I TIMOTHY 2:1-7 

12. In what way did Paul become an example to all those who 
would come after him? 

13. Explain "the prophecies" as in Verse 18. How would Timothy 
use them? 

14. What was it that caused the shipwreck of some? 

15. How would the action taken upon Hymenaeus and Alexander 
teach them? 

II. PUBLIC WORSHIP 2:1-15 

1. PRAYER 1-7 

Text 2:1-7 

1 I exhort therefore, first of all, that supplications, prayers, inter- 
cessions, thanksgivings, be made for all men; 2 for kings and 
all that are in high place; that we may lead a tranquil life in all 
godliness and gravity. 3 This is good and acceptable in the 
sight of God our Saviour; 4 who would have all men to be 
saved, and come to the knowledge of the truth. 5 For there is 
one God, one mediator also between God and men, himself man, 
Christ Jesus, 6 who gave himself a ransom for all: the testimony 
to be borne in its own times; 7 whereunto I was appointed a 
preacher and an apostle (I speak the truth, I lie not) a teacher of 
the Gentiles in faith and truth. 

Thought Questions 2:1-7 

41. The word "therefore" in 2:1 connects verses 2:1-7 with those 
proceeding; show the connection. 

42. How is the word "first" to be understood? Is Paul giving 
instructions for the "pastoral prayer"? 

43. Define each of the four words relating to prayer and show 
their inter-relation. 

44. Why mention: "kings, and all that are in high place"? 

45. Are we to understand from Paul's admonition that our pray- 
ing is going to affect the decisions of State? How? Why? 

46. Define the difference in the use of the word "quiet" and the 
use of the word "tranquil". God, our Saviour, is most pleased 
when we pray after the order here prescribed; why? 

47. If God wants all men saved why doesn't He save them? 

48. There are four arguments for universal prayer. These argu- 
ments are found in verses 5-7. See if you can define them. 

49. Why mention the humanity of Christ Jesus as in Vs. 5? 

50. What is the meaning of the expression "ransom for all"? 

51. What is "the testimony", of Verse 6? 

52. Unto what was Paul appointed? 

47 



2:1-7 I TIMOTHY 

Paraphrase 2:1-7 

1 Now I exhort, first of all, that in the public assemblies* de- 
precations of evils, and supplications for such good things as are 
necessary, and intercessions for their conversion, and thanksgiving 
for mercies, be offered in behalf of all men, for heathens as well 
as for Christians, and for enemies as well as for friends; , 

2 But especially for kings, and all who have authority in the 
state, by whatever name they may be called, that, finding us 
good subjects, we may be suffered to lead an undisturbed and 
peaceable life, while we worship the only true God, and honestly 
perform every civil and social duty. 

3 For this, that we pray for all men, and especially for 'rulers, 
although they be heathens, is good for ourselves, and acceptable 
in the sight of God our Saviour. 

4 Who cOmmandeth all men to be saved from heathenism ignore 
ance and Jewish prejudices, and to come to the knowledge of 
the truth, that is, of the gospel, through the preaching of the 
word. 

5 For there is one God, the maker, benefactor, and governor of 
all, and one Mediator between God and men; ' consequently, 1 all 
are equally the objects of God's care: This Mediator is the man 
Christ Jesus. 

6 Who voluntarily (John x. 18.) gave himself a ransom not 
for the Jews only, but for all. Of which doctrine the publication 
and proof is now made in its proper season; so that, since Christ 
gave himself for all, it is certainly the will of God that we should 
pray for all. 

7 For the bearing of which testimony concerning the benevolence 
of God towards all men, and concerning Christ's giving himself 
a ransom for all, I was appointed ah herald, or messenger of 
peace, and an apostle divinely inspired, (I call Christ to witness 
that I speak the truth and lie not), a teacher of the Gentiles in 
faith and truth; that is, in me true faith of the gospel, 

Comment 2:1-7 . 

Vs. T. The use of he word "exhort" indicates something far 
stronger than just a suggestion. Paul wants these instructions 
carried out to the letter, as well as in the spirit in which they 
were given. Notice the word, "therefore"; Paul is saying: upon 
the basis of what has been said in chapter one, primary in 
importance is the proper attitude in, public worship, particularly 

48 



I TIMOTHY 2:1-3 

in prayer, When Timothy, or any one of the church leaders 
prayed in public, here are the instructions as to attitude and 
requests, 

The four words here used each have a different meaning and 
application; however, there is much overlapping in application or 
use. Supplications are those expressions in prayer that relate to 
the deepest needs of the heart; such needs are far more personal 
than those expressed by "prayers". General requests are covered 
in the second word. Please do not fail to associate such praying 
with the object: "all men," "Intercessions" is not as specific here 
as we usually think of it. Here the thought is much more one of 
pleading on behalf of others, than acting in the official capacity 
as a mediator. How very negligent we are in the area of "thanks- 
giving" in prayer. Just what is it about "all men" that would be 
a cause for thanksgiving? To ask such a question is an indication 
of our need for such an exhortation. 

Are we to pray for sinners? This verse should forever settle 
that question. If we would exercise these four elements in prayer 
for "all men" we would indeed be praying for sinners; and doing 
it just like God intended. 

Vs. 2. "All men" is generic; "kings, and all that are in high 
place" are some of the specific men for whom we should pray. 

Why pray for these men? Because it will effect certain changes 
in them and their administration that would not otherwise prevail. 
God is still ruling in the affairs of men. It is still God who raises 
up and casts down the rulers of this nation and word. God does 
not operate on man's schedule — but He acts in answer to the 
prayers prayed like Daniel of old did (Cf. Dan. 6:10). Not only so, 
but the very attitude necessary to pray after this manner, would 
help the one praying to be able to lead a quiet and tranquil life 
in all godliness and gravity. Such will be true in any society 
at any time. "Tranquil" refers to the outward calm, "Quiet" 
refers to the inward condition of the one praying. 

When God answers our prayers we should show our gratitude 
by living a life pleasing to God, 

Vs. 3. The expression "good" is to be thought of in the same 
sense as the use of the word "good" when God looked upon His 
creation and said "it is good"; i.e., a pleasure to the All-Mighty. 
Because God is a Saviour for all men, it is most acceptable to Him 
that we pray for the salvation of all men. 

49 



2:4-6 I TIMOTHY 

Vs. 4. The thought begun in Vs. 3 is completed in Verse 4. Such 
praying is admirable in God's sight because He wants all men 
to be saved, or come to an acknowledgment of the truth. 

God has made provision for the salvation of all men. He loves 
all men. He has commissioned that the good news be preached 
to all men; therefore it is with satisfaction that He hears prayers 
ascending on behalf of all men. We like the distinction made by 
Homer Kent in the use of the verbs: 

"Furthermore, God wishes all men to be saved. The verb 
"thelo" is employed which denotes a desire springing out of 
the emotions or inclinations, rather than out of deliberation 
"boulomia". Hence this is a reference to God's moral will 
which applies to all men. However, this moral will of God 
may fail, and often does. Men sin, although God does not 
want them to. Consequently, if men are lost, it is because 
they opposed God's will which gave His Son to save them. 
This does not teach universalism, for God does not violate 
man's opportunity to choose. The passive voice of the infinite 
"sothenai" (to be saved) may be suggestive. God wishes all 
men to be saved, that is, to experience salvation through the 
appointed channel of personal faith in Christ. If the text had 
used the active Voice, "Wishes to save all men," one would 
wonder why God does not then do so." (Ibid., p. 103) 

Vs. 5. We like the thought that in Vss. 5-7 we have four arguments 
in favor of praying for all men: (1) The unity of God — "There 
is one God;" (2) The unity of the Mediator,— "and one media- 
tor;" (3) The availability of the ransom, — "who gave himself a 
ransom for all; (4) The commission to the Gentiles — Vs. 7. 
(For this we are indebted to Homer Kent). If there is only one 
God (and we know there is), if there is only one Mediator (and 
we are sure of this), and they were provided for all men — how 
could we be exclusive in our concern and prayers? 
Vs. 6. Christ is not only the one Mediator but also the one 
payment for man's soul. God has given His Son as an exchange 
for all men. 

The act of His giving Himself as a ransom price on behalf 
of man, relates directly to His worthiness to be the universal 
Mediator. We like the thought that there must have been one 
who was both God and man in order to be a Mediator. Only this 
one could meet the great "kidnapper's ransom price"; it was the 
God-Man Christ Jesus! 

50 



I TIMOTHY 2:1-7 

The expression: "the testimony to be borne in its own times" 
is not easy of understanding; the question is: "what is to be the 
content of the testimony"? 

We prefer the thought this phrase compares very favorably 
with Gal, 4; 4 and has reference to the "fulness of time when 
God sent forth His Son", He was to be the one mediator; the 
one ransom. It is now time to give this testimony or good news, 
Vs, 7. The fourth and last reason for universal prayer on behalf 
of all men is found in the commission our Lord gave to Paul. 
If Christ sent Paul to preach to the Gentiles, (as he did Peter to 
the Jews), then surely we should pray for these objects of God's 
concern and subjects of Paul's work. 

The descriptive words: "preacher", "apostle", "teacher", "in 
faith and truth", indicate his task. He was "one sent" to "herald 
forth"; in so doing to "teach" all. This was to be done in faith, 
with the truth. 

Fact Questions 2:1-7 

26. In what sense is the expression "First of all" used? 

27. Please define the terms: "supplications, prayers, intercessions, 
and thanksgivings" as here used. 

28. In what particulars are we to pray for all men? 

29. What is the difference, if any, from a tranquil life, and a 
quiet life? 

30. Show the distinction in the use of the terms: "godliness and 
gravity", 

31. What is "good and acceptable with God"? 

32. In what sense does God will that all men be saved? 

33. Are being saved, and coming to the knowledge of the truth, 
two different experiences? 

34. How does the thought of the oneness of God relate to the 
context? 

35. Show the contextual connection of the One Mediator. 

36. What is "the testimony to be bourne in its own times"? 

37. Unto what was Paul appointed a preacher and an apostle, 
a teacher of the Gentiles in faith and truth? 

2. MEN AND WOMEN IN WORSHIP 8-15 

Text 2:8-15 
8 I desire therefore that the men pray in every place, lifting up 
holy hands, without wrath and disputing. 9 In like manner, that 
women adorn themselves in modest apparel, with shamefastness 
and sobriety; not with braided hair, and gold or pearls or costly 

51 



2:8-15 I TIMOTHY 

raiment; 10 but (which becometh women professing godliness) 
through good works. 11 Let a woman learn in quietness with 
all subjection. 12 But I permit not a woman to teach, nor to 
have dominion over a man, but to be in quietness. 13 For Adam 
was first formed, then Eve; 14 and Adam was not beguiled, but 
the woman being beguiled hath fallen into transgression: 15 
but she shall be saved through her child-bearing, if they continue 
in faith with love and sanctification with sobriety. 

Thought Questions 2:8-15 

53. Is Paul excluding the women from public prayer by hi? use 
of the term "men" in Vs. 8? 

54. What is meant by the expression: "every place"? 

55. What are "holy hands"? Is this describing a posture in 
prayer? 

56. Why say "without wrath and disputing"? How could men 
pray at all if such conditions prevailed? 

57. To what does the phrase, "women in like manner" refer? 

58. Why would Christian women adorn themselves in anything 
else than modest apparel? 

59. Does "shamefastness' relate to the use of cosmetics? Explain. 

60. Is it wrong to wear jewelry of any kind? Explain. 

61. A woman professing good works should adorn herself with 
what raiment? 

62. Why introduce the thought of women learning? Please in- 
dicate how it relates to the context. 

Paraphrase 2:8-15 

8 I command, therefore, that the men pray for all, (ver. 1), in 
every place appointed for public worship, lifting up holy hands; 
hands purified from sinful actions; and that they pray without 
wrath and disputings about the seasons and places of prayer. 

9 In like manner also I command that the women, before appear- 
ing in the assemblies for worship, adorn themselves in decent 
apparel, with modesty and sobriety, which are their chief orna- 
ments, not with plaited hair only, or gold, or jewels, or em- 
broidered raiment; in order to create evil desires in the men, or 
a vain admiration of their beauty; 

10 but, instead of these vain ornaments, let them (as becometh 
women professing the Christian religion) adorn themselves with 
Works of charity, which are the greatest ornaments of the female 
character, and to which the tender-heartedness of the sex strongly 
disposeth them. 

52 



I TIMOTHY 2:8,9 

1 1 Let every woman receive instruction in religious matters from 
the men in silence, with entire submission, on account of their 
imperfect education and inferior understanding, 

12 For I do not allow a woman to teach in the public assemblies, 
nor in any manner to usurp authority over a man; but I enjoin 
them, in all public meetings, to be silent, 

13 The natural inferiority of the woman, God shewed at the 
creation; for Adam was first formed, then Eve, to be a help 
meet for him, 

14 Besides, that women are naturally inferior to men in under- 
standing, is plain from this — Adam was not deceived by the 
devil but the woman being deceived by him, fell into transgression, 

15 However, though Eve was first in transgression, and brought 
death on herself, her husband, and her posterity, the female sex 
shall be saved equally with the male, through child-bearing; 
through bringing forth the Saviour; if they live in faith, and love, 
and chastity, with that sobriety which I have been recommending. 

Comment 2:8-15 

Vs. 8. The actual lifting of the hands toward God in an expres- 
sion of supplication and petition was a very common occurence 
in the Old Testament; also in the synagogues and in the early 
church; hence we refer the expression to the physical act. When 
hands are thus held up before God, let them be the expression of 
a pure heart; a good conscience; and an unhypocritical faith; 
then will the hands be holy or clean. 

Let prayers for the rulers be without a desire for vengeance 
upon them, Let no hatred or animosity enter the heart, as 
mention is made of the names of those who rule, This would 
not be an easy matter when Nero was on the throne. 

Under the world conditions of the first century, it would not 
be easy to believe prayers would effect any real change, or produce 
any good, hence the use of the word "disputing", or "doubting". 
Paul wants the Christians in Ephesus and all places, to pray in 
simple faith in God's ability and love, 

Vs. 9. The three words, "in like manner," have occasioned no 
small discussion among commentators. We take them to refer to 
the sphere of the women's activities as compared with that of 
the men. As the men were to follow carefully the instructions 
given to them regarding leading in prayer, the women "likewise" 
are to follow carefully the instructions about to be given to them, 

53 



2:9 I TIMOTHY 

Both the men and the women here mentioned are appearing in 
public. How they act and look and feel, is very important. We 
have noticed how men are to behave themselves; the discussion 
turns now to the women. Woman does not have a place of 
congregational leadership; hence her appearance is discussed 
rather than her position or work. 

Paul is saying: when women dress for church please remember 
the following divine instructions: "Be orderly and modest in 
arranging your appearance; particularly with your clothes and 
hair." Th.2 word "adorn" had the meaning of orderliness; the 
word "modest" does not only refer to the cut of the dress but 
to the attitude of the one wearing it. 

Every woman knows what is considered modest in the society 
in which she lives. Extremes are thus avoided by placing the 
responsibility of the one who wears the clothes. 

The word "shamefastness" is an obsolete word which simply 
means "modesty"; the word "modesty" in the first half of this 
verse refers to the appearance of the clothes; here the word refers 
to the attitude of the heart of the woman. 

"Sobriety" refers to that inner self control that would hinder 
any Christian woman from appearing in public in any garb that 
would reflect on her Christian character. 

To be specific Paul refers to a custom which evidently was 
very common in some assemblies of his day. "Not with braided 
hair, and gold or pearls or costly raiment." We like the comment 
of Lenski upon this point: 

"Isa. 3:18-24 names some of the extravagant female ornaments. 
Paul says: 'not braids and gold or pearls or expensive clothes.' 
I Pet. 3:3 writes: 'not the outward adorning of plaiting of hair 
and of wearing of things of gold or putting on apparel.' This 
is the vanity of personal display in order to attract general 
attention, in particular to fill other women with envy, to 
outshine rivals. These are 'braids' or 'plaits' of hair, the putting 
it up in showy, unusual fashion so as to become conspicuous, 
and not just common and customary braids. 

Paul does not say where the gold or pearls are worn, whether 
in the braided hair, or in chains about the neck, or in pins, etc. 
on the dress. Display of jewelry is referred to. Aside from 
religion, good taste forbids such display. The two 'or' are not 
disjunctive so that, when gold is worn, pearls would not be; 

54 



I TIMOTHY 2:9-12 

but conjunctive, which is a common use of f or' that draws 
attention to each item separately, to the gold for one thing, 
to the pearls for another, and also to the expensive clothes, 
The fact that flashy jewelry would be displayed with costly 
'clothing' is apparent. Such a woman wants to make a stunning 
impression, Her mind is on herself; she is unfit for worship, 

This verse does not refer to merely sex attraction, How many 
women who are past the age are given to the silly vanity of 
dress? Paul is not insisting on drab dress, Even this may be 
worn in vanity; the very drabness may be made a display. 
Each according to her station in life: the queen not the same 
as her noble mistress. Each with due propriety as modesty and 
propriety will indicate to her both when attending divine 
services and when appearing in public elsewhere." (Lenski, 
Pp. 559-560). 

Vs. 10. The adornment of women professing godliness when they 
prepare to worship in public is "good works". How could good 
works be worn? The development of character through good 
works is the adornment of the heart. Such a heart condition will 
react on the selection of clothes. 

Vs. 1 1 . Verses 11-15 are a unit. In verses 11, 12 we have a charge 
to women. In verses 13-15 we have two reasons for the charge. 
We refer the admonition here given to the public service: women 
are not to lead out in such meetings; they are rather to be the 
silent learners. We, of course, think of the companion verses to 
this in I Corinthians 14:34,35. Possibly the conditions in Ephesus 
would have called forth such prohibitions. 

Vs. 12. The expression "I permit not" is not to be passed off 
lightly as local or temporary, as we have heard it done in too many 
places. Paul speaks with divine authority to us as well as to the 
church at Ephesus. Are we to assume there are actually two 
prohibitions here? We are to read in a subsequent letter that Paul 
permits and encourages women to teach (Cf. Titus 2:3-5) so we 
must confine it to certain conditions and times. We would say 
then, that in gathering of the whole public assembly, the woman 
is not to teach. The expression "to have dominion over a man" 
could well be translated "lord it over" a man. In the public 
meetings where men are present, women are not to teach, nor in 
any way "lord it over" them, but in contrast they are to be "in 
quietness". 

55 



2:13-15 I TIMOTHY 

Vs. 13. "Adam was first formed, then Eve"; at first reading; this 
might appear as a rather superfluous reason for giving man 
precedence over the woman; but look again. How was man 
created? "out of the dust of the ground"!; and how was woman 
created? Out of man; man was a separate being before woman 
was created. I Corinthians 11:9 is a commentary on this thought. 
Man holds a direct relationship of responsibility to God; the 
woman through the man to God, i.e. in the husband and wife 
relationship. Only when this arrangement was altered did the 
first pair lose Paradise. 

Vs. 1 4. The social position of the wpman is as well established in 
the order of temptation and sin as in the order of creation. The 
woman was altogether deceived by the serpent and came into 
transgression. This would indicate a definite lack on her part. 
To quote another, "She wants, by the very constitution of nature, 
the qualities necessary for such a task — (i.e. ruling, in the church) 
in particular, the equability of temper, the practical shrewdness 
and discernment, the firm, independent, regulative judgment, 
which are required to carry the leaders of important interests 
above first impressions and outside appearances, to resist solicita- 
tions, and amid subtle entanglements and fierce conflicts to cleave 
unswervingly to the right." (Fairbairn,, p. 129). This, Eve did 
not do. Why she did not do it, the inspired writer is to say, has 
to do with her essential nature. Adam, on the other hand, was 
not deceived by the serpent. Adam was indeed a sinner, and 
responsible for his own action as well as his relationship to his 
wife. If Adam is the head of the woman, why does he not act 
like it? Both Adam and Eve were out of place. However, the 
only point being made here is that in the nature of the two, one 
is made to lead and the other to follow. 

Vs. 15. This verse contains one of the most difficult of expressions 
in the whole letter. What shall we say of the promise of salvation 
to woman through "child bearing"? Does this refer to "the 
Messiah" or "The Child"? Is Paul offering salvation to women 
through the pains of bearing children? Are the "they" of the 
latter part of the verse the same as "woman" of the first part? 
Let each student answer these questions before he proceeds to 
formulate an opinion. Gutherie outlines the three leading views 
on this verse: 

56 



I TIMOTHY 2:8-15 

1 . Refers to the Messiah — woman has been given the capacity 
to save herself and all others because it was through woman 
that the Saviour was born. 

2. The word "saved" is to be taken in the natural or physical 
realm and refers only to the promise of the safe deliverance 
of children if the proper conditions are observed, 

3. Woman is to save herself in the process of seeing to it that 
her children are saved. 

Fact Questions 2:8-15 

38. Give the meaning of the expression "every place." 

39. Is Paul suggesting that men actually, physically, lift up their 
hands in prayer? Explain, 

40. Give the meaning of "holy hands." 

41. How would wrath and disputing relate to prayer? 

42. Explain the phrase: "women in like manner"? 

43. How shall we determine what apparel is modest? 

44. Meaning of the words: "shamefastness and sobriety." 

45. Is Paul against all braided hair? 

46. Women are to adorn themselves with something' — what is it? 

47. When and where is a woman to learn in quietness? 

48. Does the act of teaching give a woman dominion over a man? 

49. Explain the two reasons for the subjection of women, as given 
by Paul. 

50. How does the thought of verse 15 fit this particular context? 

EXEGETICAL EXAMINATION OVER CHAPTER TWO 
OF I TIMOTHY 

1. Give an outline of this chapter. It would be very helpful 
to you, if you were able to divide it with more detail than 
just the two main divisions. 

2. Define the meaning and application of the four terms describ- 
ing prayer as in Vs, 1 . 

3. What is "good and acceptable in the sight of God" — Explain 
why "acceptable" to God, 

4. Give the four arguments for universal prayer. 

5. What is "the testimony to be borne in its own times"? 

6. Explain how "wrath and disputing" relate to prayer as in Vs. 
8. 

7. Explain what you believe about the little phrase "women in 
like manner", as in Vs. 9. 

57 



3:1-7 I TIMOTHY 

8. Explain "shamefastness and sobriety". 

9. Paul did, and did not, permit women to teach — explain when, 
where, and why. 

10. Explain the two reasons for the subjection of woman to man. 

11. Explain Vs. 15. 

III. CHURCH OFFICERS 3:1-16 

A. Office of the Overseer (3: 1-7) 
1. THE ELDER. 1-7 

Text 3:1-7 

1 Faithful is the saying, if a man seeketh the office of a bishop, 
he desireth a good work. 2 The bishop therefore must be without 
reproach, the husband of one wife, temperate, sober-minded, order- 
ly, given to hospitality, apt to teach; 3 no brawler, no striker; but 
gentle, not contentious, no lover of money; 4 one that ruleth well 
his own house, having his children in subjection with all gravity; 5 
(but if a man knoweth not how to rule his own house, how shall 
he take care of the church of God?) 6 not a novice, lest being 
puffed up he fall into the condemnation of the devil. 7 Moreover 
he must have good testimony from them that are without; lest he 
fall into reproach and the snare of the devil. 

Thought Questions 3:1-7 

63. Why use the prefatory words; "Faithful is the saying"? 

64. Why would this be such a desirable work? Is this a work, 
or an office? 

65. Is the bishop the same man as the elder? Prove your answer. 

66. No man can be completely "without reproach"; how shall 
we understand this phrase? 

67. Does the text say an elder must be a married man? Explain. 

68. Explain in your own words the meaning of the term "tem- 
perate." 

69. In what particulars must a bishop be "sober-minded"? 

70. Are we discussing ideals, or actual essential qualifications? 

71. In what sense must a bishop be "orderly"? 

72. How would it be known that a man was "given to hospitality"? 

73. Some elders are "apt not to teach"; explain the phrase "apt 
to teach". 

74. How would one serving as an elder, ever be involved in an 
accusation of being "quarrelsome over wine"? 

75. How are we to define and apply the term "striker" as here 
used? 

76. Show the contrast between "a striker" and one who is "gentle". 

58 



I TIMOTHY 3; 1-7 

77, Almost every leader in the church has been accused of being 
"contentious" at one time or another; how shall we decide who 
is and who is not? 

78, What are the symptoms of one who is sick with "love for 
money"? 

79, In what sense is a man to rule his own house? Cf, 5; 14. 

80, Does Paul mean by the qualifications that a man must be 
married and have a family to be an elder? 

81, Who determines whether children are "in subjection"? 

82, What is "the condemnation of the Devil"? Why would a 
novice be particularly susceptible? 

83, How does, "the reproach of the Devil" differ from, the "con- 
demnation of the Devil"? 

Paraphrase 3:1-7 

1 When about to elect bishops, thou shouldst remember that this 
saying is true, if one earnestly seeketh the office of a bishop, he 
desireth a work, which, though very laborious, is both honourable 
and beneficial, as it promotes the glory of God and the good of 
mankind. 

2 Therefore a bishop ought to be free from blame; the husband 
of one wife, at a time; attentive to this duty and to his people; 
prudent in his conduct; of comely behaviour; hospitable to 
strangers; fit to teach, by having good knowledge of the things 
he is to teach, a clear manner of expressing his thoughts, and an 
earnest desire to instruct the ignorant. 

3 He must not be addicted to wine, nor of such a hasty temper 
as to be a striker of those who provoke him, or one who gains 
money by sinful, or even dishonourable occupations, but equitable 
in judging of the offences which any of his flock may commit; 
not a noisy, abusive, quarrelsome talker, nor covetous in his 
dealings. 

4 He must be one who possesseth such wisdom and firmness 
as to govern properly his own family. In particular, he must 
have his children in subjection to him; as becometh the gravity 
of his character, and his reputation for prudence. 

5 For if one be not capable of governing so small a society as 
his own family, but suffers his children to be disobedient and 
vicious, how shall he govern in a proper manner that greater 
and more important society, the church of God? 

59 



3:1-2 I TIMOTHY 

6 A bishop must not be one newly converted, lest being puffed 
up with pride on account of his promotion, he fall into the 
punishment inflicted on the devil. 

7 Moreover, before his conversion, he must have behaved in such 
a manner as even to have a good testimony from the heathens; 
that he may not be liable to reproach for the sins he committed 
before his conversion, and fall into the snare of the devil, who by 
these reproaches may tempt him to renounce the gospel. 

Comment 3:1-7 

Vs. 1 . There is some little disagreement as to whether we should 
relate the expression. "Faithful is the saying . . . ."with "but 
she shall be saved through her child bearing" — or "if a man 
seeketh the office of a bishop he desireth a good work." We prefer 
to associate the expression with 3:1 rather than 2:15, although 
we offer nothing but opinion for the preference. There are three 
other times when the expression "Faithful is the saying" is used: 
I Tim. 1:15; II Tim. 2:11; Titus 3:8. They offer no help, for the 
expression: "faithful saying" both follows and precedes in these 
examples. Whatever else we can say, it is certain that the office 
of overseer is one to be greatly desired. 

It should not be necessary to say that there is but one office for 
"elder" and "overseer". Here are two names for the same office — 
Cf. Acts 20:17, 28 and Titus 1:5 for interchangeable use of the 
terms. 

Paul writes of a strong desire for this office and work. This 
desire should be in the candidate, it should arise as he contem- 
plates the work he is to do. The glory of service and work for 
the Lord should ever be before possible candidates for the office 
of elder. In most places neither the office nor the work are well 
enough known to create any desire for the overseership. When 
elders are doing their God-given work among the congregation, 
men will want to be like them. We read of elders visiting the 
sick, (James 1:27; 5:12, 14) feeding the flock on the word and 
protecting the flock from enemies — (Acts 20:29-31). When such 
Work is being done or pointed out as being necessary, men will 
be attracted to the office. Let us mark carefully both words: it is 
worthy, and it is work. 

Vs. 2. We offer no special outline of arrangement for the quali- 
fications (although we have read a good number of arbitrary 

60 



I TIMOTHY 3:2 

groupings), Let us simply proceed in the order Paul gives; 

"without reproach" — We ought to say that it is our firm per- 
suasion that Paul expected the congregations in Ephesus to be 
able to clearly see and approve every one of these qualifications 
in the lives of every one of their elders, Indeed with only two 
exceptions ("apt to teach" and "not a novice") all the qualifica- 
tions are to be found in all Christians, 

"Without reproach" means "not to be taken hold upon" — 
if one is to be taken hold of there must be a handle, i.e. some 
obvious flaw in his character upon which men seize to bring 
upon him blame and reproach, The candidate for this office 
should be without a handle, 

"the husband of one wife" — There is so much controversy and 
contention on some points of Scripture that one hesitates to 
advance any opinion. It has been my careful conclusion that Paul 
is discussing the moral quality of the candidate for the eldership. 
He is saying such a man must be the husband of only ONE wife 
— not more than one, The elder must be a "one woman" type 
man, both in thought and practice. A most thorough-going study 
of this subject can be found in Scriptural Elders and Deacons 
by H. E. Phillips, pp. 97ff, published by Phillips Publications, 
Gainesville, Florida. This is the most complete review of the 
subject I have found — although I do not concur in his conclusion. 

"temperate" — The word here translated "temperate" is trans- 
lated "sober" later in the qualifications. Originally the word 
meant a complete abstinence from wine. Here it is used meta- 
phorically of our attitude of life, It is translated "vigilant" in 
the King James Version. Perhaps the English meaning associated 
with the words "sober" and "vigilant", carries a complete defini- 
tion of this qualification. 

II Timothy 4:5 compares very well with I Timothy 3:2. The 
thought of being "temperate" refers to an attitude of mind which 
is reflected in the life. This attitude is not of "just taking a little", 
but of sober, careful judgment in all matters, 

"sober-minded" — balanced judgment; not carried away by 
every "wind of doctrine". Men are needed in the church today 
who hold such deep-seated convictions that no amount of difficulty 
will move them from their faith and work. 

"orderly" — this has more than reference to appearance, al- 
though we believe it relates to that. An unordered, slovenly 
appearance is usually indicative of an unordered, slovenly mind. 

61 



3:2-5 I TIMOTHY 

The elder should be a true gentleman in the best use of the word. 

"hospitable" — Lenski has wisely observed that "hospitable" and 
"apt to teach" belong together as something the elder is to impart 
to others. Rom. 12:13; Heb. 13:2; I Pet. 2:9 should be read con- 
cerning hospitality. The social and political circumstances of 
Paul's day, to say nothing of the economic status of the Christians, 
would make hospitality especially welcome. The genuine desire 
to make our house the home of needy, Christian strangers, rich 
or poor, is so very sadly lacking and sorely needed in the church 
today. 

"apt to teach"— This does not refer to a willingness to teach, 
but to the ability to do so. As to whether a man has such ability 
can best be decided by those with whom he labors and whom he 
tries to teach. Each and every elder should have such ability. 
Read I Tim. 5:17 as to the teaching responsibility. 
Vs. 3. "no brawler or quarrelsome over wine" — This is to say no 
"winebibber" ; we would refer to him today as a "wino". What 
conditions prevailed in the church that such a prohibition needed 
to be included? 

'Wo striker; but gentle" — These two qualifications should be 
considered together. A striker is one who is ready with the fists 
at the slightest provocation. Some have learned to use their 
tongues instead of their fists but they are still a "striker". In 
contrast is the one who is "gentle toward all." Here is the 
thought of yielding but not compromising. 

"Not contentious" — Not one who likes to fight, but one who 
does not like to fight— not the fighting kind. 

'Wo lover of money" — Of course this refers to loving what 
money can do. It is this quality of heart that makes a man 
covetous. The idolatry of money -worship is ever near us. 
Vs. 4. "one that ruleth well his own household" — The thought of 
overseeing in the household or family situation in the same man- 
ner as in the church situation is the point here. Go home with the 
prospective elder and observe the conduct of his wife and children. 
Do they respect him? Is he regarded as competent by those who 
know him best? The obedience of the children should be held 
as a serious responsibility by the Christian father. 
Vs. 5. If a man fails at home he will surely fail in public. The 
care of the church is of a much more complicated nature than 
that of the home, and yet it compares favorably in several 
particulars The inescapable conclusion is: to be deficient in one 
is to be deficient in both. 

62 



I TIMOTHY 3; 6,7 

Vs. 6. Just who is a novice? When is a man to be considered a 
"new convert"? This is surely a relative matter, The appoint- 
ment of elders on the first missionary journey in the churches of 
Derbe, Lystra, Iconium and Antioch (Cf, Acts 14:23), is a 
point in question. How long had such men been Christians? We 
could assume that some of them were elders in the synagogue 
before they became Christians, but that would only be an assump- 
tion. The power of pride must here be considered. How large a 
part does ego have in a man's character? Some men are far 
more vain than others. How long will it be before the power of 
Christ in the heart will overcome the power of pride? Such 
questions must be answered before we can refer to such a man 
as a novice, or not a novice. 

"the condemnation of the devil" — Is this referring to the 
particular punishment God will give the devil? Or does this mean 
the condemnation brought on by the devil? The third possibility 
refers to the judgment or punishment meted out by the devil 
on those who fell under his power. We prefer the first of these 
— i.e., the particular judgment God has reserved for Satan. This 
was brought about through the pride of Satan: he thought of 
himself much more highly than he ought to have thought; he 
assumed an office to which God had not appointed him; and in 
which he was not prepared to serve; for this cause God removed 
him from heaven. The new convert who is "wrapped in his own 
pride", as if wrapped in fog, cannot be a proper candidate for the 
office of elder, and is about to repeat Satan's sin, and if so would 
receive Satan's condemnation. How much better to anticipate and 
prevent, than not to anticipate and regret. 

Vs. 7. Prior to his conversion, and subsequent to it, the candidate 
for the eldership must have conducted himself in such a manner, 
that those non-Christian friends and neighbors who knew him 
best, would be able to tell how uprightly and unblameably he 
conducted himself. We are not referring to his Christian friends 
or neighbors, but rather to those on the "outside". Can those 
who work with him or near him say of him that he does his 
work well and treats his fellow workmen in a fair and unselfish 
manner? The reproach and snare of the devil is not at all the 
same as "the condemnation of the devil". 

If a man were appointed to the office of elder, and yet he was 
the butt of ridicule and jokes by those "on the outside" because of 
his inconsistent conduct, then indeed he has fallen into the devil's 
trap, and justly deserves to be reproached or accused by Satan. The 

63 



3:1-7 I TIMOTHY 

devil sets the trap and then reproaches those who fall into it. This 
snare or trap is prepared each time we profess one thing and live 
another. What a pit an which to fall! • 

Fact Questions 3:1-7 

51. What is the "faithful saying", and why so called? 

52. Is an elder and a bishop the same man? Prove your answer. 

53. How does one obtain a strong desire for the office? 

54. Give the meaning of the expression, "without reproach"? 

55. Could any single man be an elder? Explain. 

56. Meaning of the expression, "temperate"? 

57. If a man was "temperate" wouldn't he already be "sober- 
minded"? 

58. Aren't some "unorderly" men doing more for God than some 
"orderly" ones? How does this relate to the qualifications? 

59. Is there some way in which we can tell when a man is 
"given to hospitality"? If so, how? 

60. Who shall decide if a man is "apt to teach"? How? 

61. Explain 5 how a "brawler" could even be considered for the 
eldership — to say nothing of being qualified for the office. 

62. What type of gentleness must be manifest in the character 
of the elder? 

63. When is a man contentious and not just constructively 
critical? 

64. Is it possible to "love money", and still not have much of it? 
What is the deeper difficulty? 

65. Who would venture to say when any man "ruled well his 
own household"? How could this knowledge be obtained? 
What about invading the privacy of the home? 

66. What are the symptoms of "being puffed up"? 

67. Satan has set a very deadly snare— it is discussed in the 7th 
verse. Explain how to avoid it, 

BALLOT 

ELDER 

NAME . 



THE QUALIFICATIONS OF AN ELDER 

(Check on line where candidate qualifies) 
Positive qualifications 

1 He must desire the office and seek it. I Tim. 3:1. This 

would suggest that a man should consider the office one 

64 



I TIMOTHY 3:1-7 

of privilege, and he should constantly be preparing his 
life so as to be a fit candidate for it, 

2„ The bishop must be without reproach or blameless, I Tim, 

3:2a; Titus 1:6a; 7a, He would hold this position before 
man and not God, for no one is blameless or without 
reproach before God, As the persons of the congregation, 
where he is contemplating the office of elder, view his 
life, they should be able to find nothing blameworthy 
about it. 

3 The husband of one wife, I Tim, 3:2a; Titus 1:6b. 

4,. The elder must be temperate. I Tim. 3:2c; Titus l:8f. 

Three thoughts are expressed in the Greek; "Having 
power over one's self, abstaining from wine, curbing one's 
desires or impulses." 

5 Sober-minded. I Tim.. 3:2c; Titus 1:8c. The thought in 

the Greek is, "of sound mind, sane in one's senses," 
(Cf. Eph. 5:4). 

6„ Orderly, I Tim. 3:2c. "Of good behavior, modest." 

7.. "Given to hospitality ■." I Tim. 3:2f; Titus 1:8a. (Cf. I 

Tim. 5:10). 

8 He must be a sound, capable, and willing teacher of the 

Word, I Tim, 3;2g; Titus 1:9. 

9„ Not given to wine (K.J.V.); no brawler (R.V.) I Tim. 

3:3a; Titus l:7d. A brawler is one who quarrels noisily, 
creates an uproar or starts a row. 

10.__ He must not be a striker. I Tim. 3:3b; Titus 1:7c. The 

word in the Greek means, "smiter, pugnacious, quarrel- 
some." 

11 Gentle. I Tim. 3:3c. "Equitable, fair, mild," The bishop 

must be willing to be taught; willing to admit error and 
to change his mind; not weak but approachable. 

12., He must rule his own house. I Tim. 3:4-5; Titus 1:6c. 

13, H p. must have a good testimony from without. I Tim, 3: 7. 

He must be one who practices what he preaches. ' 

14 A lover of good. Titus 1:8b, 

15,, He must be holy. Titus l:8e, (Cf, Heb. 12:14) 

16., He must be just. Titus l:8d. "Righteous, observing 

divine and human laws, upright, passing just judgment 
on others." (Cf. John 7:24), 

65 



3:8-13 I TIMOTHY 

Negative qualifications 

1 Not contentious. I Tim. 3:3d. "Given to angry debate, 

quarrelsome." One who loves strife and wrangles over 
non-essentials, could not qualify as a bishop v 

2. No lover of money. I Tim. 3:3q; Titus l:7f; I Peter 5:2. 

3.. Not a novice. I Tim. 3:6. "A new convert, a beginner" 

would be considered a novice. 
4.^ — JSot self-willed. Titus 1:7b. "Self-pleasing, arrogant." 

5 Not soon angry. Titus 1:7c. "Easily provoked, irritable." 

6 His wife must not be a slanderer, but grave, temperate, 

and faithful in alt things. I Tim. 3:11. 

2. THE DEACONS 8-13 

Text 3:8-13 

8 Deacons in like manner must be grave', not double-tongued, 
not given to much wine, not greedy of filthy lucre; 9 holding 
the mystery of the faith in a pure conscience. 10 And let these 
also first be proved; then let them serve as deacons, if they be 
blameless. 1 1 Women in like manner must be grave, not slander- 
ers, temperate, faithful in all things. 12 Let deacons be husbands 
of one wife, ruling their children and their own houses well. 13 
For they that have served well as deacons gain to themselves a 
good standing, and great boldness in the faith which is in Christ 
Jesus. 

Thought Questions 3:8-13 

84. Deacons should be like the elders; in what particular? 

85. Is there a better word for "grave"? 

86. In what way would deacons be tempted to be "double- 
tongued"? Explain. 

87. Is there any possibility that "a little wine" would be permiss- 
ible? Explain. 

88. Is "filthy lucre" confined solely to money? Why so called? 

89. How does Paul use the word "mystery" as related to "the 
faith"? : 

90. If the deacons serve only in the material area, how is it that 
they are to hold the "mystery of the faith"? 

91. What would stain the conscience of the deacon? Why so 
important to have a good conscience? 

92. Does verse ten suggest a period of probation for the deacons? 
Explain. 

93. Who could ever be "without blame"? Discuss this in con- 
nection with deacons, 

66 



I TIMOTHY 3; 843 

94, Does verse eleven make provision for female deacons? Discuss, 
Cf, Rom, 16:1,2. 

95, In what respect is the qualification "not slanderers" particu- 
larly appropriate? 

96, Why the general qualification "faithful in all things"? 

97, Is it here suggested that deacons must be married? Why? 

98, If a deacon "must" be married then it follows that he "must" 
have more than one child, and that such children must be 
old enough to be "ruled"' — is this so? Discuss, 

99, What is "the good standing" obtained by deacons? Is this a 
step toward becoming an elder? 

100, How could service in our present office of deacon, produce any 
boldness in the faith? How did it do it in the days of Paul? 

Paraphrase 3:8-13 

8 The deacons, in like manner, must be of a grave character, not 
double-tongued, speaking one thing to this person, and another 
to that, on the same subject; not giving themselves to much wine; 
not persons who earn money by base methods. 

9 He must hold fast the doctrines of the gospel with a pure 
conscience; He must not, from fear or self-interest, either conceal 
or disguise these doctrines, 

10 However, let these also be tried first, by publishing their 
names to the church, that if anyone hath aught to lay to their 
charge, he may show it; and after such a publication of their 
names, let them exercise the deacons office, if no person accuses 
them, 

1 1 The women, in like manner, who are employed in teaching the 
young, must be stayed in their deportment; not slanderers and 
tale-bearers, but vigilant and faithful in all the duties belonging 
to their office. 

12 Let the deacons be husbands of one wife only at a time, having 
showed their temperance by avoiding polygamy and causeless 
divorce. They must likewise rule with prudence and firmness 
their children, and every one in their families. 

13 For they who have performed the office of a deacon with 
ability and assiduity, secure to themselves an honourable rank 
in the church, and great courage in teaching the Christian faith. 
For even the wicked must respect persons who show so much 
benevolence and activity, in relieving the poor, the afflicted and 
the persecuted, 

67 



3:8 I -TIMOTHY 

Comment 3:8-13 

Vs. 8. We should have little hesitancy in acepting the office of 
deacon; let us not stumble over : the general use- of the word; 
surely we will agree that many persons are called "servants" 
(the same word here used to refer to deacons), but this does ndt 
mean that all such persons are "deacons" in the sense here used. 
Philippiahs 1:1 should settle the matter: "Paul and Timothy, 
servants (bond servants) of Christ Jesus, to -all the saints in 
Christ Jesus that are at Philippi, with the bishops -and deacons." 
All Christians are not deacons anymore than all older men are 
elders. 

The "Like manner" of verse eight refers to the necessity of 
being qualified for the office. Once again let us say that such 
qualifications are not given as ideals alone, but as definite qualities 
of character to be found in the men who serve. 

Lack of dignity (not pompousness) is seen on every side. This 
is true because the service of deacon is not held in a serious or 
"grave" light. It is only when we are serious about the task that 
such seriousness will be reflected in our 1 life. But whose responsi- 
bility is it to present a clear picture of the privileges and oppor- 
tunities of the office of deacon? We need far more good evangel- 
ists like Timothy. 

Why would a deacon be most especially tempted to be ''double- 
tongued"? Would it be because of his 6ft visiting on behalf of 
Christ? How sorely tempted we are at times to say one thing 
to one person and- something else to another, and on the very 
same subject. This must not be. We must fear the displeasure 
of God far more than that of man. Let the deacon consistently 
tell the truth at all times, with all people. 

A reference has already been made to excessive use of wine. 
This must have been a problem in the church. It is a problem 
in our present society to an extent that we do not like, to admit. 
There is nd provision here for use of wing in any form. The 
text simply states that a candidate for the office of deacon must 
not be a drunkard. (Please see our special, study on Bible and 
Wine in the last pages of this book.) 

"Greedy of filthy lucre" goes much deeper than "love of 
money' '—"lucre" means ''base gain" of any kind. The thought of 
using the office for such gain is always present., The advantage 
of the Lord and not of self, is the uppermost thought of the truly 
qualified deacon. 

68 



I TIMOTHY 3:941 

Vs. 9. To compare the present day qualifications for deacons with 
the expression "holding the mystery of the faith in a pure con- 
science" is a glaring example of how far short we are of having 
men who meet such qualifications, Today the thought that a 
deacon should be a genuine student of the Bible seldom enters 
the mind. "The mystery of the faith" does not refer to some 
secret truths, but rather to that which was once concealed but is 
now revealed, The deacon is to have a grasp of the gospel in 
such a manner that he will be able to share it with others, This 
requires study and preparation on his part. Such a wonderful 
treasure must be kept in a clean vessel' — "a pure conscience". 
The deacon must not suffer from the accusations of his own 
conscience, because of the inconsistencies in his daily conduct 
with "the faith" he understands and professes. 

Vs. 10. How shall we carry out the injunction of Vs. 10? Shall 
we place certain men "on probation" as deacons and then if they 
prove themselves capable, appoint them to the office? This is 
strongly urged by some commentaries. However, the thought 
in the word "prove" does not suggest such a formal testing. 

The lives of the candidates for the office should be carefully 
observed over a period of time by the congregation. Those qualities 
of character necessary to carry out the worthy work of the deacon 
will be observed by the Christians. This has to do with a testing 
of character and work in the ordinary course of the church life, 
What a responsiblity this places upon the minister to make the 
congregation aware of what a deacon should be and do. After a 
careful informal examination such men who are to serve as deacons 
should be found "blameless". 

Vs. .11. A good deal of discussion is always in order just here as 
to whether we have a provision made for the office of "deacon- 
ess." A reference is also always made to Rom. 16:1, 2. We must 
say Paul is not referring to women in general, for this would 
hardly be in place in the midst of a discussion of church officers, 
It must then refer either to female deacons or to the wives of 
the male deacons. The latter conclusion is our preference, We 
say this because of the absence to any other reference to deaconess. 
The term deacon is a masculine one. All the deacons mentioned 
are men( unless we are to understand Phebe was a deaconess 
in an official sense). The words of Guthrie are very much to the 
point just here; "The reference is too general to postulate with 

69 \ 



3:12,13 I TIMOTHY 

certainty a distinct order of deaconesses, but some feminine 
ministration was necessary in visitation and in attending to 
women candidates for baptism. For such work certain moral 
qualities would be essential whether for deacon's wives or for 
deaconesses in their own right." 

The expression "faithful in all things" is a very general one, 
but it has none-the-less strong implications: such women should 
live a life of complete consistency. The other qualifications have 
been discussed in connection with the elders and deacons. 
Vs. 12. What we have said of the elders as to this qualification 
can be here applied to deacons. 

Vs. 13. Perhaps the present day application of the text should 
not be our first thought in our comment upon it, but one cannot 
help but relate the service and standing of deacons here described 
with some men now serving as deacons. What type of service 
would be necessary to obtain a good standing in the sight of God 
and man? to say nothing of "great boldness in the faith"? Surely 
the responsibilities would entail far more than we usually relate 
to the deacons work. The New Testament deacon will be so 
conspicuous in his work among the flock that they will notice it. 
They will mark him in their own mind as a true servant of 
Christ. He will so teach and evangelize in his personal attentions 
to the saints as to gain by experience "great boldness in the faith." 
These are but a few obvious applications of the text. 

.Fact Questions 3:8-13 

68. We should not hesitate to accept the office of deacon as a part 
of the present day church organization; — why? 

69. How does the responsibility of the evangelist relate to the 
office of deacon? 

70. Why would a deacon be especially tempted to be "double- 
tongued"? 

71. Is any use of wine permissable? Explain. 

72. What is "filthy lucre"? Explain. 

73. How shall a deacon acquire the ability to "hold the mystery 
of the faith"? 

74. Are deacons to be placed "on probation"? Explain. 

75. Is provision made for female deacons? You are under no 
obligation to accept our opinion. 

76. True deacons will develop a "good standing" before men and 
God, and "great boldness in the faith". Explain how this is 
done. 

70 



I TIMOTHY 3:8-13 

BALLOT 



DEACON 
NAME 



THE QUALIFICATIONS OF A DEACON 

(Check on line where candidate qualifies) 

1, Grave. Serious about his important work, 

2 Blameless. After a careful informal examination, such 

men who are to serve as deacons should be found 
"blameless". 

3 Holding the mystery of the faith in a pure conscience. 

The deacon must not suffer from the accusations of his 
own conscience because of his inconsistencies in his daily 
conduct with "the faith" he understands and professes. 

4, . Proved. The lives of the candidates for the office should 

be carefully observed over a period of time by the 
congregation. 

5 Not double-tongued. How sorely tempted we are at times 

to say one thing to one person and something else to 
another, and on the very same subject. This must not be. 
Let the deacon consistently tell the truth at all times 
with all people. 

6., Not given to much wine. There is no provision here for 

use of wine in any form. The text simply states that a 
candidate for the office of deacon must not be a drunkard. 

7 Not greedy of filthy lucre. This goes much deeper than 

love of money. "Lucre" means base gain of any kind. Do 
not use the office for self promotion. 

8 Husband of one wife. The deacon must be a "one woman 



type man. 

9,. Ruling his children and his own house well. Ideal family 

relationships help to qualify a man for service in the 
household of the faith, 

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3:' 14-16 I TIMOTHY 

3. IMPORTANCE OF INSTRUCTIONS 14-16 

Text 3:14-16 

14 These things write I unto thee, hoping to come unto thee shortly; 

15 but if I tarry long, that thou mayest know how men ought to 
behave themselves in the house of God, which is the church of the 
living God, the pillar and ground of the truth. 16 And without 
controversy great is the mystery of godliness; He who was mani- 
fested in the flesh, Justified in the spirit, Seen of angels, Preached 
among the nations, Believed on in the World, Received up in glory. 

Thought Questions 3:14-16 

101. Why didn't Paul instruct Timothy before leaving him at 
Ephesus? 

102. What ^things" are referred to in Vs. 14? 

103. In what way is the church "the house of God"? 

104. In what sense is the church the "pillar and ground of the 
truth"? What truth? 

105. Explain the use of the term "mystery" as used by Paul. 

106. When was Christ "manifest in the flesh"? 

107. Give the meaning of the expression, "justified in the spirit." 

108. Give occasions when Christ was "seen of angels". 

109. Why mention that He was, "preached among the nations"? 

110. Is the term "world" different from "nations" as used here? 

111. Was Christ received up "into glory" or "in glory" according 
to. Vs. 16? 

Paraphrase 3:14-16 

14 These things I write thee, although I hope to come to thee 
soon, to give thee more complete instruction concerning thy 
behavior. 

15 Or if by any accident I am obligated to tarry long, I have 
written these things, that thou mayest know how thou oughtest 
to behave thyself in the house of God, which is neither the temple 
at Jerusalem, nor the temple of Diana at Ephesus, but the church 
of the living God, consisting of all believers, and which is the 
pillar and support of the truth. 

16 Thou oughtest to behave properly in the church; for con- 
fessedly most important is the doctrine of the gospel which is 
kept therein; namely, that to save sinners by his death, the Son 
of God was manifested in the flesh; was justified through the 
Spirit, who raised him from the dead; was, after his resurrection, 

72 



I TIMOTHY 3; 14-16 

seen of the apostles his messengers; was preached to the Gentiles 
as their Saviour; was believed on in many parts of the world; was 
taken up into heaven in a glorious manner. 

Comment 3:14-16 

Vs. 14, Wherever Paul was when he wrote this letter he antici- 
pated a visit to Timothy, We like to believe he had been in 
prison at Rome, then was released, and went into Macedonia 
from whence he wrote this letter. This letter seems to take on 
an official tone here. The words here written, i.e. from 1; 1-3: 16 
are to be used in the place of the personal presence of the apostle. 
Vs. 15. In my absence, be it short or long, these instructions are 
to be read and followed. The student should note that the 
American Standard Version refers to the behavior of "men", and 
King James Version to "Timothy". The absence of the pronoun 
in the original makes either one of them correct. In either case 
the meaning turns out the same. Timothy's behavior was to be 
a pattern for others. The household of God is alluded to in 3; 5, 
and is here specified, It should not be necessary to say the 
expression "house of God" has no reference to a church building. 
In the New Testament "the house of God"., consistently refers 
to the people. We are "a habitation of God in the Spirit." In 
contrast to the dumb, dead idols worshipped in Ephesus and Asia, 
this is the "called out" of the "living God." 

The difficulty in understanding the church as "the pillar and 
ground of truth" can be explained as: pillar, supporting the truth 
by defending it against its enemies; and the ground of the truth, 
in the sense of preserving it through the centuries. 
Vs. 16. Shall we connect this verse up with "the truth" of verse 
15 b, i.e. "pillar and ground of "the truth"7 If so then verse 16 
will be an enlargement of "the truth". Or, shall we associate 
this with the work of the deacons and elders? If we do this, then 
what we shall say here in Vs. 16 is the motivation for the work 
of these officers, We prefer the latter emphasis. Some have 
thought this verse to contain the words of an early Christian 
hymn. The words of the hymn by common consent were accepted 
as expressing in few words the heart of the Christian faith. Here 
is more or less "a statement of faith". The words "mystery of 
godliness" can be understood as meaning — "revealed mystery of 
living like God wants us to". We explained "mystery" in Vs, 9. 
It is used in the same sense here. 

"Manifest in the flesh": Note please, the different phases of' 
Christ's life and work emphasized in these expressions: First the 

73 



3:16 I TIMOTHY 

incarnation: "Manifested" carries the thought -.of Unveiling, 
He who existed in the form of God chose to empty himself and 
be clothed with flesh. He was both concealed and revealed. God 
was seen in human flesh. "Emmanuel"; was His name, "God 
with us". It was the flesh He chose as a medium of manifestation. 
It was in the flesh He unveiled deity. We like to, think of 
Bethlehem as associated with this expression; but We could not 
appreciate Bethlehem without a knowledge of the rest of the 
truth in this verse. 

"Justified in the Spirit": We take! the word '"spirit"' to refer to 
the inward man, and not to the Holy Spirit. As to His flesh He 
was veiled and ' unveiled. It was a humble garment that 
scarcely concealed the glorious person. As to His spirit: He made 
claims of divinity that need vindication. He was not "a liar". This 
vindication was provided by His miracles; but most of all He was 
"declared to be the Son of God with power by the resurrection 
from the dead" (Rom. 1:4). Thus alh that the inward man 
claimed was upheld or justified. 

"Seen of angels": We can not resist the desire to share with 
you the words of Simpson on this phrase: "If Sheol was strangely 
moved at the arrival thither of the once resplendent son of the 
morning, little wonder that heaven was stirred by the descent to 
our sphere in voluntary self-abnegation of the only-begotten of 
the Father. With what tremulous interest must these legions of 
His have followed the steps of His humiliation from the throne 
of awful majesty to the cross of agonizing shame! And how, as 
the infernal plot against Him thickened, must they have witnessed 
with amazement the non-intervention of Omnipotence on His 
behalf! Far more than twelve legions of angels must have waited 
breathlessly for that signal to flash across the upper skies which 
should snatch heaven's Darling from the 'power of the dog'. 
Surely the resurrection daybreak dawned on them as well as on 
the dazed disciples 'like some sweet summer morning after a 
night of pain' and the triumph of His reascension, escorted by 
their bright squadrons homeward, had been to them its meridian 
glow. But imagination must fold her fluttering wing, lest we 
incur the Colossians' rebuke (2:18) for prying into angelology! 
Enough to know that these unseen spectators from another world 
have drunk in the vision of the 'Word made flesh' and can be 
summoned to bear record to its supreme reality." (Ibid.) 

"Preached among the nations or Gentiles": If we attempt to 

74 



I TIMOTHY 3:16 

follow the life of our Lord in these expressions, we will now say 
we are discussing the results of His mission on earth, He was 
horn in Bethlehem or "manifested in the flesh", He was active 
in a miraculous, model ministry, sacrificial death, and glorious 
resurrection, thus "justified in the spirit". All through His earthly 
advent He was "seen by angels"; The answer is; So He could be 
"preached among the nations", How important then that we 
preach the gospel to all the nations, The Christians of Timothy's 
day fulfilled our Lord's purpose, We now are as provincial as 
the Jews of Paul's time, The Jews were accused of believing the 
Messiah was sent but for one people, and we deserve the same 
condemnation! We do not say it, but we do practice it! 

"B'elieved on in the world"; We take the former phrase to 
refer to the cause, and this phrase to the result. We have read 
the learned discussions of these phrases, as divided up into couplets 
and formed into interrelating arrangements; we have felt that 
such discussions were rather arbitrary in their conclusions. 

The exaltation of our Lord is surely seen in the response of men 
from every nation. 

"Received up in glory." Please note that this does not say He 
was received up "into" glory. This has reference to His home, 
not His home-coming. From the Mount of ascension Jesus 
returned to share "the glory He had with the Father before the 
world was made". 

Fact Questions 

77. Where was Paul when he wrote this letter? 

78. What indication of "an official tone" is here observed? 

79. What instructions are to be read and followed? 

80. Who is to know how to "behave himself" in the house of God? 

81. In what sense is the church "the pillar and ground of the 
truth"? 

82. How shall we relate Vs, 16 with Vs. 15? Show also its 
connection with Vs, 14, 

83. How shall we fit together the six phrases of Vs, 16; or should 
we attempt to see any order in this verse? 

84. Explain in your own words the meaning and relation of each 
of the six expressions, 

EXEGETICAL EXAMINATION OVER I TIMOTHY 
CHAPTER THREE 

1. In what way and for what reason is verse one "a faithful 

saying"? 

75 



•4:1-5 I TIMOTHY 

2. Discuss the meaning of the phrase; "husband of one ■ wife," 
with special reference to the thought of the necessity of being 
married; 

3. Discuss the three following qualifications: "temperate, sober- 
minded,, orderly". 

■4. Discuss: ^ "not contentious, no lover of money". 

5. What is "the condemnation of the devil" in vs. 6? 

6. What is "the reproach of the devil"? 

7. Discuss: "not given to much wine," and "not greedy of 
filthy lucre". 

8. What intimations of the deacons work can be seen in the 
qualifications? 

9. Discuss "let them first be proved." 

10. Are we to understand women can fill the ■office -of deacon? 

Discuss: "woihendn like manner." 
ll. : How^ would a deacon gain "great boldness in the faith"? 

12. Give the meaning of the expression: "that men may know 
how to behave themselves in the house 1 of God"? 

13. In what way is the church "the pillar and . ground of the 
truth"? 

14. Discuss: "Manifested in the flesh, justified in the spirit, seen 
of angels"; • 

15. Discuss: "Preached among the nations, believed on in the 
world, received up in glory". 

IV. FALSE TEACHERS 4:1-16 

1. THEIR COMING 1:5 

Text 4:1-5 
1 But 1 the Spirit sctith expressly, that in later times some shall fall 
away from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits and doctrines 
of demons, 2 through the hypocrisy of men that speak lies, 
branded in their own conscience as with a hot iron; 3 forbidding 
to marry, and commanding to abstain from meats, which God 
created to be received with thanksgiving by them that believe and 
know the truth. 4 For every creature of God is good, and nothing 
is to be rejected, if it be received with thanksgiving: 5 for it is 
sanctified through the word of God and prayer. 
Thought Questions 4:1-5 

112. To whom did the Spirit address the words of 4: 1 ? 

113. Define the limits of "later times". : 

114. Are we to understand that some evil forces are at work in 
a direct manner with the spirit of man? 

76 



I TIMOTHY 4:1-5 

115, How would if be possible for demons to be teachers? 

116, Satan works through men; why will some men speak lies 
in preference to the truth? 

117, Who applies the hot iron to the conscience? 

118, To what purpose do some command that a man live a life 
of celibacy? 

119, What do meats have to do with holiness? 

120, In what sense is "every creature good"? 

121, We are to reject nothing God has created but be thankful 
for all. Explain why. 

122, Just how are marriage and meats "sanctified through the 
word of God and prayer"? 

Paraphrase 4:1 S 

1 But, although the church, by preserving the mystery of godli- 
ness in the world, be the support of the truth, the Spirit expressly 
saith to me, that in after-times many in the Christian church will 
apostatize from the faith of the fundamental doctrines of the 
gospel, giving heed to teachers who falsely pretend to be inspired, 
and to doctrines concerning the power of angels and departed 
saints, and the worship due to them, whereby the worship due to 
Christ, as Governor and Mediator, will be wholly neglected, 

2 This belief of the doctrine concerning demons, and the other 
errors I am about to mention, will be propagated under the 
hypocritical pretence of humility, and superior holiness, by lying 
teachers, who are seared in their conscience, and who will invent 
innumerable falsehoods, to recommend their erroneous doctrines 
and corrupt practices to the ignorant multitude, 

3 These lying teachers will forbid the clergy, and such of both 
sexes as wish to live piously, to marry; and command the people 
to abstain from certain meats, which God hath created to be 
used with thanksgiving by the faithful, who thoroughly know the 
truth concerning that matter; 

4 That every creature of God, fit for man's food, is good, and may 
be used, being received with thanksgiving to God the giver; and 
no kind is to be cast away, either from peevishness, or from the 
fancy that it is unlawful. 

5 For, under the gospel, all meats are made lawful to us by the 
command of God, allowing us to eat of every kind in moderation; 
also by prayer to God, that he would bless us in the use of it. 

Comment 4:1-5 
Vs. 1 . The use of word "but" seems to indicate some contrast; 
this is indeed what is intended. "Great is the mystery of godli- 

77 



4:1,2 I TIMOTHY 

ness", but great also is "the mystery of lawlessness". This predic- 
tion or announcement is a very emphatic one. We believe the 
communication was to Paul by the power of the Holy Spirit; 
it is here transmitted to Timothy, and through Timothy to the 
church. "The later times" has reference to no one particular 
period but rather to the total time from Pentecost to the Second 
Coming; we say this on the basis of a study of this expression 
and the expression "the last days". During this period "some 
shall fall away from the faith"; could the "some" of this text be 
those described in Acts 20:29,30? We must conclude that the body 
of belief was so well defined that defection from it could be 
immediately known. If some were "in the faith" and then fell 
away from it, what will be their end? If apostates do not return, 
shall they yet be saved in their error? We only pose these 
questions because we feel a false emphasis has been given by some. 
Are we to understand that those who fall away from the 
truth do so because they are influenced by supernatural evil 
powers? We believe it is even so. Satan has his power, and his 
preachers, and in this sense he is a counterpart, as well , as a 
counterfeit of the true. The "seducing spirits" are from beneath, 
and are in contact with the "lying teachers". The teaching of 
such men proceeds from and through "demons". The tragedy is 
not that we have such hypocrites, for they have always been with 
us, but that multitudes will give heed to their Satan inspired 
doctrines. 

Vs. 2. The pronouncements of such evil men are always given as 
if they proceeded from God. Only by attributing their teaching to 
a divine source could they beguile the heart of the innocent and 
lead astray the very elect. These men know they are liars but they 
have conveniently and intentionally forgotten the truth. The great 
influence of Satan here described should be a warning to all. 
The condition of a man's conscience is a mark of his spiritual 
progress or failure. These teachers of lies were able to do so 
because their conscience had been and was "cauterized". Just 
how such a condition arises is not at all easy to say. We are 
sure it does not happen all at once. Such persons are "past 
feeling". Cf. Eph. 4:19. 

Vs. 3. Timothy will immediately be able to recognize such 
teachers by the context of their teaching. We must try to 
remember the historical setting of these words. Such false teachers 
were to arise in Timothy's day, and shortly thereafter, who 
would teach that God did not create matter because matter is evil. 

78 



I TIMOTHY 4:3-5 

According to such errors an evil deity created matter. The com- 
mand by such persons to abstain from meats and marriage is 
based upon the supposed evil of matter, Various applications of 
this concept have been used by Satan down through the years, 
Sin will never be overcome by treating the instrument through 
which it works, Perhaps diets of the extreme nature, so popular 
in our day, and the constant reference to the widespread 
immorality, is treating the result rather than the cause. There 
is nothing wrong with food (meats) or with marriage; the 
difficulty is in gluttony — "whose god is their belly", and "lust" 
— "who mind the things of the flesh". To those who know and 
believe this, meats and marriage are received with deepest 
gratitude. 

Vs, 4. This is an enlargement of what has already been said. 
When God finished the different phases of creation, He said of 
the objects He had created, "it is good". Since God is Himself the 
very essence of goodness, nothing He would create or make could 
be otherwise than good. Note the force of the word "rejected": 
it is no light thing to cast aside that which God has blessed. The 
definite inference in the little expression: "if it be received with 
thanksgiving", seems to be that some reject God's gift because 
they fail to see their good purpose. If we look at life through 
God's eyes we will see His loving provisions for man, and will 
thus receive them with gratitude. 

Vs. 5. The word "sanctified" simply means "set apart" but carries 
with it the connotation of being set apart for a holy purpose. 
Where and when did this happen? Please read Genesis 9:3, 4 for 
some help in this connection. God's definite statement of purpose 
in animal and plant creation as given in this passage, answers 
the question. 

How does prayer "set apart" the food we eat? To ask is to 
infer the answer. We all should pray over our food before we 
eat it, and thus thank the giver of every good and perfect gift. 
To insist as some commentators do that we must include some of 
the word of God in our prayer, i.e., to quote Bible references in 
our prayers, seems to be insisting on too much. Out of the depths 
of a grateful heart, we can thank our Father "for our daily bread". 
Fact Questions 4:1-5 

85. How shall we relate this section to the one preceding? Show 
the contrast. 

86. The paraphrase seems to relate this section almost exclusively 
to a prophecy of the sins of the Roman Catholic church. Do 

79 



4:1-5 I TIMOTHY 

you agree with the application? Explain. ■ : <w ■' 

87. Upon what do we base our conclusion that "the later times" 
refers to the special period from Pentecost to the Second 

."Coming?' '•■■■ ■■' '■'>■.:■■'■■< :■■.•■■- ■";;. s<..j 

88. Show how Acts 20:29, 30 relates to this section. 

89. What is "the faith" from which some "fall away"? 

90. If some fall away from the faith, does this mean 4hey were 
never in the faith? Explain. < 

91. Satan is at Work today. Gail Satan speak to you and me? 
If so, how? Is Satan speaking to» man today? How? ' 

92. What is the mark of a man's spiritual progress or failure? 
•■ Discuss. •..-: 

93. Explain the greatest tragedy in the evil work of Satan. 

94. Explain the immediate as well as future application of Vs. 3. 
93. What modern day application can we see in Vs. 3? ': ■■■■'."? 

96. How does the nature of God relate to the goodness of His. 
■creation? i ■■'■■ ■.- -^ V, 

97. What is the force of the word "rejected"? ,: 
98; Discuss Gen. 9:3, 4 in connection with Vs. 5. 

99. Explain how meats and marriage' are "set apart" by prayer. 

2.. THE PREACHER AND THE FALSE TEACHERS. .6-10 •. 

'- Text 4:6-10 '■ . 

6 If thou put the brethren in mind of these things, thou shqlr be 
a good minister of Christ Jesus, nourished in the words of the 
faith, and of the good doctrine which thou hast followed until now; 

7 but refuse profane and old wives' fables, And exercise thyself 
unto godliness: 8 for bodily exercise is profitable for little; but 
godliness is profitable for all things, having promise of the life 
which now is, and of that which is to come. 9 Faithful is ; the 
saying, and worthy of air acceptation. 10 For to this! end ; we 
labor and strive, because we have our hope set on the living God, 
who is the Saviour of all men, specially; of them that believe. 

Thought Questions 4:6-70 

122. What is the meaning of the expression "put the brethren in 
mind"? 

123. What "things" are meant in Vs. 6? 

124. Do you believe the term "minister" in Vs. 6 is used in an 
official sense? Explain. ' - v - 

125. How are we to understand the connection between "remind- 
ing the brethren" of certain things, and being "nourished 
in the words of the faith"? ' : 

80 



I TIMOTHY 4:6-10 

126, Was Timothy neglecting the faith and the good teaching? 
Why mention the faith and teaching? 

127, Just what is involved in "old wives' fables"? 

128, Be practical in answering this question: "How can I 
exercise myself unto godliness?" 

129, Specify the profitableness of bodily exercise, 

130, Is Paul saying: we should control our bodies; but more 
important is the control of the spirit? 

131, How would Paul's admonitions relate to those who are 
over- weight, and otherwise self-indulgent? 

132, Godliness, or the Christian way of life, offers the very best 
for the life which now is, Show how this is true economically, 
socially, politically. 

133, Is there a life "that is to come"? If so, how will godliness 
affect it? 

134, Why is it that so many of us feel that after death there is an 
existence, but not a whole life to be lived? 

135, Just what is "the faithful saying"? 

136, To what end or goal did Paul and his fellow-workers labor 
and strive? 

137, If we sometimes feel the Christian life is not worth the effort, 
what is wrong? Specify. 

138, In what sense is God the Saviour of all men? 

139, How shall we understand that in a special sense He is the 
Saviour of them that believe? 

Paraphrase 4:6-70 

6 By laying these things, concerning the lawfulness of all sorts 
of meats, and concerning the corrupt doctrines and practices 
which are to arise in the church, before the brethren in Ephesus 
under thy care, thou wilt be a faithful minister of Jesus Christ, 
nourished by the precepts of the true faith and of the sound 
doctrine, to the knowledge of which thou hast attained by my 
instructions. 

7 But the foolish stories and old wives' fables which the Judaizers 
tell to establish their false doctrines, reject, as tending to impiety; 
and employ thyself in those exercises of the understanding and 
of the affections, in which godliness consists. 

8 For the bodily mortification which the Jewish fables are framed 
to recommend, is attended with little advantage; but the exercise 
of godliness, that is, the practice of piety and morality, is profit- 
able for advancing all our interests, temporal and eternal, having 
the blessings of the present life and of that to come promised to it. 

81 



4:6-10 I TIMOTHY 

9 What I have said concerning the unprofitableness of bodily- 
exercise, and the profitableness of godliness, is true, and worthy 
of the most hearty reception. 

10 On account of this, I both endure great hardships and suffer 
reproach from Jews and Gentiles, that I trust to be made happy 
both here and hereafter, neither through bodily exercise, nor 
through the sacrifice of beasts, nor through the power of any 
idol, but by the living God, who is the preserver of all men, but 
especially of believers. 

Comment 4:6-10 

Vs. 6. We cannot help but notice Paul's evaluation of a "good 
servant" or "minister" and the image of one so popular in our 
day, Paul states in no uncertain terms, not only here but else- 
where, that a good minister is known by what he believes as well 
as what he does. The word "minister" as here used is not in the 
official sense. The same word was used of "the deacon". Timothy 
is to instruct the Christians of Ephesus, and particularly the elders 
of the various churches, in a kind but convincing manner, con- 
cerning the apostasy of the later times. If such persons are 
thoroughly indoctrinated, Timothy can consider his divine position 
and responsibility fulfilled. In carrying out this injunction of 
the apostle, Timothy will be feeding his own soul; how vastly 
important this is! It is possible to feed others and yet starve to 
death yourself. It is also very possible to have the humility 
necessary to "practice what we preach". Paul does not imagine 
that Timothy has neglected the good teaching; he rather points 
out that Timothy has been following the right diet; it is now a 
matter of getting others to do likewise. 

Vs. 7. The word "refuse" means to ignore, to avoid, to turn a 
deaf ear to such stories. We are not to imagine that "old wives" 
are the leaders in this false teaching, it is rather that some leaders 
in the churches are acting and talking like old senile women. 
Perhaps that is another reference to the "fables and endless gene- 
alogies" of 1:4. We do not equate "old wives' fables" with "the 
doctrine of demons" in 4:1. This is a separate instruction from 
what has already been given concerning apostasy. It would take a 
good deal of time and energy to follow out the details of these 
fables; and since man has just so much time and energy, let us 
not dissipate it with such foolishness, In contrast, let us give 
ourselves to developing godliness! If we are going to become like 
God, then we shall do so because we have studied and practiced 

82 



I TIMOTHY 4; 7-9 

His will as revealed in His Word. The word "exercise" suggests 
just how strenuous and energetic must be our pursuit of godliness. 
"Timothy is to knit his sinews for the race of godliness." 
Vs. 8. The use of the word "exercise" would immediately suggest 
to Timothy the gymnasium. This being true, Paul used such 
imagery to his own advantage, Go ahead with your muscle 
development, but remember its limitations; it is indeed profitable 
(and more such exercise is very much needed today), but we must 
not forget that our bodies are for God as well as our spirits. Some 
have thought the reference to bodily exercise indicates abstinence 
from meats and marriage, however, this hardly fits the use of 
the term "exercise" with its physical-culture background. It ought 
to be said that if one cannot control the passions of the body, he 
has no place instructing others in the higher control of the spirit. 
There is a remarkable connection between the fitness of the 
body and the health of the spirit, When our bodies are strong 
and healthy, how much easier is it to exercise ourselves unto 
godliness! Somehow when we are sick in body we are also sick 
in spirit. This need not be the case, but it usually is; however, 
the emphasis should not be on bodily fitness, for when it is at its 
top performance it is only an instrument of the inward man, The 
strength of the inward man is far more important. When we 
watch the diet of the inward man, when we are very careful as 
to the strength of the will, the health of the emotions and con- 
science, then life takes on a glorious aspect. We can enjoy life 
to the fullest here, for we know it's true point and purpose, while 
we eagerly anticipate the fuller and more wonderful life that is 
to come. 

Vs. 9. Just what is "the faithful saying"? We believe we have 
just discussed it. The thoughts of Vs. 10 offer a conclusion to 
what has been said, and therefore are hardly to be considered 
as a faithful saying. Such a statement as Vs. 10 would be 
incomplete without Vs. 8. All men everywhere should hear the 
message of Vs. 8. Particularly is this true of young men. We 
cannot help but think of the general care of the body, as well 
as the care of muscle. The over emphasis on the care of the 
body is such a serious mistake: it only offers a little pay, it is 
not enough to satisfy all our needs, How short and temporary 
is the return for such care. On the other hand, how full and 
complete the returns, in godly development, of the care of the 
spirit. No wonder it is a saying recommended to all men, of all 
time and place. 

83 



4:9,10 I TIMOTHY 

Vs. 10. Paul is not ashamed to say that this was the end, or 
purpose of his strenuous efforts— i.e.,; of developing the inward 
man. When the reward is commensurate with the effort, no one 
begrudges the effort. We can give ourselves completely to this 
matter: of living for Christ, because we have a living God to ■ aid 
us along the way, and to reward us at the end of the way. 

In what. sense shall we understand the little phrase: "who is 
the Saviour of all men, especially of them who believe"?. First, 
fit it into the context. Paul has just said of godliness, that it has 
"promise of the life which now is, and of that which is to come" 
—is not ' this speaking of present salvation < ,as ■ well as final 
salvation? Second, every time it appears* we should not equate 
forgiveness of sins with the word "salvation", God is the Saviour 
of all men in the sense that all men depend on Him for all they 
have in the physical world — indeed all they have in any realm of 
living ultimately comes from God. Without' God man would be, 
lost physically— mentally — morally, . This is true of , all men, 
whether they recognize it or not. But most especially is this true 
of those who believe— for they know the source of all things in : 
the life which now is, and of that which is to come. We would do 
anything necessary to obtain godliness or salvation because we 
know how much we need it, and because we know the living God 
who can and will give it. 

Fact Questions 4:6-10 

100. How can we know "a good minister of Christ Jesus"? 

101. What is the meaning of the expression "put the. brethren 
in mind" — of these things? 

102. When could Timothy feel he had fulfilled his divine respon- 
' sibility? : i 

103. In carrying out the instructions of Paul, Timothy is to be 
greatly benefited. Explain how. 

104. Why not rebuke the ones who tell "old wives' fables"? What 
was to be done? 

105. What is "the little profit of bodily exercise"? Are we wrong 
if we do not have it? 

106. Is it possible to control the "inward man" without thought to 
the "outward man"? 

107. How shall we strengthen the "inward man"? 

108. Show how Vs. 10 could not contain the "faithful saying". 

109. Why is an over concern for the body a serious mistake? 

110. Toward what did Paul labor and strive? 

111. What is it that sustains our efforts to live for God? 

84 



I TIMOTHY 4:11-13 

112. In what sense are we to understand that God is "the Saviour 
of all men"? 

3, THE TRUE SERVICE OF GOD, 11-16 
a. In Public Life 11-13 

Text 4:11-13 
11 These things command and teach. 12 Let no man despise 
thy youth; but be thou an ensample to them that believe, in word, 
in manner of life, in love, in faith, in purity. 13 Till I come, give 
heed to reading, to exhortation, to teaching. 

Thought Questions 4:11-13 

140. Show ,the difference in the instructions given in Vs. 6 
and Vs. 11, 

141. What is the distinction between "commanding", and "teach- 
ing"? 

142. Why would anyone look down on Timothy? Who would do 
it? 

143. How was Timothy to avoid being despised? 

144. Is an "ensample" the same as an "example"? Explain. 

145. Explain in your own words, just how Timothy was to be 
an "ensample". 

146. The meaning of the word "reading" of Vs. 13, is not what 
we usually associate with the word. Give the meaning of 
the word as here used. (Cf. Acts 13:15) 

Paraphrase 4:11-13 

11 These things solemnly enjoin as God's express commands, and 
teach the, believers to act suitably to them. 

12 Let no one have reason to despise thy admonitions on account 
of thy youth; but be thou a pattern to the faithful in gravity of 
speech, in propriety of behaviour, in fervency of love to God and 
man, in meekness but firmness of spirit, in soundness of faith, in 
chastity. 

13 Till I return, apply thyself to reading the scriptures to the 
people in the public assemblies. Read them likewise in private 
for thine own improvement: also apply thyself to exhorting those 
who err, and to teaching the young and ignorant. 

Comment 4:11-13 

Vs. 1 1 . In contrast to "suggesting to the brethren" in Vs. 6. 
Timothy is here told to "command and teach". What is it that 
merits such importance? Are we to understand the command 
and teaching to relate to what follows in verse 12-16, or what has 
preceded in 6-11? The subject matter of 12-16 is of such a 

85 



4:11-13 I TIMOTHY 

personal nature that we cannot imagine Timothy is receiving a 
charge concerning it. We prefer rather, to think the command has 
reference to the truth and error of , Vss, 6-11. Timothy is to 
approach the brethren in the manner of a counselor, but he is 
at the same time to remember the necessity of getting his points 
across; to do this it will be necessary to instruct and inform. 
Open the minds of the brethren concerning these false teachers; 
impress upon them the imperativeness of your message; do all 
of this by way of instruction as a teacher. 
Vs. 12. Now follows some very personal and practical instruc- 
tions for Timothy as an individual. There are two misconceptions 
to be cleared up here: First, that Timothy Was timid, this thought 
can not be demonstrated. The boldest of young men might need 
encouragement. It is just as easy to believe Timothy is being 
encouraged to continue in the right attitude and work. 

Second, that Timothy was a mere stripling. He must have 
been in his teens when Paul chose him to help on the second 
journey. More than ten years have passed. Timothy could have 
been as old as forty when this word was written. There is 
abundant evidence to show that a man in Timothy's day was con- 
sidered young until the age of forty. 

The word "despise" means "to look down upon". The way 
to avoid such an attitude from some of the older men, is 
not by way of demanding respect, but rather by earning it. If 
we do not look down on ourselves and yet maintain humility, it 
will not be long until we can convince others that they should 
adopt the same attitude; not toward us so' much as toward the 
work we are trying to do. This earned respect will be gained by 
setting up a pattern in the following five areas: 

(1) Iri word or in conversation: "Out of the abundance of the 
heart the mouth speaketh". How carefully we should choose 
our words at all times. This should be a warning against 
the "idle talk" of so many present day preachers. Such 
talk not only wastes God's time but hurts God's work by a 
poor example, 

(2) "In manner of life" or in general demeanor: it isn't what we 
do on Sunday that gives the example, it is our conduct day 
by day. We might not like to "live in a goldfish bowl"; 
if such is your attitude, choose another work. The minister 
asks, by his very position, for examination of his daily 
conduct as an example to those who believe. 

C3) "In love": Please read I Corinthians Chapter 13 each day 

86 



I TIMOTHY 4:12,13 

for thirty days. Begin to see the members of your congrega- 
tion in the applications of the expressions given in this 
chapter. Begin in a very practical way to use such expressions 
as: "hopeth all things" — "believeth all things"— "endureth 
all things" — "taketh not account of evil". God and man will 
see your good example. 

(4) "In faith" :1s it difficult to believe God for His promises? 
What boldness some men of this world have in their self- 
confidence, and yet we cannot believe God! Why can 
Khruschev say "your grandchildren will all be Communists"? 
— because he believes in the power of Communism. Where is 
the man who will say to all the peoples of the world, because 
he believes in the power of the gospel, "all your grandchildren 
will be Christians"? It can be true! Who will believe it 
and preach it? 

(5) "In purity": How difficult it is to be consistent in all areas. 
If the minister of the Word cannot convince the community 
that he is above reproach in his relations to the opposite sex, 
he has failed in a very serious realm; he had just as well 
move, for he is through as a representative of Christ Jesus, 

Vs. 13. The general concensus of opinion among commentators 
is that the public reading of the Scriptures, the public exhortation, 
and the public teaching from the preacher, is referred to here. 
The article "the" can appear before each word; so it becomes: 
the reading — the exhortation — the teaching. We are reminded of 
the order of service in the synagogues. In the synagogue, after 
reading a portion of scripture from the Old Testament, its applica- 
tion to life was pointed out; following this, the finer points 
of meaning from an exegetical viewpoint were given. It is quite 
possible, such was also the order in the congregations of Christians 
in Ephesus. Timothy was to carefully supervise each portion of 
the service in each congregation. Compare Luke 4:16 and Acts 
13:15 for examples of the services in the Jewish assemblies. 

Paul anticipated a visit to Timothy. We do not know the details 
of this visit. See our introduction for the possible time and place. 
Fact Questions 4:11-13 

113. What was it Timothy was to "command and teach"? 

114. What are the two misconceptions to be cleared up? 

115. What is "demanded respect"? 

116. What is "idle talk"? Why is it used by many? 

117. How shall we earn the respect of older men? 

118. The preacher must "live in a goldfish bowl". Explain. 

87 



4:14-16 I TIMOTHY 

119. What was the very practical suggestion as to how we can 
become an example "in love"? 

120. How does our present world conflict demonstrate both a lack 
of faith and a possession of it? 

121. In what areas must the man of God be pure? 

122. Was Timothy the reader of the scripture in the church 
service? Explain. 

123. Did Paul visit Timothy at Ephesus? Explain. 

b. To be an Example in Personal Life. 14-16 

Text 4:14-16 
14 Neglect not the gift that is in thee, which was given thee by 
prophecy, with the laying, on of the hands of the presbytery, 15 
Be diligent in these things; give thyself wholly, to them; that thy 
progress may be manifest unto all. 16 Take heed to thyself, and 
to thy teaching. Continue in these things; for in doing this thou 
shalt save both thyself and them that hear thee. 

Thought Questions 4:14-16 

147. Are We to infer from Vs. 14 that Timothy was neglectful? 
Explain. 

148. What was "the gift" given to Timothy? 

149. How could you explain the expression "which was given 
thee by prophecy"? 

150. Who were "the presbytery"? 

151. What are "the things" of Vs. 15? 

152. Why be concerned that some would see his spiritual progress? 

153. Just what is involved in the expression "take heed to thy- 
self"? 

154. If Timothy was already saved, why the admonition of Vs. 
16b? 

Paraphrase 4:14-16 

14 That thou mayest understand the scriptures, neglect not, to 
exercise the spiritual gift which is in thee, which was given thee 
by the imposition of my hands, according to a prophetic impulse, 
together with the imposition of the hands of the eldership at 
Lystra, who thereby testified their approbation of thy ordination 
as an evangelist. 

15 Make these things, the things mentioned in ver. 13, the objects 
of thy constant care: Be wholly employed in the practice of 
them, that thy proficiency in knowledge and goodness may be 
evident to all. 

16 Take heed to behave suitable to thy character as an evangelist, 

88 



I TIMOTHY 4:14-16 

and to teach true doctrine; and continue to take heed to save 
thyself, and be the instrument of saving them who hear and obey 
thy instructions. 

Comment 4:14-16 

Vs, 14. Timothy has not neglected the supernatural endowment, 
The expression "neglect not" can mean; "keep on not neglecting". 
This is a word of encouragement not of rebuke, It is interesting 
to notice that whereas Timothy had supernatural gifts, yet 
personal faith and fidelity were not at all eliminated, We believe 
"the gift" here granted "by" or "in accompaniment with the 
hands of the presbytery" could be one of two things: (1) The gift 
of the office of evangelist — given by the elders of the churches of 
Lystra and Iconium when he was ordained. Cf. Acts 16:1-3; 
13:1-3, The facts in this subject are two in number: one — the 
presbytery or elders did lay their hands on Timothy, The reason 
we offer for such imposition of hands by elders, is for a formal 
setting aside of men for a special work. Two — Timothy was an 
evangelist — Cf. II Tim. 4:5. When and where and how did he 
become such? It seems altogether reasonable to believe that at 
the time Paul called Timothy to help him, the elders of the 
churches of Lystra and Iconium concurred in his call, and set 
Timothy aside for the work and office of evangelist, by the laying 
on of their hands. 

The little expression "by prophecy" will bear explanation. One 
or more of the elders could have had the gift of prophecy and 
exercised it at the time of Timothy's ordination; he would thus 
prophesy of the very valuable work Timothy would do in the 
future. This would be a great encouragement to all. Or it could 
have been that the Holy Spirit through the gift of prophecy told 
one of the elders of the marvelous potential of this young man 
for the office of evangelist, and he was thus prompted by the 
Spirit to suggest the ordination. 

(2) The gift could have been one of the nine supernatural gifts 
of I Cor. 12:11, given to Timothy by the laying on of Paul's 
hands at the same time that the elders laid their hands upon 
Timothy. Cf. II Tim. 1:6. In this case Paul is considered one of the 
elders, This would not be strange since Peter referred to himself as 
a "fellow elder". Cf. I Peter 5:1. In this case the expression "by 
prophecy" would refer to Paul's prophetic insight regarding the 
future work of Timothy. We prefer the first explanation. We 
cannot be dogmatic as to just what "the gift" is. 
Vs. 15. There were no half-way measures with Paul, he was 



4:14-16 I TIMOTHY 

completely dedicated to the Law once, when converted he was 
just as committed to the Gospel. This same attitude of complete 
dedication he urged upon Timothy. Let us hold hack nothing in 
the service of Christ. As the song writer has expressed it "give all 
thy being's ransomed powers." 

In sustaining such an attitude there is great good to he done. 
Among those who need the Lord we serve, we set an example 
that makes it much easier to carry the message to them. The 
members of the congregation are watching, and more especi- 
ally, the elders of the flock. Your exemplary conduct will not go 
unrewarded. Respect and interest are the natural fruit of a 
faithful, zealous, growing ministry. 

Vs. 16. The little expression "take heed" is full of meaning: look 
carefully, keep a close watch. Three areas will bear such 
scrutiny: (1) Yourself — i.e. your own heart; (2) Your teaching 
— rare you teaching God's word or human opinions? (3) Your 
consistency — or constancy. If Timothy will measure up on these 
three counts, he will save not only himself but those who watch 
and hear him. What a glorious opportunity and responsibility! 

EXEGETICAL EXAMINATION OVER CHAPTER FOUR 
OF I TIMOTHY 

1 . Discuss as to origin and practice, "seducing spirits and doc- 
trines of demons". 

2. Who has a "seared conscience"? Why? What effect did such 
persons have on the Christians? 

3. Why would anyone "command others to abstain from marri- 
age and meats"? 

4. Give the two reasons for rejecting the false teachings of 
certain men. 

5. Specify some of "the old wives' fables". 

6. Explain the two-fold advantage of exercising ourselves unto 
godliness. 

7. To what end did Paul and others labor and strive? 

8. In what sense shall we understand that, "God is the Saviour 
of all men"? 

9. Explain Vs. 14. 

10. What genuine advantage is there in continuing to teach 
and live for Christ? 

V. THE CARE OF THE VARIOUS MEMBERS OF THE CHURCH 

5:1—6:2 

1. CARE OF YOUNG AND OLD. 1,2 

90 



I TIMOTHY 5:1,2 

Text 5:1,2 
1 Rebuke not an elder, but exhort him as father; the younger men 
as brethren: 2 the elder women as mothers; the younger as 
sisters, in all purity. 

Thought Questions 5:1,2 

154. Is the "elder" here an older man, or an officer in the church? 

155. Just what is the meaning of the word "rebuke"? 

156. Why not rebuke an elder if he needs it? 

157. "Rebuke" is here contrasted with "exhort"; please explain 
what is involved. 

158. Are we to look on the older man as a father of the church, 
or as our own father? 

159. Is the thought of "do not rebuke" involved in our dealing 
with the rest of the group in verses 1, 2? 

160. Wouldn't the younger men lose their respect for the evan- 
gelist if he treated them as his equal? Explain. 

161. How can we develop the capacity to look upon the older 
women as mothers? 

162. Why mention "in all purity" in reference to the younger 
women? Was Timothy tempted in the moral realm? 

Paraphrase 5:1,2 

1 When reproof is necessary, do not severly rebuke an old man; 
but beseech him, as thou wouldest beseech thy father in the like 
case; and the young men who sin, as if they were thy own 
brothers, 

2 The old women beseech, as if they were mothers to thee, and 
the young, as if they were thy sisters, observing the strictest 
chastity in speech and behaviour towards them. 

Comment 5:1,2 
Vs. 1. We move from the needs of Timothy as an individual to 
the needs of some of the members in the churches where he 
served. This advice or divine direction is given to help when 
problems arise. When an old man needs correction, how shall 
it be done? Do not go after him with "hammer and tongs". 
Because of the age and experience of such a one, the younger man 
would be tempted to lose patience with him; do not do so. Some 
grow older and wiser and some only grow older. Regardless of 
the attitude of the older man, the man of God should treat him 
with the same respect he would give his own father. The word 
"exhort" which is to replace the word "rebuke" means to bring 
comfort and encouragement. 
How shall Timothy treat the younger men who need correction 

91 



5;lj2 I TIMOTHY 

or help? In the same manner as he would treat his own brother. 
Treat the older men with respect— the younger men as equals. 
Vs. 2, It would be natural in the light of what has been said about 
men to now consider the women. Our Lord's attitude toward 
those with whom He worked must be purs: "behold, my mother 
, , .and my sisters." (Matt. 12:49). We love the older women 
as we would our mother— the younger ones as our sisters. Does 
the little phrase "m all purity" refer only to proper moral 
conduct in association With the younger women? It surely has 
this meaning, but it could refer to the unhypocritical attitude of 
the man of God in his association will all ages and sex. 

Fact Quesf/ons 5:7,2 

124; Why did Paul give Timothy the advice of 5:1,2? Was Timo- 
thy lax in his proper attitude? ■ 

125. Is Paul contradicting himself in 5:1 and 5:20, or in 5:1 and 
II Tim. 4:2? Explain. (The answer is in the meaning of 
the word "rebuke".) 

126. Why would a younger man lose patience with an older 
man, before he would with a younger man? 

127. Where can we find an example from our Lord in our attitude 
toward those with whom we work? 

128. How shall the phrase "in all purity" be applied? 

2. THE CARE OF WIDOWS 5:3-16 

Texf 5:3-76 
3 Honor widows that are widows indeed. 4 But if any widow 
hath children or grandchildren, let them learn first to show piety 
towards their own family, and to requite their parents: for this is 
acceptable in the sight of God. 5 Now she that is a widow indeed, 
and desolate/ hath her hope set on God, and continueth in suppli- 
cations and prayers night and day. 6 But she that giveth herself 
to pleasure is dead while she liveth. 7 These things also com- 
mand, that they may be without reproach. 8 But if any provideth 
not for his own, and specially his own household, he hath denied 
the faith, and is worse than an unbeliever. 9 Let none be. enrolled 
as a widow under threescore years old having been the wjfe of 
one man> 10 well reported of for good works; if she hath brought 
up children, if she hath used hospitality to strangers, if she hath 
washed the saints' feet, if she hath relieved the afflicted, if she 
hath diligently followed every good work. 11 But younger widows 
refuse: for when they have waxed wanton against Christ, they 
desire to marry; 12 having condemnation, because they have 

92 



I TIMOTHY 5:3-16 

rejected their first pledge. 13 And withal they learn also to be 
idle, going about from house to house, and not only idle, but 
tattlers also and busy-bodies, speaking things which they ought 
not. 14 I desire therefore that the younger widows marry, bear 
children, rule the household, give no occasion to the adversary 
for reviling; 15 for already some are turned aside after Satan. 
16 If any woman that believeth hath widows, let her relieve them, 
and let not the church be burdened; that it may relieve them that 
are widows indeed. 

Thought Questions 5:3-16 

163. Is not a widow always a widow until married again? What 
then is the meaning of the expression "a widow indeed"? 

164. How shall we understand the use of the word "honor" in 
5:3? 

165. Explain the meaning of the word "piety" as used in Vs. 4. 

166. Is it clear as to just who is "to show piety"? Prove your 
answer. 

167. To our parents we owe a great debt — what is it? 

168. Where has God spoken in His word concerning the responsi- 
bility of children and grandchildren toward their parents? 

169. In what sense does the true widow "have her hope set on 
God"? 

170. Is there some distinction in "supplications and prayers?"; if 
so, what? 

171. Is the time of private prayer suggested by the expression 
"night and day"? 

172. Why the sudden change in thought from Vs. 5 to Vs. 6? 

173. What has died in the pleasure loving widow? 

174. Just what is it that Timothy is "to charge" upon the 
congregation? 

175. Who is to be "without reproach"? How does this relate to 
the subject of the care of widows? 

176. Just what constitutes "providing for our relatives"? Would 
government support be included? 

177. In what sense has a person "denied the faith" when he does 
not care for his own? In what sense is he "worse than an 
unbeliever"? 

178. Widows were to be "enrolled" in something! what was it? 
Why the sixty year age limit? 

179. Does the expression "the wife of one man" include the 
necessity of marriage, or simply refer to "a one man woman", 
— i.e. no polygamist? (Will you use the same logic on I 

93 



5:3-16 I TIMOTHY 

Tim. 3:2 when referring to the elder?— the same words are 
used). 

180. Who is going to bring the report of good works as stated 
in Vs. 10a? Specify some possible "good works". 

181. Does 10b mean that every "enrolled" widow must have had 
children— or that if she did they should have been brought 
up in the right manner? 

182. These women were to be qualified long before they were 
widows — what is here said about them is said for the Whole 
church, for any Woman is a potential widow. Just what is 
involved in showing "hospitality" to strangers? 

183. Please do not avoid a discussion of "foot washing" just 
because some have abused it. Somebody washed feet' — who 
was it? When was it? Why was it? Was it a church 
ordinance? 

184. Do not forget John 13: 12-16. 

185. Can we say that hospitals, motels, and the "community 
chest" do the work of the widows today? 

1 86. Is it a sin for younger widows to marry? See Vs. 1 1 and 
Vs. 14. 

187. What is "the first pledge" of the younger widows? 

188. How would the advice in Vs. 14 solve the problems of Vs. 13? 

189. In what sense could a church become responsible for the 
actions of the younger widows described in Vs. 13? What 
is "a tattler"; a "busy-body"? 

190. In what sense are the women "to rule the house"? 

191. Paul sees a grave danger in being a widow, and a serious 
responsibility on the part of the church. How shall we ex- 
plain the danger and assume the responsibility? Cf. vs. 15. 

Paraphrase 5:3-76 

3 With respect to widows who are to be maintained by the church 
as teachers, my command is, Employ and maintain those only 
who are really widows, or desolate. 

4 But if any widow have children or grandchildren able to 
maintain her, let not the church employ her as a teacher; but let 
these relations learn first piously to take care of their own family, 
and, then to make a just return of maintenance to their aged 
parents for their care in bringing them up. For this attention to 
parents in poverty is good for society, and acceptable in the sight 
of God. Seever.8,16, 

5 Now, to shew thee who the widows are of whom I speak, she 
who is really a Widow and desolate, besides being poor and friend- 

94 



I TIMOTHY 5; 346 

less, is of a pious disposition; she trusteth in God for her support, 
and continueth in deprecations and prayers night and day. Such 
a widow will take pleasure in instructing the young. 

6 But the widow who liveth in gaiety and luxury is dead while she 
liveth in that manner, and should not be employed as a teacher 
of the young. 

7 Now, these things concerning the obligation lying on children 
to maintain their parents, charge the Ephesians to perform, that 
they may be blameless in that matter. 

8 For if any one professing Christianity maintaineth not his own 
poor relations, and especially those with whom he hath lived in 
family, he hath renounced the faith of the gospel, and is worse 
than an infidel; many of whom would be ashamed of thus viola- 
ting the obligations of nature and humanity. 

9 Let not any widow be taken into the number of teachers of the 
younger under sixty years old, having neither been an harlot, nor 
a concubine, but the wife of one husband at a time; consequently, 
hath governed her passions properly in her youth, 

10 Farther, she must be one who is borne witness to for good 
works; that she hath brought up children religiously and virtu- 
ously, that she hath formerly lodged strangers, even though 
heathens, that she hath washed the disciples' feet in their journeys, 
when they went about preaching the gospel, that she hath relieved 
the afflicted; in short that she hath diligently performed every 
charitable work. 

11 But the younger widows reject as teachers, because, when they 
cannot endure that restraint to which they have subjected them- 
selves for Christ's sake, they will marry, and, by encumbering 
themselves with a family, they will render themselves unfit for 
teaching: 

12 Subjecting themselves to condemnation, both from God and 
men, because, by marrying, they have renounced their first 
engagement to serve Christ. 

13 And at the same time also they learn to be idle, wandering 
about from house to house, on pretence of following the duties of 
their office: And not only idle, but tale-bearers also, and meddlers 
in other people's affairs, publishing the secrets of families, which 
they ought not to divulge. 

14 I command, therefore, young widows to marry, if a fit oppor- 
tunity offers, to bear children, to govern the house with prudence, 
and, by behaving in all respects properly, to give no occasion to 
the adversaries of our religion to reproach the gospel, on account 

95 



5:346 I TIMOTHY 

of the bad behaviour of those who profess it. 

15 I am anxious to have these rules observed, because already 
some widows, whom the church hath employed as teachers, by 
marrying, are turned aside from the work to follow after Satan. 

16 If any Christian man or Christian woman have poor widows 
nearly related to them, let them relieve them, if they are able, 
and let not the church be burdened with maintaining such as 
teachers, that it may relieve those who r are really desolate, by 
employing and maintaining them as ; teachers of the younger 
women. 

Comment 5:3-16 
. It does, seem because of the length of this section, we should 
offer some subdivision of the passage. The following from Edmond 
Hiebert is good: 

1 . The duty of supporting widows, V. 3-8. 

a) The command to honor genuine widows, V. 3 

b) The definitive classification of widows, V. 4-5. 
(1) The widow having children, V. 4 

■(2) The widow who is a genuine widow, V. 5 
(3) The widow living in pleasure, V. 6 

2. The instructions concerning the enrollment of widows, V. 9-15 

a) The qualifications of those enrolled, V. 9, 1 

b) The rejection of young widows, V. 1 1-13. 

(1) The command to reject the young widows, V. 11a 

(2) The reason for the rejection, V. llb-13. 

c) The apostolic directive for young widows, V. 14, 15 

3. The duty of a believing woman, V. 16 

We shall now take up a verse by verse comment, but please 
keep the outline before you so as to be able to analyze the entire 
passage. 

Vs. 3. The word "honor" carries the thought of very definite 
assistance as well as respect. The word "widow" means "bereft" 
or left alone. There are two widows who do not live up to their 
name: those who have children Or grandchildren to support 
them, and thosej who give themselves to pleasure. We cannot say 
that here in Vs. 3 alone, We have reference to regular financial 
help by the church for widows who are "widows indeed". . 
Vs. 4. A "widow indeed" is one who does not have help from 
children. In fulfillment of the fifth of the ten commandments, 
children are to care for their parents. Our religion is little more 
than a pretense if it does, not enter our family relationship, Paiul 
does not mention whether we consider our mother or grand- 

96 



I TIMOTHY 5; 5-7 

mother worthy of support, he states that God considers her 
worthy; for the Christian this should settle the matter, Care for 
parents in their declining years is but small payment for the 
many years they cared for us, We were helped in every way 
by them when we could not help ourselves, Can we not return 
in kind such care? It is good to know that God sees and appreci- 
ates our efforts if no one else does, 

Vs. 5. In sharp contrast, two kinds of women are described in 
V. 5, 6, Three qualities are given concerning the first: (1) 
"desolate" or utterly alone, Our hearts should go out to aged 
women who are too old to work, and have no children or grand- 
children to help them, (2) "hath her hope set on God". If 
widows of Paul^ day and time could hope in God, who are we 
to lack in faith today? We think of the widow of Zarephath (I 
Kings 17:8-12) who said, "as Jehovah liveth" she and her son 
were going to starve to death. The hope of such widows is not 
for food but for heaven. If God does not supply physical susten- 
ance then He will provide something far better. We are not 
suggesting God does not provide food, for He does, but such 
hope is not some type of divine social security benefit. (3) She 
lays before God all of her specific needs (supplications) and does 
not forget the needs of others (prayers) ; this she does in the hours 
cf the night, as well as when cares and concern come during 
the day. 

Vs. 6. In the luxurious city of Ephesus there would be tempta- 
tions to "give oneself to pleasure"; what would seem to be "life" 
was in fact "death". "To live after the flesh is to die" Rom. 8:13. 
Sin of any kind is a disappointment. Such disappointment is 
especially keen as it relates to the sins of the flesh. God is dis- 
appointed because we have abused a high and holy relationship, 
not only between a loving heavenly Father and his disobedient 
child, but between children. Christ is disappointed because we 
have rejected His Lordship, the one thing above all else He 
deserves in our lives. The Holy Spirit is grieved and quenched 
in His holy work. Others who trusted us are sad and confused by 
our actions. Little ones might be caused to stumble and be lost. 
We are disappointed because we did not find what we expected — 
because we failed to read all the price tag. All of this spells spirit- 
ual death, the cost of lustful living. The "gay young widow" is 
anything but "gay" when she awakens to the reality we have 
just described. 
Vs. 7. The world is watching the Christian. When we fail to 

97 



5:8,9 I TIMOTHY 

care for our own, we are bringing reproach upon the name and 
cause of Christ. Timothy was to recognize the seriousness of such 
a condition. To avert it he was to give careful instruction, with 
the note of divine authority behind it, to all those described in Vs. 
1-6: Let the older and younger men and women, all types and 
ages of widows, chidren and grandchildren take heed to such 
instruction. 

Vs. 8. This verse is almost a conclusion to the one preceding it. 
If we do not care for our own, it will . be because the command 
and lesson have not been heeded. The terrible seriousness of 
failure is emphasized; "denied the faith". The principle involved 
is so basic, that to fail in this is to fail. in all. Please note that the 
body of Truth was so well defined at the time as to be called 
"The Faith". If we will not support our own family, we are 
failing where some of the world succeeds; thus we are worse 
than an unbeliever. No Christian man or woman is exempt 
from this responsibility; such care is for every mother or grand- 
mother who might be in need. Just how such care is to be given 
is not specified; there is a need to be met, and meet it we must 
or give up our pretense of being a Christian. 
Vs. 9. The church at Ephesus was well acquainted with the mean- 
ing and use of the term "enrollment", but we are not. We know 
the verb means to be "elected" and thus "to be enrolled" or "enter- 
ed on a list." Did the congregation vote on certain widows as to 
whether they would be supported by the church or not? We 
believe the enrollment here does refer to the support of certain 
widows by the church. Just how such support was carried out 
is a matter of opinion. The two qualifications in this verse refer 
at the same time to age and moral conduct. As to why a widow 
must be older than sixty years of age, please read Paul's comment 
concerning the desires and actions of certain younger widows, who 
ii enrolled would feel obligated to the church, but who would 
be not at all satisfied when the opportunity for marriage presented 
itself. Let none appear on the list for support who is not a "one 
man woman". The obvious meaning is that the widow should 
not have been the wife of more than one man. It would be 
ridiculous to say the necessity of marriage is included here, for 
such is not the point of the expression "the wife of one man". 
But, what of the insistence of some in forcing the necessity of 
marriage into the expression "the husband of one wife" (3:2)? 
It seems to the writer the same thought is discussed in both 
passages, i.e. an attitude of heart, both the prospective enrolled 

98 



I TIMOTHY 5:10,11 

widow and the prospective elder must be joined to but one 
partner in heart and life. 

Vs. 10. Certain questions must be answered in the mind of the 
congregation before they can offer the use of the church treasury 
to a widow. Look at the list: (1) Is she past sixty years old? 
(2) Is she a "one man woman"? (3) Who knows of the good 
works performed by her? What are these good works? (4) Has 
she been able to rear children who are a credit to the community 
and the church? (5) How has she treated strangers in need of 
hospitality? (6) What of the care of the saints?; has she washed 
their feet? (7) How did she care for the sick? (8) Has she 
been an energetic worker for good? 

We do not believe a formal interrogation took place, these are 
but qualities one would expect to find in any faithful sister, 
We are not suggesting you would find them today, for you would 
examine many before one would appear who exemplified such 
virtues. As to the subject of "foot washing" we like very much 
the words of Lenski: 

"Closely allied are the next two questions: 'whether she washed 

saints' feet, whether she relieved afflicted ones.' We think of 

John 13:15 and Luke 7:44. Travelers and guests who were 

received into the house had their sandals untied and their feet 

laved. This was the task of lowly servants, and when guests 

were to be honored, the host attended to it. But the matter of 

hospitality has already been named, and this new question 

cannot refer to one feature of that hospitality, to its cordiality 

as some think. Nor would the housewife of the Orient wash a 

guest's feet unless it be a woman guest's. The expression is 

figurative for rendering menial service, being not too proud 

to stoop. So also these 'saints' are not house guests but fellow 

Christians in the congregation who need lowly service and 

assistance. Thus hospitality in the woman's own home, and 

then helpful lowly service in the homes of destitute fellow 

Christians are referred to." (pp. 669, 670) 

Vs. 11. In what sense shall we understand the word "refuse" as 

here used? It must have reference to enrollment of widows for 

support. There is both a general principle and specific instance 

to consider in this case. The general rule is: "do not enroll 

for full support, widows under sixty years of age." The specific 

instance is in reference to some younger widows: whereas they 

once were bereft of support and gladly received enrollment for 

support by the church, they now have found a prospective husband, 

99 



5^ 1 1-14 I TIMOTHY 

and that among ■unbelievers; The problem is that the widow has 
pledged herself to work for Christ and remain a widow, nOW 
she is sorely tempted to do neither one. Her desire for a husband 
is natural, but when it is set over against a promise to the church 
(and Christ) that she will remain 'a widow, almost inevitably 
the result will be that she will "exercise youthful vigor against 
Christ". All younger widows - : would- not 'Conduct themselves -in 
such a manner, '• but the temptation would" 1 be present for all. 
Remove the circumstances by ignoring applications from younger 
widows for enrollment. ■'""'< • 

Vs. 1 2i. The question as to "what is the pledge" has been cleared 
up, if we accept the interpretation we have just given of Vss. 10, 
11-. The' "condemnation" is the judgment of the Lord against those 
who made the promise' to the church; and Christ that was not kept. 
It is more important than a breach of -contract for material sup- 
port. Because of the moral issue involved, she has rejected her 
pledge of love to Christ her Lord and Saviour. She is now aboutto 
pledge herself to a pagan husband, in doing so she rejects Christ. 
Vs. 13. We are now introduced -tO'the- circumstances out of 
which -this' problem grew; //younger; widows are enrolled to 
serve the church; in visitation work,: some of them will be tempted 
to become the idle tattlers and busy-bodies here -described. Refuse 
to enroll 'them and=you will not have the reproach against ithe 
church. ■'■'■'It : is not that some women' (even church' members) 
will not fall into such sins as here described— but at least they 
Will not be to the mind of the' unbeliever, official representatives 
of 'the* body of" Christ. ■•■ <,-..:/y .., ':■:■,/'■ • 

■-■ The "house to house" phrase could be understood in connection 
with the work given-such widows'. ■ Idleness would develop -because 
many would have more time and energy than work. 
Vsj- 14. Here are the positive instructions for younger widows: 
please note how perfectly the directions meet the need. What is 
the need?: to care> for the younger women who,: because of time 
and energy, to say nothing of more freedom, are tempted to "give 
themselves to pleasure''. What is the < answer to such a problem? 
"Let them marry,- bear children, rule their household"; all time 
and energy will be taken up iri-the high. and holy task of wife 
and motherhood. Such instructions are given to^Ghristian women ; 
nb more idle visiting, no more tale bearing; no more meddling 
in other matters, when we give ourselves to our home and family, 
Paul is' ■ vitally concerned for' ; the good name of the church in 
Ephesusy and in all places. To carry out-<the above instructions, 

1G0 



• I TIMOTHY 5:14-16 

is to stop the mouths of those who would criticize the Lord's 
work because of certain feminine conduct. We do not understand 
"the adversary" in V. 14 to refer to the devil, but rather to be 
used generically in reference to anyone who might oppose Christ's 
work. 

Vs. 15. Paul's advice is urgent! Some have already fallen — some 
have already left the path, There is no hesitancy in saying that 
such are following Satan. Timothy is to urgently instruct the 
elders that they might instruct the church, or he is to instruct 
directly the assembly. Paul speaks out of sad experience ,to offer 
a safeguard for those who are being tempted to turn aside. 

Vs. 16. There yet remains a circumstance in which some widows 
might find themselves. What of widows who live in the homes 
of wealthy church members? Perhaps their husbands, who had 
formerly been employed by this family, died. For whatever cause, 
some widows find themselves in the home of well-to-do Christians. 
Perhaps the widows are employed in such homes. Paul is very 
plain in his word to such circumstance. Let the "women", or 
"believer" — for so the word indicates, support such widows, that 
the Church might assist those who are truly "bereft" or widows. 
We have suggested a situation by which to explain the little 
phrase "hath widows", we are sure there are other ways of 
explaining it, e.g. "If any woman believer had widowed relatives 
who were in need, she should care for them , . ." (Russell 
Bradley Jones). 

Fact Questions 5:3-16 

129. How shall we understand the word "honor" as used in Verse 
3? 

130. How is the word "widow" used in verse 3? , 

131. What if our parents are not worthy of support; should we 
follow Paul's instructions in verse 4? 

1 32. Give the three qualities of a "widow indeed". 

133. Give an example of a widow who had her hope set on "the 
living God", and yet planned on starving to death. 

134. Explain "prayers and supplications". 

135. Show how sin is a disappointment. 

136. Why the urgency as in verse 7? 

137. Show just how we deny "the faith" by failing to care for 
our own. 

138. Explain the use of the term "enrollment" as in verse 9. 

101 



5:17-23 I TIMOTHY 

139. What is the meaning of the expression "the wife of one 
man", or "the husband of one wife". (Cf. 3:2) . ■■•' 

140. Give from memory four of the eight questions related to the 
qualifications of the enrolled widows.* 

141. Explain "foot washing" as related to the qualified widow. 

142. In what sense shall we understand the word "refuse" as in 
t verse 11? 

143. What is "their first pledge"? 

144. Why did some women become "idle tattlers and busy 
'."bodies"- Who is at fault? 

145. Show how Paul's instructions in verse 14 meet the need 
described in verses 11-13. 

146. Who is "the adversary" of verse 14? 

147; Show how Paul was speaking out of sad experience, as in 
verse 15. ■ Just how did Satan enter the picture? 

148.- Who is "the woman that believeth (who) hath widows" in 
verse 16? 

3. CARE OF ELDERS. 17-25 

Text 5:17-25 

17 Let the elders that rule well be counted worthy of double honor, 
especially those who labor in the word and in teaching. 18 For 
the scripture saith, Thou shalt not muzzle the ox when he treadeth 
out the corn. And, the laborer is worthy of his hire. 19 Against 
an elder receive not an accusation, except at the mouth of two or 
three witnesses. 20 Them that sin reprove in the sight of all, 
that the rest also may be in fear. 21 I charge thee in the sight 
of God, and Christ Jesus, and the elect angels, that thou observe 
these things without prejudice, doing nothing by partiality. 22 
Lay hands hastily on no man, neither be partaker of other men's 
sins: keep thyself pure. 23 Be no longer a drinker of water, but 
use a little wine for thy stomach's sake and thine often infirmities. 
24 Some men's sins are evident, going before unto judgment; and 
some men also they follow after. 25 In like manner there are 
good works that are evident; and such as are otherwise cannot be 
hid. 

Thought Questions 5:17-25 

193. Are we to assume from vs. 17 that there are some elders who 
"rule" or that there are some elders "who do not rule well"? 

194. Can we infer from these verses that some elders ruled and 

102 



I TIMOTHY 5:17-25 

some taught, and that such were separate responsibilities? 
Explain, 

195. What is the "double honor"? You are called upon to think 
and advance an opinion, 

196. Who is "the ox" in the figure of speech as given from Deut, 
25:4? 

197. Who said: "the laborer is worthy of his hire" (Cf, Luke 
10:7) Paul says "the Scripture saith" — are we to infer that 
the Gospel of Luke is here called "Scripture", and placed on 
an equal level with the 0, T. reference from Deut,?; of 
what importance is it if this is true? 

198. Who is "the elder" of vs, 19? Is this in reference to an officer 
in the church or just an older man? Explain. 

199. Is the mention of "two or three witnesses" hinting at a 
formal meeting in which accusations are made and supported? 

200. In what manner are we to understand the word "sin" as in 
vs. 20? Just how is this to be done? Is it to be a part of 
our responsibility today? Who are "the rest" of vs. 20? 

201. Why the strong exhortation of vs. 21? Please explain the 
context. 

202. Why would Timothy be tempted to be partial or prejudiced? 
Please be practical, 

203. Are we introduced to an ordination service in vs. 22? How 
connect laying on of hands with "other men's sins"? 

204. What type of purity is suggested in vs. 22? How is this 
related to the context? 

205. No one seems to know how vs. 23 relates to what is said in 
vs. 22 or vs. 24; do you? Attempt it, 

206. Is Paul recommending moderate drinking of wine? If not, 
what is the suggestion? 

207. Why didn't Paul recommend prayer and faith for Timothy's 
infirmities? 

208. Is Paul telling Timothy to allow for a lapse of time before 
the selection of candidates for the eldership? Read vs. 24, 25 
with this thought in mind: time will reveal character and 
thus indicate the disqualified and the qualified. Are we fair 
with the text to infer such? 

209. What is the most important point of emphasis in this section 
as it relates to our present need for elders? 

103 



5:17-25 I TIMOTHY 

Paraphrase 5:77-25 

11 Let the elders who preside prudently in your religious meet- 
ings be, counted worthy of double honour; let them have a liberal 
maintenance from the funds of the church; especially those who, 
besides presiding, labour in preaching and. teaching. 

18 The duty of the faithful to maintain widows and elders, is 
enjoined both in the law and in the gospel. For the law saith 
to the Jews, Thou shall not muzzle the ox while treading out 
the corn, but allow him to eat of that which he treadeth as a 
recompense for his labour; and in the gospel Christ enjoins the 
same duty, for this reason, that the labourer is worthy of his hire. 

19 Against an elder, whether he be a bishop, a president, or a 
deacon, receive not an accusation, unless it. is offered to be proved 
by two or three creditable witnesses. 

20 Those who, by the testimony of credible witnesses, are found 
in sin, rebuke before the whole church, that other elders also may 
be afraid to commit the like offences. 

21 I charge thee, in the presence of God, and of the Lord Jesus 
Christ, and of the chief angels, that thou observe these rules 
concerning the admonition of the old and the young, and the 
maintaining of widows and elders, and the censuring of sinners, 
without being prejudiced against any person; and doing nothing 
from favour. 

22 Appoint no one to any sacred office hastily, without inquiring 
into his character and qualifications: Neither, by conferring 
these offices on unworthy persons, partake of other men's sins. 
In the whole of thy conduct, keep thyself blameless. 

23 Thy health being of great importance to the church, no longer 
drink pure water, but mix a little wine with it, on account of the 
disorder of thy stomach, and thy many other bodily infirmities. 

24 In judging of those who desire sacred offices, consider, that of 
some men the sins are very manifest, leading before inquiry to 
condemnation. Such reject. But in others especially ^ their sins 
are so concealed that the knowledge of them follows after inquiry. 
For which reason no one ought to be appointed to sacred offices 
hastily. 

25 In like manner also, the good works and good qualities of 
some men are very manifest: Such may be admitted to sacred 
offices without any particular inquiry, And those which are not 
manifest cannot be long hidden, if an accurate inquiry be made. 

104 



I TIMOTHY 5:1749 

Comment 5:17-25 

Vs. 17. The "honor" due widows was discussed in the last section, 
we have here a discussion of the "honor" due elders, All elders 
are to be held in high regard, but some are to be given "double 
honor". Just what is this "double honor"? We have read many 
and varied comments upon possible meanings: (1) Double pay 
(2) Honor plus salary (3) Twice the pay of the sixty year old 
widows (4) Twice the pay of the deacons (5) Honor as an 
older man and honor as an elder (6) Honor as a brother and 
honor as an elder (7) Special regard because of position and 
work — which would include remuneration. This last view seems 
most tenable. Those elders who do an outstanding job should 
receive special recognition from the congregation, both by word 
and by pay, or financial help. The particular men to receive 
such distinction are specified: ", , , those who wear themselves 
out teaching and preaching the Word". (We would look for a 
long while before we found such a one today). This does not 
mean that only some elders were to teach and others were not 
to teach, for their qualifications indicated all were to be able to 
teach, (3:2). Those who thus serve with special distinction, should 
be recognized by and before the congregation. 

Vs. 18. This verse is an explanation of the preceding one. The 
word "for" would indicate its connective quality. The scriptures 
teach us of the responsibility of honoring such men; we are 
taught such from both the old and the new covenant — i.e., Deut. 
25:4 and Luke 10:7. Such seems to be the thought of Paul's 
purpose. What did the ox receive for his work?; a part of the 
grain he helped to thresh; this was lawful and right. What does 
a laborer receive from his work?: pay. What then should a 
faithful man of God receive from his efforts? Can we pay the ox 
and the workman but not the man of God? It is important as 
well as imperative that elders be recognized in this light, both as 
to their work and their honor. 

Vs. 19. Elders should be safeguarded from malicious gossip. Any 
overseer worthy of the name, will receive criticism in his work for 
Christ. Such criticism will come to the ears of the evangelist; 
what shall he do when he hears it? The Old Testament required 
two or three witnesses in the establishment of an accusation, Cf. 
Deut. 19:15; and so did our Lord, Cf. Mt. 18:16; and so did Paul 
elsewhere, Cf. II Cor. 13:1. Men or women who will not sign 

105 



5:19-21 I TIMOTHY 

their name to an accusation should be rebuked for making it. 
We are not told just where and when and how such accusations 
are to be made. Are we to think of a public meeting in which 
accusers and accused face each other? or are we to understand 
this as only an informal, personal matter? This is best left up 
to the grace and wisdom of those involved. 

Vs. 20. When an accusation is established against an elder or 
elders, something must be done. The guilty elder or elders are to 
be "rebuked" in the sight of all". Where and when is this to take 
place? The answer depends upon who is involved in the word 
"all"— Are we to understand this to mean the rest of the elders, 
or the congregation? We prefer the latter inasmuch as the con- 
gregation selected the elders, the elders oversee the local congrega- 
tion, and to them they are responsible. It only seems logical that 
where certain elders have proved themselves unworthy, all the 
congregation should know about it. This rebuke "in the sight of 
all" presupposes that the attempts of restoration described by our 
Lord have been made without success. Such a rebuke or discipline 
is the last effort to save such men and warn the church. There 
should be an effect for good on the rest of the eldership as well 
as the community. The "rest durst not join themselves to them: 
howbeit the people magnified them." So said Luke of the results 
of the discipline of the church in Jerusalem, (Cf. Acts 5:13). 
A holy respect for the purity of life required by God for the 
officers of His church, should be the response of those who are 
participators and spectators in this experience, 

Vs. 21. The exalted and strong words of Paul in this verse come 
as somewhat of a surprise. Why would it be necessary to say 
what he did? and how does it fit the context? Perhaps a vision 
of all the dear ones in the church at Ephesus, as well as those of 
the seven churches of Asia, came up before the eyes of his heart, 
as he thought of how vastly important good leadership is, and so he 
was prompted to say what he did. Could it be that he felt the 
limitation of paper and ink to communicate the depth of 
feelings he had about the matter of faithful shepherds, and injected 
this strong expression to impress upon Timothy his deep and 
true concern? We much prefer these thoughts to the opinion 
that Timothy was weak and variable in his attitude and work. 
If he was, why did Paul call him to the work? There were many 
others to whom he could have given the task. 

106 



I TIMOTHY 5; 21 -23 

It is more than a sobering thought that God, Christ and elect 
angels are all watching our actions and reading our thoughts. 
Remember, the all-seeing and all-knowing God is a witness to 
your work among men. If we are prejudiced or partial, we shall 
finally give an account for it, How easy it is to allow friendship 
and personality to turn our heads and hearts. Prejudice is 
.preference by pre-judgment; partiality is choice because of per- 
sonal advantage. 

Vs. 22. Continuing the thought broken by the charge of vs. 21, 
Paul speaks of the ordination of elders. The laying on of hands 
for setting men into office was a common practice in the early 
church: Cf. Acts 13:1-3; II Tim, 1-6; I Tim. 4:14; Acts 6:1-6. 
Titus 1 : 5 would be a companion reference as to the responsibility 
of the evangelist in this work, We are not to understand that 
the total service is up to the evangelist; the selection according to 
Acts 6:3 was the responsibility of the congregation. Acts 14:23 
supports this thought: the word "appointed" means "to elect 
with an outstretched hand". The only detailed method of selection 
is the reference in Acts 6:1-6. The qualifications for the office 
are made known by the evangelist. The congregation looks out 
men qualified for the office, and decides such by vote. After they 
have been selected they are set into the office by the laying on of 
the hands of the evangelist; (or the elders and evangelist). Paul's 
warning that this should not be done in haste is very, very 
important. To ordain in haste is to be "a partaker in other men's 
sins." Is it a sin to have a man in office who is, not qualified for 
the work? So it would seem from this verse. To be over-influenced 
by personal considerations, and for such reasons to lay hands on 
a candidate in the sacred service of ordination, is indeed a sin of 
giant magnitude. 

"Keep thyself pure" must be an emphasis of what has just been 
said: keep your motives clean and holy in your part of appointing 
elders. 

Vs. 23. Commentators have been at an almost complete loss to 
show the connection of this verse to the context. The directions 
for the honoring, correcting and selecting of elders surely has little 
to do with Paul's advice to "take a little wine for your stomach's 
sake and thine often infirmities." Simpson suggests: "It may be 
that having exhorted Timothy to 'keep himself pure' Paul's mind 
reverts to the consecration of the Nazirite in Numbers 6 where 

107 



5:23-25 I TIMOTHY 

both words for 'pure' occur (in the LXX), with its solemn 
abjuration of wine. Now Timothy, conversant from childhood 
with the Old Testament Scriptures, may have regarded this vow 
of abstinence as a precedent binding on himself; and so it may 
have been meant to remind him that wine was one of the Lord's 
good gifts to man, at least medicinally beneficial, and that he lay 
under no embargo to taboo.it." (Ibid. p. 80). Lenski' suggests that 
Paul was aware of the close relationship between the body and the 
mind, and wanted Timothy in the best physical condition possible 
so as to be able to make the wisest choices in the spiritual realm'. 
Either of these positions seems as : fair an explanation as we might 
advance. As to' the use of the expression "a little wine" as an 
excuse- for moderate drinking, we have nothing but contempt! 
The passage speaks of the use of wine for medicinal purposes and 
this is all it says about the use of wine. A complete study of the 
subject- of. "wine" as used in the Bible will be found in the 
Special Study section of this book. 

Vs. 24. Once again we are back to the, general subject of this 
section — the eldership, Do not be in a hurry to set men into 
this holy responsibility. If you but wait you will', be able to 
observe their conduct and know if they are fit material for the 
work. In some of their lives sin will be most obvious. Such men 
are, as it were, led by their sins on to the judgment. It is not 
so with some others— you must wait awhile— but, by and by 
their general demeanor gives them away, and they follow where 
their evil desires lead them. None of this could be known if 
hasty judgment was made upon first impressions. This we believe 
is the meaning of verse 24. 

Vs. 25; The opposite is also true—for which we are thankful. 
The good works of some men are known by all. We should 
always be grateful that society as a rule has a- sense of right and 
wrong, (whether the majority practice it or not), and good is 
recognized by all men for what it is. No man can continue in 
"good works" for a period of time without being identified as 
the source of such. The general admonition of Vs. 24, 25 is -to 
"wait awhile" before appointment of elders-^in this period of 
proving, the character of merf will be made known. 

Fact Qyesffons 5; 7 7-25 

149. What is "the double honor" due some elders? Please remem- 
ber you are under no obligation to accept our opinion. 

108 



I TIMOTHY 6:1,2 

150, Should some elders be paid for their work? Explain, 

151, When an elder is accused of sin, what is the procedure? 

152, Before whom should sinning elders be rebuked? Explain, 

153, What should be the good effect of such a rebuke? Explain. 
Why is it often the reverse? 

154, Explain the place and purpose of vs, 21. 

155, Explain the total ordination process. 

156, Why is it so important that we do not ordain in haste? 

157, How are we to understand the little phrase "keep thyself 
pure"? 

158, Attempt to show the connection of vs, 23 with the context, 

159, Is there a thought here for the moderate use of wine? 

160, How could sins go before unto judgment? 

161, Who is doing the "following" in vs. 24? 

162, In verse 25 what "cannot be hid", and why? 

EXEGETICAL EXAMINATION OVER CHAPTER FIVE 
OF I TIMOTHY 

1. Why would Timothy be tempted to "rebuke an elder"? 
Explain the proper treatment of the older man, 

2. Explain the proper treatment of younger women, 

3. Discuss two classes of widows that cannot be enrolled by the 
church. 

4. Give your exegesis of vs. 5. 

5. Why would a Christian be worse than an unbeliever if he 
did not care for "his own"? Explain. 

6. Discuss briefly the five qualifications of the enrolled widow. 

7. Explain; "washed the saints' feet". 

8. What is "the first pledge" of the younger widows? 

9. Discuss "the double honor" of certain elders. 
10. Give your exegesis of vs. 23. 

4, CARE OF SLAVES 6:1,2 

Texf 6:1,2 
1 Let as many as are servants under the yoke count their own 
masters worthy of all honor, that the name of God and the doctrine 
be not blasphemed. 2 And they that have believing masters, let 
them not despise them, because they are brethren; but let them 
serve them the rather, because they that partake of the benefit are 
believing and beloved. These things teach and exhort. 

109 



6:1,2 I TIMOTHY 

Thought Questions 6:1,2 

210. Did Paul believe in slavery? If not, why not condemn it? 

211. What is "the' yoke" of vs. 1? Please attempt an explanation. 

212. How could the Christian slave count some masters worthy 
of honor when they were "despots"? 

213. Is Paul suggesting that slaves even take abuse from some 
masters? If so, why? If not, explain. 

214. Why would a Christian slave be tempted to despise a 
Christian master? What will prevent it? 

215. What is "the benefit" of vs. 2? We urge you to advance an 
opinion. 

216. Would the principles here taught, ultimately abolish slavery? 
If so, explain how. 

Paraphrase 6:1,2 

1 Let whatever Christian slaves are under the yoke of unbelievers, 
pay their own masters all respect and obedience, that the character 
of God whom we worship may not be calumniated, and the doc- 
trine of the gospel may not be evil spoken of, as tending to destroy 
the political rights of mankind. See Eph. vi. 5. 

2 And those Christian slaves who have, believing masters, let 
them not despise them, fancying that they are their equals, 
because they are their brethren in Christ; for though all Christians 
are equal as to religious privileges, slaves are inferior to their 
masters in station. Wherefore, let them serve their masters more 
diligently, because they who enjoy the benefit of their service 
are believers and beloved of God, These things teach, and exhort 
the brethren to practice them. 

Comment 6:1,2 

Vs. 1. We come now to the final section of the care of the 
members of the church; this would not be complete without in- 
struction for the vast slave population in the churches. Note 
that the word "honor" runs throughout: 5:3, 5:17, 6:1. Show 
"all honor" — a high respect — for your master. Paul uses a word 
for "masters" from which we have "despot". Is this a veiled 
thrust at the principle of slavery? 

The Christian slave is to have a genuine desire to please his 
master at whatever cost to himself; The name and teaching of 
God are far more important than the comfort of the slave. "Under 
the yoke" is simply another way of .emphasizing the slave's 
position. If the Christian bond-servant can maintain an attitude 

110 



I TIMOTHY 6; 1,2 

of good-will at all times, however trying the circumstances, he 
will have a strong influence on his master, If Jehovah God and 
the gospel do not alter the conduct of slaves for good, then the 
master will be tempted to speak out against it. If the master can 
not read the power of the gospel in the life of his Christian slaves, 
he will have no interest in reading it elsewhere. 
Vs. 2. But what of those who have Christian masters? Surely 
there would be no problem here — but there is — the human heart 
is indeed "deceitful above all things and desperately wicked". 
The temptation would be for the Christian slave to take advantage 
of his relationship to his master, as not only his master, but his 
brother. Paul suggests that if the Christian slave was faithful to 
an unbeliever, how much more would he be to a believer; this 
was a fine expression of wisdom, "They that partake of the 
benefit" is not a very clear expression. Who is to partake? and 
what is "the benefit"? It would seem Paul means to say that 
the believing masters would share in the benefit of the good 
work of believing slaves, The slave should serve exceptionally 
well because he loves his master as a Christian brother and wants 
his brother to prosper as well as himself. The Christian slave is 
happy to see the success in his master's business as a result of 
his own good work, because he loves his master as Christ has 
loved him, Paul suggests that such matters as appear in 5:17-6:2 
need to be constantly taught and urged. 

Fact Questions 6:7,2 

163. What is Paul's veiled thrust at the principles of slavery? 

164. The Christian slave is to please his master at whatever 
cost, Why? 

165. Is Paul asking the impossible in some cases? Discuss. 

166. Why would there be any problem between Christian slave 
and Christian master? What is it? 

167. How solve the problem? 

168. What is "the benefit" of vs. 2? 

VI. THE MINISTER HIMSELF. 6:3-21 a 

1. MOTIVES 3-10 

Text 6:3-10 
3 If any man teacheth a different doctrine, and consenteth not to 
sound words, even the words of our Lord Jesus Christ, and to the 
doctrine which is according to godliness; 4 he is puffed up, 
knowing nothing, but doting about questionings and disputes of 

111 



6:3-10 I TIMOTHY 

words, whereof eometh envy, strife, railings, evil surmisings, 5 
wrctnglings of men corrupted in mind and bereft of the truth, 
supposing that godliness is a way of gain. 6 But godliness with 
contentment is great gain: 7 for we brought nothing into the 
world, for neither can we carry anything out; 8 but having food 
and covering we shall be therewith content. 9 But they that are 
minded to be rich fall into a temptation and a snare and many 
foolish and hurtful lusts, such as drown men in destruction and 
perdition. 10 For the love of money is a root of all kinds of evil: 
which some reaching after have been led astray from the faith, 
and have pierced themselves through with many sorrows. 

Thought Questions 6:3-10 

217. A preacher should "guard his heart with all diligence", that 
his motives for service be pure — if he deviates from the 
plain teaching of the Scripture can we say it is because of 
pride? Read Vs. 3, 4 carefully. 

218. Are we to understand from vs. 3 that Paul is speaking of 
the actual words of Jesus as recorded in the four gospels, or 
does he refer to something else? 

219. What is the meaning of the expression "the doctrine . . . 
according to godliness". Does this mean the doctrine leads 
to godliness, or proceeds from godliness? 

220. Does Paul mean to say that everyone who teaches false 
doctrine does so because of pride? Cf . vs. 4. 

221. How did such a one become sick? In what sense does he 
"know nothing"? . 

222. Why would we naturally expect evil results from false 
teachings? Cf. vs. 4b. 

223. Paul says some men are "corrupted in mind". Explain. 

224. How would anyone imagine that godliness was a way of 
gain? 

225. Can we have godliness without contentment? Can we have 
contentment without godliness? Explain. 

226. To believe vs. 7, 8 will produce contentment with our 
godliness. Explain why. 

227. Do you know of anyone who is completely satisfied with 
only food and covering? 

228. Please notice who is discussed in vs. 9. Does this apply to 
the present day preacher? There are many more who want 
to be rich than those who are troubled with actual riches. 
Which is the worst? 

112 



I TIMOTHY 6:3-8 

229. What is the difference between "the temptation", and "a 
snare" in vs, 9? 

230. Why compare those who are minded to be rich with "drown 
men in destruction"? Show the points of similarity, 

231. Does this verse say (vs, 10) that money is the root of all 
evil? What does it say? 

232. In a very specific manner show how the love of money 
leads away from "the faith", Remember, this can mean 
the preacher. 

233. What picture is presented to your mind in vs, 10b? i.e.: 
have pierced themselves through with many sorrows". 

Paraphrase 6:3-10 

3 If any one teach differently, by affirming, that under the gospel 
slaves are not bound to serve their masters, but ought to be made 
free, and does not consent to the wholesome commandments 
which are our Lord Jesus Christ's, and to the doctrine of the 
gospel, which in all points is conformable to true morality, 

4 He is puffed up with pride, and knoweth nothing either of 
the Jewish or of the Christian revelation, although he pretends 
to have great knowledge of both; but is distempered in his mind 
about idle questions and debates of words, which afford no founda- 
tion for such a doctrine, but are the source of envy, contention, 
evil speakings, unjust suspicions that the truth is not sincerely 
maintained. 

5 Keen disputings carried on contrary to conscience, by men 
wholly corrupted in their mind, and destitute of. the true doctrine 
of the gospel, who reckon whatever produces most money is the 
best religion. From all such impious teachers withdraw thyself, 
and do not dispute with them, 

6 But godliness, with a competency of food and raiment, (ver. 8) 
is great gain, as it makes us happy both in the present life and 
in that which is to come; neither of which riches can do. 

7 For we brought nothing into the world with us; and plain it is, 
that neither can we carry anything out of it. Things which we 
must leave behind us, cannot make us happy in the other world. 

8 Wherefore, having food and raiment, and lodging, let us 
therewith be contented; banishing, as godly persons ought, im- 
moderate desires of things not necessary, and which can be 
enjoyed only in this life, 

113 



6:3-10 I TIMOTHY 

9 But they who, not contented with food and raiment, are bent 
on being rich, fall into great temptations and snares in the 
pursuit; and, in the enjoyment of riches, into many foolish and 
hurtful lusts, Which plunge men into destruction here, and into 
eternal perdition hereafter. 

10 I have spoken thus sharply against covetousneSs, because the 
love of money is the root of air the sinful passions and actions 
of men; as may be seen in the false teachers, some of whom, 
eagerly desiring money, have wholly corrupted the doctrine of 
the gospel, and ' have pierced themselves all around with many 
sorrows, occasioned by the stings of conscience and the fears of 
punishment. 

Comment 6:3-10 

Vs. 3. The concluding section of this letter is addressed to the 
personal needs of Timothy as a minister. He writes first of the 
motives of the minister. One wrong motive is pride, which is 
stated in V. 4. The results of such an unworthy motive are given 
in V. 3: (1) He will teach a different doctrine. (2) He is not 
satisfied with the healthy words of the gospel. (3) Nor does he 
want a teaching- that produces godliness. A love for self and 
position, produces a message to satisfy self and those who would 
be foolish enough to follow. 

To advance self as an authority we must discount God's Word 
as the only source of authority. When such happens we can be 
sure such teaching as will be given will not produce healthy, 
strong Christians, but stunted and diseased heretics. When God 
and His Soh are hot the center of our motive for preaching, we 
Can know the products of our preaching will not be godly. 

Vs. 4. This verse discusses the cause for the results of v. 3: in 
one word it is pride, but in its ramifications it can be described 
as: (1) Puffed up (2) Knowing nothing (3) Sick on question- 
ings and disputes of words. Further results of such pride.; (1) 
envy (2) strife (3) railing (4) evil surmisings. We shall dis- 
cuss briefly these words in order: "Puffed up" means to inflate, 
to besmog. Truly, the inflated ego will put anyone in a fog, 
"Knowing nothing" is given in the sense of ignorance of the very 
basic tenets of the Christian faith; such a man has not even 
started to learn, for a learner or disciple will first "deny himself", 
and take up his cross to follow Christ. "Doting" or "sick" about 
questionings and disputes. It is a little difficult to say whether 

114 



I TIMOTHY 6:4-8 

such are sick because of such questionings and disputes, or because 
he is "sick" he disputes and questions. We prefer the former. 

How deceptive is error? Neither those who are in error nor those 
who follow errorists find what they seek. The leader imagines 
he will find a measure of peace and power — the followers look 
for security, and a new spiritual insight' — what is found?: envy, 
strife, railings, evil surmisings, Those who do not trust God find 
it difficult to trust anyone else — even themselves, Such an evil 
brood keeps coming forth from those in error, 

Vs. 5. In the latter half of this verse we have another wrong 
motive, avarice. The rest of this section, i.e. 6-10, carries a 
discussion of those "who are minded to be rich". The results of 
pride and avarice are difficult to separate — indeed they overlap 
one another. Both pride and money-love proceed from a diseased 
mind, Satan has robbed them of the truth. Could.it be that any- 
one could enter the holy service of God and His Son with the 
low purpose of making money? To such, acquainted with the 
history of the. church and present circumstances, such a question 
sounds naive indeed. This is an ever present temptation. When 
such offers are considered, please remember, to accept such is an 
admission of mind-corruption and truth-robbery. 

Vs. 6. To balance the scale of values, Paul adds that in godliness 
there is great gain. The principle of gain through godliness is 
true. But this godliness must be genuine — in it, and in it alone we 
must find our self-sufficiency. The contentment others seek in 
money, we must find in fellowship with God through Christ. 

Vs. 7. Here is an axiom declared and emphasized by many, 
ancient and modern, profane and divine — "There 'are no pockets 
in a shroud", we shall take out of this world exactly what we 
brought in — nothing! Why should our time and energies be spent 
on those things which perish with the using? The very things 
we have prepared for contentment will not bring it, even if we 
are afforded the opportunity to try them; which we many times 
are not. "Happiness is within, not without." 

Vs. 8. This verse pre-supposes we have seen the emptiness of 
striving after soul satisfaction in the husks. of material possessions. 
When once we are thoroughly persuaded that security, peace, 
and hope, are not found in riches, we are ready to be shown just 
where they can be found. Man never gives up in his search for 
hope, happiness and security. When these are found in Jesus 

115 



6:8-10 I TIMOTHY 

and His kingdom-service; how 'shall we balance the natural need 
for food and shelter? 1 When We have enough to eat, and covering 
for our body and head, we are satisfied. What Were the creature 
comforts of our blessed Lord?- and yet He is our example in 
successful living; When shall we ! follow Him? ■ 

Vs. 9. There are, men driven by various types of desires; but: of 
all the desires, the lust to : be ,rich is at once the most popular 
and perilous. Such men are here described as an animal who 
has fallen into a trap from which he cannot escape. The bait 
is taken, arid the trap springs to take its victim. What a sore trial 
man brings upon himself when Once he reaches after the illusive 
pot of gold. Money was ; never intended to be an end, only a means. 
Money^can be a wonderful servant, but what" a monster for a 
master! Once we open, the door' to money-love, there are many 
related 'sins to entertain, Pride, honor, power, popularity-— all 
must he considered— all are foolish and hrtrtfulv : Paul changes the 
figure from an animal trap to a struggling swimmer. The swim- 
rrier struggles to save himself; but all who j watch know he has 1 
spent his strength and is drowning. He is about to go down 
for the last time. What a tragic picture. But when we remember 
the drowning is in the' lake of fire, and the death' is ! eternal, 
wjs are indeed ,sad! How hard.it is for a rich man to enter the 
kingdom ,of heayen,, or; for those, wh° are eager to be rich. 

Vs. 10. This is a conclusion' to the foregoing verse, and a warning 
to Timothy. "At the base; of this evil tree of many sorrows, you 
shall find the root Of- nloney4ove. To follow after mammon is 
to. leave the faith. ■ We haye but one life to invest— when we use 
it up, in the pursuit of money, or what money can give, we have 
no time or energy left for God. We have not only forsaken the 
service required of the faith,fuL but we have forsaken the basic 
tenet; of the Faith— "deny /yourself ." How gradual arid easy 
it,, is to.be led , astray by money -loye. What seems to be an 
advantage becomes a terrible disadvantage — what we intended 
to use is using us — what we hoped was a bed of ease has become 
a couch of spears. The love of money will obligate us to fulfill 
our commitments. One after another, Sorrow upon sorrow pierces 
our hearts; This is ' spiritual suicide! 

Fact Questions 6:3-10 

169. What is the general content of this, the closing section of 
this letter? 

116 



I TIMOTHY 6:11-16 

170. State two results of pride as a false motive for Christian 
work. 

171. Explain the meaning of "puffed-up", and "doting". 

1 72. Show the deception of error. 

173. Both pride and money-love proceed from one source — what 
is it? 

1 74. Explain how godliness offers great gain. 

175. Why mention that we brought nothing into the world and 
we will take nothing out? 

176. How is our Lord an example in the use of "creature 
comforts"? 

177. How desribe those who are "minded to be rich"? Why? 

178. Show how the love of money leads to spiritual suicide, 

2. PROPER WALK 11-16 

Text 6:11-16 
11 But thou, O man of God, flee these things; and follow after 
righteousness, godliness, faith, love, patience, meekness. 12 Fight 
the good fight of the faith, lay hold on the life eternal, whereunto 
thou wast called, and didst confess the good confession in the 
sight of many witnesses. 13 1 charge thee in the sight of God, 
who giveth life to all things, and of Christ Jesus, who before 
Pontius Pilate witnessed the good confession; 14 that thou keep 
the commandment, without spot, without reproach, until the appear- 
ing of our Lord Jesus Christ: 15 which in its own times he shall 
show, who is the blessed and only Potentate, the King of kings, 
and Lord of lords; 16 who only hath immortality, dwelling in 
light unapproachable, whom no man hath seen, nor can see; to 
whom be honor and power eternal. Amen. 

Thought Questions 6:11-16 

234. In what sense was Timothy a "man of God"? Cf. I Sam. 
2:27 and II Tim. 3: 1 7 for an answer, 

235. Are we to infer that money-lovers do not belong to God? 

236. From what is the man of God to flee? Please specify from 
the text. 

237. It is not enough to turn away from sin, we must turn toward 
God. Look up the Greek tense in which the verbs — "flee" 
and "follow" appear. 

238. How is the word "righteousness" used? 

239. Explain in a very practical sense the meaning of "godliness". 

240. In what way should we pursue "faith"? 

117 



6:11-16 I TIMOTHY 

241. Must we work to obtain "love'7 •: •■ ■ 

242. Explain the place of patience and meekness in the life of 
the minister. 

243. Does "the fighting spirit" have any place in the life of the 
• " '■ preacher? ..■■',■ 

244. What is "the good fight of the faith"? 

245. How could Timothy beun present possession of "eternal life" 
and-yet be admonished to "lay hold" upon it? 

246. Who called Timothy to eternal life? Where and when? How? 

247. "What "is "the" 'good' confession" made by Timothy? Prove 

your answer. 
248.' What makes this confession "good"? 

249. Is this ; a "confession" or a "profession"? 

250. Before whom did Timothy make the good confession? Be 
specific. 

251. Why the urgency of the charge given in vs. 13? 

252. Show, how the one quality of God here given (vs. 13) is 
appropriate. Do the same with the single quality of Jesus 

.. (vs. 13b) . ' ' : 

253. What is "the commandment" of vs. 14? 

254. What could Timothy do that would bring a "spot" upon 
■ the commandment? Who would bring the "reproach"? 

255. Did Paul expect the second coming of Christ in the lifetime 
of Timothy? Explain vs. 14b. 

256. Who is to show what in vs. 15? 

257. Who is "the blessed and only Potentate"? 

258. If Christ or God only hath immortality, how- can we say 
that man is born an immortal being? 

259. How could vs. 16 refer to Christ, when it states "whom no 
man hath seen, nor can see'? 

Paraphrase 6: 1 J -7 6 

11 Therefore do thou, servant of God, flee these things; and 
pursue justice in all thy dealings, piety towards God, the firmest 
faith in the gospel, love to the souls of men, patience in afflictions, 
and meekness under provocations. 

12 Since these virtues are not inconsistent with courage, combat 
the good combat of faith, by boldly maintaining the true, doctrine 
of Christ against infidels and false teachers; and, as a conqueror 
in this combat, lay hold on eternal life, the prize, to the attain- 
ment of which thou wast .called; and in particular, confess the 

118 



I TIMOTHY 6:11-16 

good confession, that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, in the presence 
of all mankind. 

13 I charge thee, in the presence of God, who raiseth all from 
the dead, to reward every one according to his works, and who, 
if thou lose thy life in the good combat, will give thee eternal life; 
and in the presence of Christ Jesus, who witnessed under Pontius 
Pilate the good confession, and sealed it with his blood. 

14 That thou obey this commandment of confessing the good 
confession, with out spot in respect of the commandment itself, 
and unblamable in respect of thy performance thereof, which 
will contribute to preserve the good confession in the world, till 
the appearing of our Lord Jesus Christ himself, to raise the dead, 
and judge the whole human race. 

15 Which appearing in his own season, the season which he 
himself hath fixed, the blessed and only Potentate in the universe 
will shew, even the King of Icings, and Lord of lords; the King 
and Lord who rules with irresistible power all other kings and 
lords: 

16 Who alone hath life without either beginning or ending, and 
dwelleth in light inaccessible to mortals, which therefore no man 
hath seen, or can see, in this mortal body; to whom be ascribed 
honour and might everlasting. And to shew that this is the truth 
concerning the nature of God, I say Amen. 

Comment 6:7 7-76 

Vs. 11 . A very powerful positive word is given in this verse. 
Paul has just discussed certain men of error; he now refers to 
"The Man of God". The use of this expression is not confined 
to Timothy alone — all Christians are to be "Men of God." Cf. II 
Tim. 3:17. We belong to God. Cf. I Cor. 6:19, 20. When once 
we completely awaken to our ownership, we will be ready as 
Timothy was to follow out the admonitions of this verse. Please 
notice that Paul does not say to fight but to flee. We are to fight 
the good fight of the faith, but in the area of temptation we are 
to do what Joseph did from Potiphar's house — run! None of us 
are a match for Satan, "to will is present, but to do that which is 
good is not." Do not entertain Satan's suggestions, whether they 
be in the realm of false doctrine, pride, avarice, or whatever, do 
not tarry with them, RUN from them, resist and deny them, do 
not discuss them! The tense of the verb suggests that this be 
an attitude of conduct — "keep fleeing". We are not only fleeing 

119 



6:11 I TIMOTHY 

from, we are following after. The sad condition of the men 
described in vs. 3-10 did not develop in one day — neither will 
the qualities of character here described be ours, without a stead- 
fast pursuit of them. Timothy is admonished to place up before 
himself, as a runner sets before him a goal, these virtues— and 
then stretch every nerve to reach them. What are they?: 

righteousness: 

Put forth every effort to be right before God and man. Righteous- 
ness is simply doing that which is right. This is a virtue 
that we must pursue, or we shall never lay hold upon it. 
This we do by a study and practice of His Word. We then must 
give ourselves to the only Power for right doing. Except He 
strengthens us by His Spirit in the inward man we shall 
never be righteous. 

godliness: 

Someone has suggested that the six virtues here listed, i.e.: (1) 
Righteousness; (2) Godliness; (3) Faith; (4) Love; (5) Pati- 
ence; (6) Meekness — could be divided into 3 pairs: (1) Right- 
eousness and Godliness: our attitude toward God; (2) Faith and 
Love: these are the source of righteousness and godliness; (3) 
Patience and Meekness: the virtues necessary to live right- 
eously and godly. Perhaps this is true — at least the conclusion 
is a good one. Is it possible to be godlike? Not without a consistent 
effort on our part. But we are not called upon to do more than 
our Saviour did — to us are given the same weapons He used in 
winning the battle of godliness. He "condemned sin in the flesh" 
and lived a godly life; this He expects us to do. 

faith: 

Why does Paul admonish Timothy to follow after faith? Didn't 
Timothy have faith? We are sure that he did. This is an exhorta- 
tion for the expression and work of the faith already possessed — 
as we say in our day: "To have the courage of his convictions." 
Paul wanted Timothy to live by faith. 

love: 

What we have said of faith could also be said of love. Each of 
these virtues are to be activated. Timothy is never to believe he 
has loved as he could, there is always a fresh expression to be 
given. We can always go further in devotion to both God and 
man: see our Saviour ahead of us, beckoning us onward and 
upward in the path of love. 

120 



I TIMOTHY 6; 11,12 

patience: 

What a great and continual need would be found for this quality 
of character, In Ephesus there was need for patience with the 
many problems already described in this letter. We shall only 
have patience in our problems when we have some hope of 
solution of them. This we find in Christ and His Way of life. 
Paul does not say for how long we are to be patient — it must 
be a continual pursuit on our part. 
meekness: 

This is never to be equated with weakness, Meekness is strength 
under control. Moses was the meekest man on earth. Our Lord 
was meek and lowly in heart. We could not think of either of 
these as being weak. 

Vs. 12. Continuing the thought of the proper walk of the man 
of God, Timothy is urged to "contend well in the good contest"; 
or to "fight well in the good battle". There is some disagreement 
as to which figure is used — the athletic field, or the battle field, 
In either case Paul's word is the same — he says: Be actively, 
aggressively engaged in the contest. Feel that you have a personal 
responsibility in this matter. No one else can take your place. 
If you hold back, "the faith" will suffer. "The fighting spirit", 
so much a part of God's man Paul, is so sorely needed today, It 
would seem that most of God's soldiers are on furlough or most 
of his athletes have turned "professional". 

"Life eternal" is held up as the prize at the end of the race. 
We are to eagerly reach out to take hold upon it, but not until 
we have finished the course. Paul exhorts Timothy, that even 
now he is to stretch forth his hand in eager anticipation of taking 
hold of the final and highest prize. All during the race, maintain 
just such an attitude. The prize is well worth the effort; it is 
unlike the fading leaves of the world's cinder track. 

To such a race and to such an attitude, God called you when 
you became a Christian, when you confessed your faith in the 
sight of many witnesses. When and where did God call Timothy 
into the good contest? — at Lystra when Paul first preached the 
gospel in this pagan town. It was just before his baptism, in the 
presence of the town-people of Lystra, and possibly Derbe and 
Iconium, that Timothy declared his faith in Jesus as Lord and 
Saviour. 

Paul is saying: "let the memory of your confession before men 
now strengthen your resolve to run and to fight for the one 
whose name you confessed." 

121 



6:13-15 I TIMOTHY 

Vs. 13. Here is something stronger than an exhortation: Paul 
solemnly charges Timothy with his holy responsibility. In many 
ways we can consider verses 11-16 as the climax and conclusion 
to this wonderful letter. In vs. 13-17 we have the top of the 
climax — '"In the light of all I have previously written in this letter 
about error and truth, about sin and the Saviour, I charge you — ". 
This seems to be the tenor of the thought here. The content of the 
charge is the central thought, but do not forget the witnesses to 
it — !: God, who gives and preserves the very life you now have, 
is watching to welcome you at the end of the race. He is there to 
approve your good efforts all along the track. Our annointed 
Saviour is also a witness. He knows what it is to pledge Himself 
and confess His faith and purpose. He did it under far more 
trying conditions than you — before Pontius Pilate! Can we fail 
Him when He did not fail us? 

Vs. 14. Here is -the content of the charge: "Keep the command- 
ment without spot, without reproach". Timothy is personally 
responsible for preserving intact the whole gospel, or of keeping 
the gospel whole. Timothy confessed his faith and confidence* in 
Christ and His work. Paul now urges fulfillment of this con- 
fession. We take the word "commandment" to refer to "the 
faith" or "the gospel". "Without spot" refers to any deviation 
or change, man might make in this perfect message. There are 
various ways in which our conduct can cast reproach upon the 
message we preach. 

Paul thought of the second coming of Christ as an ever present 
reality. Should Jesus return while Timothy was preaching in 
Ephesus, He would find him faithful; ready to give a good 
account of his stewardship. We like the expression of D. Edmond 
Hiebert on this point — he says: "While Paul eagerly looked 
for that event, he never pretended to know the date of the return. 
The overwhelming magnitude of the Second Coming made it 
seem near, and shrivel up all intervening time, like some vast 
mountain, which, as it rears its gigantic peak above the horizon, 
seems near, though actually is a long distance away." (p. 118, 
119) 

Vs. 15. The Second Coming will be a great day of revelation, so 
very many things will then be revealed; things that are now 
concealed. One which is not usually mentioned is here emphasized: 
The Second Coming of Christ will reveal the character of God. 
Notice, please: (1) He will be seen as the blessed and only 
Potentate (2) King of kings (3) Lord of lords (4) Who only 

122 



I TIMOTHY 6:15,16 

hath immortality (5) dwells in an unapproachable light (6) 
whom no man hath seen, nor can see (7) to whom all honor 
and power are due, 

We take the little expression, "which in its (his) own times 
he shall show," to refer to the Second Coming as brought about 
by God, Only the Father knows the time. Here is a reference to 
when He shall reveal to man "His time and season". 

Vs. 16. In what sense are we to understand the expression: "Who 
only hath immortality"? God is the only source of immortality. 
He only has immortality within Himself. For each of us im- 
mortality is given, not so with God (or with "the Word" Cf. 
Jn. 1:1), 

God covers Himself with glory as with a garment, This light 
is so intense man can not approach God, When Saul of Tarsus 
beheld but momentarily a little of the effulgence of the presence 
of God, he was blinded and thrown to the ground. Because God 
is a Spirit and man can not, while in this body, see a spirit, 
no man hath seen God, nor can he hope to see Him while man 
remains in his earthly tabernacle, Men have seen a physical 
manifestation of the power of God in the form of Angels, or 
of some other manifestation. This has been only for man's 
benefit, God in essence is spirit — man cannot see a spirit, there- 
fore indeed "no man hath seen, nor can see", 

If such a Being possesses the seven qualities just described, 
we can say with Paul: "to whom be honor and power eternal." 
The "amen" seals all that has just been said of this great God. 

Fact Questions 6:7 7-76 

179. In what sense was Timothy a "man of God"? In what 
sense does this term apply to all Christians? 

180. Specify two things from which Timothy was to flee. 

181. How often is Timothy to flee and follow? Explain in your 
own words the meaning of the virtues stated in Vs. 11. 

182. What is the fight of the faith? Are we to fight a "good" 
fight or is the fight "good"? 

183. If we already possess eternal life, how can we "lay hold" 
upon it? 

184. To what was Timothy called? Cf. 12b. When did Timothy 
confess the good confession? 

123 



,6 5 17-21 a I TIMOTHY 

185. Why did Paul give Timothy the charge of Vs. 13, 14? 

186. What was "the commandment"? 

187. Did Paul believe there was a possibility of the second coming 
of Christ in the time of Timothy? Explain. 

188. What is the meaning of the expression: "Which in its own 
times he shall, show". 

189. Old Testament references can be found in which each of the 
seven attributes of God here given are also stated. Cf. (1) 
Deut. 6:4 (2) Ezek. 26:7 (3) Deut. 10:17 (4) Is. 40:28 
(5) Ex. 34:35, (6) Deut. 4:12 (7) Neh. 8:6. Please find and 
read these. 

190. Explain the sense in which God "only hath immortality", 
and the sense in which "no man hath seen God". 

3. FAITHFUL MINISTRY 17-21 a 

Text 6:17-21a 

17 Charge them that are rich in this present world, that they be 
not highminded, nor have their hope set on the uncertainty of 
riches, but on God, who giveth us richly all things to enjoy: 18 
that they do good, that they be rich in good works, that they be 
ready to distribute, willing to communicate; 19 laying up in 
store for themselves a good foundation against the time to come, 
that they may lay hold on the life which is life indeed. 20 O 
Timothy, guard that which is committed unto thee, turning away 
from the profane babblings and oppositions of the knowledge which 
is falsely so called; 21 which some professing have erred con- 
cerning the faith. 

Thought Questions 6:1 7-21 a 

260. How would Timothy carry out the injunction of Paul as 
in Vs. 17? 

261. In what town were these rich people living? 

262. Why would rich folk be especially tempted to be "high 
minded"? 

263. Specify "their hope" in riches — show how deceptive it is. 

264. Show in particular, "the uncertainty of riches". 

265. How would Timothy know that these rich folk were fulfilling 
his word? 

266. Does Paul say in 17b that God created all things for man's 
enjoyment? How does this affect pride and. materialism? 

124 



I TIMOTHY 6: 17-21 a 

267. The rich are to be rich in good works — isn't this the respon- 
sibility of all? Why specify the rich? 

268. Meaning of "ready to distribute, willing to communicate", 

269. Can money be used to lay up a good foundation for heaven? 

270. Is Paul saying that however good life might be here, it can 
not compare with the life to come? How does this relate 
to earthly treasure? 

271. What was Timothy to guard? 

272. How was Timothy to guard it? 

273. Was "the deposit" with Timothy or Christ? 

274. What were the "profane babblings"? 

275. What is "the knowledge" of vs. 20? 

276. There is a false knowledge and a true knowledge — explain 
the difference. 

277. Some professing themselves to be wise become fools — what 
particular false knowledge was before Paul's mind in vs, 21a? 

Paraphrase 6:1 7-21 a 

17 Though riches often prove a great snare to the possessors, 
they may be retained innocently, Therefore, charge the rich in 
the present world, to beware of pride, and of seeking their 
happiness from riches, the possession of which is so uncertain: 
But to trust in God, who ever liveth to make them happy, and 
who supplieth to us plentifully all things really necessary for 
enjoyment. 

18 And instead of employing their riches merely in gratifying 
their senses, rather to use them in doing good works, and to be 
rich in those lovely works whereby the happiness of society is 
promoted: To be ready to distribute a part of their riches to 
the poor, communicative of their time and pains for advancing 
the interests of truth and virtue in the world; 

19 Providing for themselves, not money, which can be of no 
use to them in the other world, but what is infinitely better, a 
good foundation to stand on in the day of judgment, that they 
may lay hold on the prize of eternal life. 

20 Timothy, preserve the doctrine committed in trust to thee, 
avoiding the impious, noisy, senseless talking of the Judaizers, 
and the oppositions to the gospels, founded on wrong interpreta- 
tions of the Jewish scriptures, which they dignify with the 
appellation of knowledge; but it is falsely so named. 

21 Which knowledge of the scriptures, some teachers professing, 

125 



6: 17-21 a I TIMOTHY 

have erred with respect to the true Christian faith. But may 
the grace of God be with thee, to preserve thee from error. Amen. 

Comment 6:1 7-21 a 

Vs. 17. There are those who wish they were rich — with such 
we have already dealt (Cf. 6:9, 10). Then there are those few 
who are blessed with material possessions. It is with such 
persons we are concerned. The gospel 'has a direct and personal 
application to every life. To the rich there are certain and 
particular temptations to avoid. Timothy is to speak with a 
good deal of urgency to these folk, about the temptation to look 
down on their less fortunate brothers. They might remember 
the one who ''though He was rich, yet for theirsakes He became 
poor". Or the words of our Lord to the rich young ruler. There 
is a second temptation of special concern. Do not- set your hopes 
on riches and what they Can do. How easy it is for money to 
fail. Set your hope on God who never fails. There is a play on 
words in the last half of this verse, Notice that Paul includes 
himself and all other Christians, in the thought that God has made 
us rich. All things are of God. We are rich because God has so 
blessed us — "naught have we gotten but what we received- 
grace has bestowed it since we believed." What a blessed truth 
to know that all good things were given for our enjoyment. 
This surely contradicts the thought that there is evil in matter. 
God intended our enjoyment of all material possessions, within 
the framework of His Will. 

Vs. 18. The positive advantages of wealth are outlined in this 
verse. To whom much is given much is required — even in the 
material realm. Notice the four ways to enjoy riches: (1) To 
do good — i.e. to find some area where help is needed, and supply 
the need. This is good and acceptable in the sight of God. (2) 
Be rich in good works. This would seem to be but an emphasis 
of the former admonition. It suggests that the satisfaction and 
pleasure of the rich, will be found in work for Christ through 
their riches, instead of in the bank account. (3) Be ready to 
share well a,nd generously with others— find the real meaning 
of "it is more blessed to give than to receive". This is easily said 
by those who have but little— but it was originally said by Him 
who possessed all things (Acts 20:35). (4) Be ready to associate 
closely with those who have less — feel a real partnership with 
every other Christian — rich or poor. How pointed and pertinent 

126 



I TIMOTHY 6:18-21 

these words are for the wealthy in Ephesus, and in all other places, 

Vs. 19. The words of our Lord come imediately to mind upon 
reading this verse, Paul suggests that the rich can use their 
money and influence in such a manner as to lay up for them- 
selves a warm welcome into heaven, This is just what Jesus 
meant when He said — "make to yourselves friends of the unright- 
eous mammon, that when it shall fail they may receive you 
into the eternal tabernacles" (Cf, Luke 16:9). Our money can 
and should be used to win souls — when it is, then the souls won 
who have gone on before will be waiting to welcome us into life 
which is life indeed, An awareness of this truth on the part of 
the rich, becomes within their consciousness and before God, "a 
good foundation" for appearing before God on judgment, 

Vs. 20. In one verse we have the summation of the whole letter. 
God and Paul have made an investment in Timothy' — they expect 
returns on their investment. To Timothy was entrusted "the 
gospel" — by this we mean, that which Paul has written in this 
letter and all the words of every inspired writer. To guard it, 
Timothy was not to simply keep it buried in his heart and 
home, but to keep it like a banker who keeps a great deposit of 
money. Thus it would not only be intact, but would be used 
and increased to the owner's advantage. 

Positive instructions as to just how such a guarding is done, 
are found in the latter half of vs. 20. The same instructions with 
which Paul opened the letter (Cf. 1:4-6) are given to close it. 
Paul asks Timothy to shun, to ignore, to turn away from all 
such empty chatter as that which he hears from certain "law 
teachers". To argue with such persons is to give dignity to their 
teaching, which it does not deserve. Such false teachers imagine 
themselves to be full of knowledge, when they are only puffed 
up with their own ego. If God did not reveal the information in 
the body of truth called "the faith" (which we know now as 
the New Testament), then such information is to be treated as 
"profane" or unclean. "One guards the truth by turning away 
from all insipid ranting". 

Vs. 21. Regardless of how ridiculous the teaching might be, there 
are always some who will follow it. When such persons leave 
"the. faith" for empty babblings, they do so professing to have 
some new and better light. They are actually in darkness and 
have "missed the mark". 

127 



6:17-21a I TIMOTHY 

Fact Questions 6:17-21 a 

191. There are two groups associated with riches — name them. 

192. What is the meaning of the expression "high minded"? How 
can we avoid this temptation? 

193. Explain the play on words in vs. 17. 

194. God has given us richly all things to enjoy — how do we 
fulfill this purpose of God? 

193. What is meant by telling the rich to "do good"? 

196. The rich are to be "rich in good works" — specify two or 
three good works in which they could be rich. 

197. Explain; "ready to distribute, willing to communicate". 

198. Show how Luke 16:9 and vs. 19 discuss the same subject. 

199. What "deposit" did God and Paul have in Timothy? 

200. Just how was Timothy to "guard the deposit"? 

201. What was the "knowledge which is falsely so called"? 

202. Give the meaning of the expression: "erred concerning the 
faith". 

CONCLUSION 6:21b 

Texf 6:21b 

Grace be with you. 

Thought Questions 6:21b 

278. Just how was the word "grace" used here? 

279. Is anyone besides Timothy included in the word "you"? 
Explain. 

Paraphrase 6:21b 

21b But may the grace of God be with thee, to preserve thee 
from error. Amen. 

Comment 6:21b 
Vs. 21b. This is the briefest of all the conclusions to Paul's 
letters. This same conclusion is found in Colossians. The word 
"you" is in the plural form in the Greek text. 

EXAMINATION OVER CHAPTER SIX 
OF I TIMOTHY 

1. Give in your own words Paul's instructions concerning slaves 
who have unbelieving masters, and those with believing ones. 

2. Would the instructions of Paul abolish slavery? Explain. 

128 



I TIMOTHY 6; 21 a 

3. What is considered "different doctrine"? What is the result 
of such teaching? 

4. State and explain three of the wrong motives in teaching. 
6, In what should the Christian find contentment? Do you 

accept Paul's estimate of what is sufficient of this world's 
goods? Explain. 

6, State and explain four of the results of desiring to be rich. 

7. State and explain three of the virtues after which the man of 
God is to pursue. 

8. Explain: "taking hold of eternal life", 

9, Why and how is the second coming of Christ introduced 
into Paul's exhortation to Timothy? 

10. What is the deposit Timothy is to guard, and how is he to 
guard it? What is the falsely -named knowledge"? 

EXAMINATION OVER PAUL'S FIRST LETTER 
TO TIMOTHY 

1 . Reproduce the outline of the letter. 

2. "Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus according to the Command- 
ment of God our Saviour" .... Explain the "Command- 
ment" in this verse. 

3. ". . . , and the goal of the charge is love out of a pure heart" 
.... Explain the charge, and the arrival at the goal, i.e. how 
the goal is achieved. 

4. "But we know that the law is good, if one uses it lawfully 
. . . ." Explain the lawful use of the law. 

5. ". . . . but I received mercy because being ignorant I acted 
in unbelief , . . ." Show how ignorance relates to mercy — ■ 
be careful here. 

6. ". . . . the prophecies which led the way to you, that you 
might wage in them the good warfare . . . ." Explain the 
prophecies, and Timothy's use of them. 

7. "In order that we may lead a tranquil and quiet life in all 
godliness and dignity." What is going to provide this type 
of life? Explain the cause of which this is a result, 

8. "I desire therefore, that men pray in every place, lifting 
up holy hands, without wrath and disputing." Discuss the 
connection between prayer, wrath and disputing. 

9. Give the two reasons for saying: "I do not permit a woman 
to teach." 

10. "Faithful is the Word: if someone reaches after an overseer- 

129 



I TIMOTHY 

ship, he desires a good work." Discuss the words: "reaches 
after" and "good work". 

11. Discuss two mental qualifications, and two personality quali- 
fications of the bishop. 

12. Would a man who had developed the ability to superintend 
well by other means than rearing a family, be excluded from 
the eldership? If so why? If not why not? 

13. Explain the following phrase; "And. let these first be tested". 

14. Is there room for females in the office of deacon? Discuss. 

15. Give meaning to the following: "Because every created thing 
of God is good, and nothing to be thrown away, being received 
with thanksgiving: for it is sanctified thru God's word and 
petition". Explain especially the last phrase. 

16. Explain how godliness is profitable for all things. 

17. What gift or gifts did Timothy have? How did he get them? 
What was he to do with them? 

18. Answer the following questions about the enrollment of 
widows: 1) What is the meaning of the term "enrollment"? 
2) For what purpose? 3) What qualifications? (state and 
explain at least two) 4) Should we practice it now? 

19. What is the "double honor" of the elders? 

20. Who is the "blessed and only potentate . . . ." Please explain 
from the context why you answer as you do. 



130 



PAUL'S LETTER 
TO TITUS 



131 



INTRODUCTION 

PAUL'S LETTER TO TITUS 

We refer you to our introduction (pp, 19,20) as to the back- 
ground of both the letter and the one to whom it was addressed, 

It is very important that you have an analytical grasp of this 
epistle, 

Here are four outlines of the letter, Please read through the 
epistle of Titus using these outlines as guides, Read the epistle 
four times, once for each outline— notice the points of the outline 
as you read. 

1, E, K, Simpson: (The Pastoral Epistles, the Greek Text with 
Introduction and Commentary, Wm, B. Eerdmans Pub, Co,, 
Grand Rapids, Michigan.) 

1. Salutation 1:1-4 

2. Ministerial Qualifications 1:5-9 

3. The Cretan Character 1 : 10-16 

4. Admonitions to Seniors and Juniors 2: 1-8 

5. Directions to Servants 2:9,10 

6. The Life Consonant With the Dispensation of Grace 2:11-15 

7. Demeanor to the Outside World 3:1, 2 

8. The Contrast between Past and Present 3:3 

9. The Glory of the Gospel of God's Grace 3:4-7 

10. Epitome of Counsels 3:8-1 1 

11. Personalia 3:12-15 

2, Victor E, Hoven {The New Testament Epistles — Analysis 
and Notes. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids 6, Michigan) 



INTRODUCTION 1:1-4 

1. The writer, 1-3. In service Paul is God's "bondservant"; 
in office he is Christ's "apostle." His activity is "according to," 
or with a view to, producing "faith," by preaching the gospel; 
"knowledge," by teaching the gospel; "godliness" by exhortation 
to live the gospel — all of which is "in hope of eternal life;" 
promised "before times eternal" and "intrusted" to Paul. This 
enabled Titus to speak by divine authority to false teachers in 
Crete. 

2. Greeting to Titus, 4. He was Paul's convert by "a common 
faith," a faith for everybody and for all time; was encouraged by 
benediction of divine "grace" and "peace", 

133 



INTRODUCTION 

PART I. WHY PAUL LEFT TITUS IN CRETE, 1:5-16. 

1. To set things in order, 5. The whole island his parish; 
every church his responsibility; Paul's teaching his rule of faith 
and practice. Cp. Gal. 6:16; Phil. 3:16. 

2. To appoint elders, 5-9. Cp. I Tim. 3:1-7. They were to be 
"blameless" (a) in family life, 6, (b) in personal life, 7, 8, 
(c) in teaching, 9. 

3. To stop destructive teachers, 10-16. Not only Titus, but the 
elders must do this (9). Verses 10-14 describe their character 
and conduct, confirmed by the Greek poet Epimenides and 
accepted by Paul. In 15, 16, the state of their heart and con- 
science is given. See Matt. 15:19-20. What a field of labor! 

PART II. THE TEACHING TITUS WAS TO ENFORCE. 

2:1-3:11 

1. Christian character in relation to the church, 2:1-15. 

a. Conduct which befits sound doctrine, 1-10. "Sound" means 
healthful uncorrupted teaching, opposed to doctrine of false 
teachers which had made the church mentally and morally sick. 
Christians of all age levels, men and women, are enrolled as 
learners. In order to be effective, Titus himself must be model 
in speech and behavior. 

b. Motives for such conduct, 11-14. They are: (1) The grace 
of God, 11, 12. It has "appeared," become visible, in Christ, 
John 1:14, bringing salvation, recorded for instruction of right 
living in three directions: "soberly" as to self, "righteously" as 
of fellow-man, "godly" in relation to God. (2) The return of 
Christ, 13. This also motivates right living, for He is our only 
"hope" of life eternal, 1:2, and He returns for judgment, Matt. 
25:31ff. (3) The death of Christ, 14. He gave Himself on our 
behalf that He might redeem, purify and possess us. These 
things Titus was to teach and enforce, backed by all authority 
of Christ. 

2. Christian character in relation to the world, 3:1-7. 

a. Duties to civil authority, 1, 2. Judaizers held that worshipers 
of Jehovah need not obey pagan magistrates, not so Paul, cp. 
Rom. 13:1-7. 

b. Reasons for subjection, 3-7. First, there is recollection of 
the old life, 3; next, transition from the old to the new, 4-7. 

134 



INTRODUCTION 

It is motivated by "the kindness of God," accomplished, not by 
man's moral goodness, but by two agencies — "washing of regen- 
eration" (laver, bath of rebirth, or immersion into Christ) "and 
renewing of the Holy Spirit," that is, renewing of the human 
spirit by the Spirit of God. Cp. Ps. 51:10, In conversion the 
Spirit presents to the human mind what to do to be saved from 
past sins, I Pet. 1:23; Jas. 1:18; the result is a new person. After 
conversion the Spirit continually renews the mind of a Christian 
by His word, II Cor. 4: 16; Eph. 4:22-24. The result is a new life. 
The final objective is "eternal life". 

3, Duty of Titus concerning these things, 8-11, He is to affirm 
confidently, shun all that is unprofitable and maintain discipline, 

CONCLUSION, 3:12-15 

1. Directions to Titus, 12-14. When Paul sent either Artemas 
or Tychicus to succeed Titus in Crete, he was to hasten to Paul 
at Nicopolis; Zenas and Apollos were to be set forward by 
supplying their needs for travel; the Cretans, who were "idle 
gluttons," 1:12, were to apply themselves to some honest occupa- 
tion, 

2, Salutations and benediction, 15. Salutations come from Paul 
and his fellow-workers, include all in the "faith" and exclude 
the false teachers. The benediction of "grace" is not for Titus 
alone, but for all the churches in Crete, 

3. William Hendriksen (New Testament Commentary — Exposi- 
tion of the Pastoral Epistles, Baker Book House, Grand Rapids 
6, Michigan). 

Theme; The Apostle Paul, Writing to Titus, Gives Directions 
for the Promotion of the Spirit of Sanctification. 

Chapter 1: In Congregational Life. 

A. The Address and Salutation. 

B. Well-qualified elders must be appointed in every 
town. 

C. Reason: Crete is not lacking in disreputable 
people who must be sternly rebuked. 

Chapter 2: In Family and Individual Life. 

A. All classes of individuals that compose the home 
— circle should conduct themselves in such a 
manner that by their life they may adorn the 
doctrine of God, their Savior, 

135 



INTRODUCTION 

■■-,.< • B. Reason: to all, the grace of God has appeared 
* '■' unto sanctifkation and joyful expectation of the 
appearing an glory , of our. great God and Savior, 
'- '■' '■ . Jesus Christ. : : ' ' •!• ■..■; 

Chapter 3: In Social (i.e. Public) Life.' ' ' ; 

., . . A. Believers should." he. ohedient.to, the authorities. 

,,';, . /They should be kind to all men, since it Was the 

,..". . kindness of God our Savior— riot our own Works! 

—which brought salvation. ■ . ' 

B. On . the, , Qthpr hand, foolish questions should., be 

. ; ; shunned, and : factious men .who refuse to heed 

admonition should be rejected. 

C. Concluding directions, with respect to kingdom- 

. travelers. (Artemas or Tychicus, Titus, Zenas, 

' ' ' Apollos) and Cretdn believers iri general. Greet- 

irigs. ' '■■',. 

4. John H. Bratt (Back to God Hour, 10,8.58 Michigan Ave., 
Chicago. 28i 111.) ,. -..■; .. , :,■'■■■' 

;..... .,,;,..,!.■;.:. Contents . . 

Greetings ^— 1 : 1-4 • . ... 

Theme: Pas.tor.al Directions ..;,,;,,, 

I. Concerning Elders and Errorists l:5 r 16, 

A.; The Kind of Elders, t,Q. be. Ordained 1:5-9. 
B. . Dangerous. Errqrists 1:10-16, ,, 

II. Concerning Various Groups in the Congregation, 2: 1-15. 

A. The elderly men 2:1-2. . , ■• ,. , : 

B. The elderly wQmen 2:3^5. , .,,-, 

C. The young men 2:6-8. , , ,, 

D. The slaves 2:9-10. ,, ' , ,.,, ' '' 

III. Concerning, the position of, Christians generally 3: 1-11. 

A. Their citizenship 3:1-2. ' ? ' 

B. Their past and present status 3:3-8. 

C. Who ahd'what to shun '3:9-11. 
Conclusion 3:12-15. 

Please originate your "oWn Outline of this short letter —'if y6u 
must make a coniposite oif thefbur we have given — do so. The 
important point of learning here is" ! that you think through the 
analysis of the whole letter; ' Do 'it. i: ■■-■■' 

Here is the outline We shall follow in OUr study of the letter: 

136 



TITUS 1:1-4 

PAUL'S LETTER TO TITUS 

Greetings 1 ; 1 -4, 

I. The care of the church 1:5-16, 

1, The selection and qualifications of elders 1:5-9, 

2. The description and refutation of false teachers 1:10-16, 

II. The conduct of church members 2: 1-15, 

1, Older men 2:1-2. 

2, Older women 2:3. 

3, Young women 2:4-5. 

4. Young men 2:6-8. 

5. Slaves 2:9-10. 

6 . The motives for conduct 2:11-15. 

III. Church members in society 3:1-11, 

1. As citizens 3:1-2. 

2. The motive for proper conduct 3:3-7. 

3. Truth and error 3:8-11. 
Conclusion3 ; 12-15, 

GREETINGS 1:1-4 
Text 1:1-4 
1 Paul, a servant of God, and an apostle of Jesus Christ, accord- 
ing to the faith of God's elect, and the knowledge of the truth 
which is according to godliness, 2 in hope of eternal life, which 
God, who cannot lie, promised before times eternal; 3 but in 
his own seasons manifested his word in the message, wherewith 
I was intrusted according to the commandment of God our Saviour; 
4 to Titus, my true child after a common faith: Grace and peace 
from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Saviour. 

Thought Questions 1:1-4 

1. Someone said, "the expression 'God's bond servant' occurs 
nowhere else at the head of his Epistles.". Is this true? 
Please take time and thought enough to answer, 

2. Give the meaning of the name "apostle"; show how it has 
special reference to Paul. 

3. How could "the faith of God's elect" regulate the apostleship 
of Paul? 

4. Is "the faith" in vs, 1 subjective or objective? Explain why 
you answer as you do. 

5. How does one become one of God's "elect"? 

6. Does Paul say here that he was appointed an apostle for the 
purpose of leading "the elect" into a knowledge of the truth? 
How did you arrive at your conclusion? 

137 



1:1-4 TITUS 

7. Does "the truth" lead to godliness or proceed from it? 

8. Are we to understand the hope of eternal life is a part of 
"the truth" into which Paul was to lead the elect? 

9. Are we to equate "eternal, life" with heaven? Is eternal life 
an extension of this present life? Explain. 

10. Is Paul saying here (vs. 2) that God had provisions made 
for the eternal life of His elect even before He created the 
world? 

11. What has been manifested in due season? (Cf. Gal. 4:4). 
Please be careful in your answer to this question — did God 
manifest His Son — His gospel — or His purpose? 

12. What is "the command"— or "commandment" — of vs. 3? 

13. In what sense was Titus Paul's "true child"? 

14. Explain the phrase "common faith." 

15. Show the distinction in the use of the words "grace" and 
peace." 

Paraphrase 7:1-4 

1 Paul, a servant of God, and an apostle of Jesus Christ, sent 
forth by him in order to promote the faith of the Gentiles, the 
elected people of God, and to persuade them to acknowledge the 
gospel, whose end is to make men godly and virtuous in every 
respect; " 

2 In hope that they shall also obtain that resurrection to eternal 
life, which God, who cannot lie, promised to believers of all na- 
tions in the persons of Adam and Abraham, long before the 
Jewish dispensation began. 

3 The knowledge of God's promise was long confined to the, Jews; 
but He hath manifested to all, in its proper season, his promise, 
by the preaching of the gospel, with which I am entrusted by 
Christ, according to the commandment of God, the original con- 
triver of the method of our salvation: 

4 To Titus, my genuine son by the common faith, the faith in 
Christ which the Gentiles are permitted to have in common with 
the Jews, I wish gracious assistances, merciful deliverances, and 
eternal life, from God the Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ, the 
accomplisher of our salvation. 

Comment 1:7-4 

Vs. 1. Paul refers to himself as a slave to Jesus Christ in Rom. 
1:1, Gal; 1:10, Phil. 1:1; but here and only here he identifies 
himself as a "slave of God." Actually there are two character- 

138 



TITUS 1:1,2 

istics of the Apostle given by himself to himself: 

(1) Slave of God, (2) Apostle of Jesus Christ. Paul says he is 
a slave and an apostle, with thte approval of and in agreement 
with "the faith" known and believed by the Christians of his day. 
Such Christians are here called "the elect," 

Those believers on the isle of Crete, who knew the revealed 
truth as given by the inspired writers of that day, would immedi- 
ately accept Paul's apostleship as from Christ, and his service as 
to God. 

Such revealed truth leads to being like God, or godly, 

We are aware that the above interpretation is not acceptable 
to some; however, after a very careful study of both sides of the 
issue, we feel Paul was saying his service to God and his apostle- 
ship from Christ was "in agreement with" the faith of God's elect, 
and not for the purpose of inducing faith in "the elect." Of 
course, we believe that elsewhere Paul states that his apostleship 
was for the purpose of producing faith—but not here. 

We refer you to another book in The Bible Study Textbook 
Series for a study of the expression "God's elect": Romans Rea- 
lized, pp. 155-158. Suffice it to say here that God elects those who 
elect to follow Him, The choice of election is in the sure knowl- 
edge of God and the free will of man at the same time, with no 
conflict to either. 

The use made of this epistle by Titus on the isle of Crete must 
not be forgotten. Whenever the teaching of Titus is called into 
question he can refer immediately to this letter, which is in per- 
fect harmony with the faith or the truth. The elect of God who 
have a knowledge of the truth will accept the message of Paul 
through Titus — those who do not accept it are in error. 
Vs. 2. Paul was called to be an apostle of Jesus Christ in the hope 
of eternal life. Paul served God as a slave serves his master in 
the hope of reward. He will not be disappointed, for the never- 
lying-God has made this promise of eternal life; indeed, this 
promise has been in preparation for ages past. 

How are we to understand the little expression "eternal life"? 
Is this to be equated with heaven? We believe it is. However, 
it carries the same overtones as the expression of the rich young 
ruler; (Mark 10:17) he inquired, "what must I do that I might 
inherit eternal life?" This young man wanted life that could not 
be found in morality. The rich young man came to the right 

139 



1:2-4 TITUS 

source. Jesus came to give us life (John 10:10) and life that is 
life indeed, Paul found this life here and now; but he knew* as 
we do, that the largest share of it is yet to come. Enjoying the 
benefits of life here; having promise of. continuing such life in 
ideal conditions in the new earth; such promise issuing from the 
unlying-God is enough to give incentive to anyone! 

How shall we understand the expression "before times eter- 
nal"? Shall We look in the Old Testament for the promise of 
"eternal life"? In other words — does the expression refer to the 
Old Testament age? We rather prefer the thought that God 
promised to His Sort "before the foundation of the world," that all 
Who would come through His death would have eternal life; 

Vs. 3. It is through the good news that life and immortality are 
brought to light. Whereas the", offer and hope of eternal life had 
been in the mind of God "before times eternal," He did not an- 
nounce it until the fullness of time (Gal. 4:4). "His : word" men- 
tioned in vs. 3 is to be understood as a synonym for "Gospel," in 
which the promise of eternal life is embodied. To Paul was this 
message entrusted. What a fearful responsibility; what a high 
and holy privilege. It was on the Damascus road, Saul of Tarsus 
was confronted with the subject and object of this message: the 
subject was Jesus of Nazareth— the object was to herald forth the 
message that "Christ Jesus died to save sinners." This commis- 
sion by Christ Jesus is called here "the commandment of God bur 
Saviour." Paul could never forget "the heavenly vision" and to 
it he could not be disobedient. Six times in Paul's letters to Tim- 
othy and Titus he uses the expression "God our Saviour" (Cf: 
I Tim. 1:1; 2:3; 4:10; Titus 1:3; 2:10; 3:4). Since God is the 
ultimate source of all that relates to our salvation, it seems appro- 
priate to refer to Him as "our Saviour." Paul felt his personal 
relationship to God as indicated by his use of "our" Saviour. 

Vs. 4. It has been suggested by some that, since the name. of Titus 
does not appear in the Book of Acts, perhaps Luke left him put 
for personal reasons. Maybe Titus was Luke's brother, and 
through a desire to be humble he was not mentioned. The above 
is ; only an opinion,, but it is a fact that the name of Titus occurs 
only in the Pauline epistles. 

Titus is a true child after a common faith. Was Titus a convert 
of Paul? We believe he was, but it is only a matter of conjecture. 
It can not be asserted from this reference. The expression "my 

140 



TITUS 1:1-4 

true child" could be one of endearment, as Paul thought of the 
age of Titus as compared with himself. Paul's hope and life 
proceeded from the same source as Titus — faith in the Lord Jesus 
Christ; thus "a common faith." We believe, however, that the' 
emphasis here should be on the objective quality of "the faith." 
"As measured by the common faith held by all Christians, Titus 
is a genuine child of God." (Kent) 

The greeting here given to Titus is the same as given to Tim- 
othy, minus the thought of "mercy." It was the sincere concern 
and prayer of Paul that Titus have the favor and peace of God 
the Father and Christ Jesus "our" Saviour. In verse three God 
is called Saviour, here Christ Jesus is called by the same name. 
This is not strange, since both are the source of our salvation. 
Since the Holy Spirit brought the message of salvation, we could 
also refer to Him as "our Saviour." 

Fact Questions 1:1-4 

1. Only in this letter does Paul use an expression of his rela- 
tionship to God. What is it? 

2. Explain the expression "according to the faith of God's 
elect." 

3. What is "the truth" as in lb? 

4. Who are "the elect" — how were they elected? 

5. What was " in the hope of eternal life" — God's elect or Paul? 
i.e., to whom does this expression refer? 

6. Discuss the meaning of "eternal life." 

7. To what does the expression "eternal life" refer? 

8. How shall we understand the use of the expression "His 
word" in vs. 3? 

9. Why was Paul so willing to obey the heavenly vision? 

10. Was Titus related to Luke? Why suggest such? 

11. Doesn't the use of the term "my true child" indicate that 
Titus was a convert of Paul? Discuss. 

I. THE CARE OF THE CHURCH 
7:5-16 

1. THE SELECTION AND QUALIFICATIONS 
OF ELDERS 1:5-9, 

Text 1:5-9 
5 For this cause left I thee in Crete, that thou shouldest set in order 
the things that were wanting, and appoint elders in every city, as 

141 



1:5-9 TITUS 

I gave thee charge; 6 if any man is blameless, the husband of one 
wife, having children that believe, who are not accused of riot or 
unruly. 7 For the bishop must be blameless, as God's steward; not 
self-willed, not soon angry, no brawler, no striker, not greedy of 
filthy lucre; 8 but given to hospitality, a lover of good, sober- 
minded, just, holy, self-controlled; 9 holding to the faithful word 
which is according to the teaching, that he may be able both to 
exhort in the sound doctrine, and to convict the gainsayers. 

Thoughi Questions 1 -.5-9 

16. When had Paul left Titus on the isle of Crete? Can we refer 
to the Acts account for the time mentioned here? 

17. Did Paul begin the work on Crete? Give a reason for your 
answer. 

18. Was Titus invested with apostolic authority for straightening 
out the difficulties in the Cretan churches? 

19. Do we have men today with the same authority and respon- 
sibility? 

20. Was Titus to accomplish the selection as well as the appoint- 
ment? How? 

21. Are we to understand that since Titus was to appoint elders 
in "every city" there were several churches in each city 
over which one set of elders ruled? What are we to under- 
stand by the expression "every city"? 

22. What is "a charge"— as in vs. 5b? 

23. Someone is always ready to cast blame upon the elder—how, 
then, could a man be blameless? 

24. Are the men to be considered all older men — i.e., in age? 
How old? 

25. What if the prospective elder is a widower, does this exclude 
him? 

26. If the children are grown before a man becomes a Christian 
and such children fail to become believers, does this eliminate 
the father from the eldership? 

27. Are we to understand the terms "elder" and "bishop" are 
here used to refer to the same office? Why use two terms? 

28. The elder is also called "God's steward." Show how this is 
true. 

29. Isn't everyone "self-willed"? What is meant by this expres- 
sion? 

142 



TITUS 1:5-9 

30. Wasn't Jesus "soon angry" at all sin? Explain, 

31. What is a "brawler"? 

32. There must he some distinction between "a brawler" and "a 
striker"' — what is it? 

33. How could Titus or the church decide if a man was or was 
not "greedy of filthy lucre"? 

34. What are the indications of hospitality? 

35. The elder is to be a "lover of good"— does this refer to per- 
sons? i.e., "a lover of good men"? 

36. What are the indications of the lack of a sober mind? Are 
we to equate this with wisdom? 

37. In what matters would an elder need to be "just"? 

38. If the elder met all of the qualifications so far stated, wouldn't 
he already be "holy"? Explain, 

39. Show how the qualifications of self-control would be particu- 
larly pertinent to the Cretans, 

40. What is "the faithful word according to the teaching" in 
vs, 9? 

41. Show the distinction between "exhorting in the sound doc- 
trine" and "convicting the gainsayers." 

Paraphrase 1:5-9 

5 For this purpose I left thee in Crete, that thou mightest supply 
the things wanting in the churches there, and in particular or- 
dain, in every city where there are churches, elders, as I com- 
manded thee. I will, therefore, describe the character and quali- 
fications of the persons thou oughtest to make elders. 

6 If anyone be in the eye of the world blameless, the husband of 
one wife at a time, having children who are Christians, and who 
are not accused of riotous living, nor are disobedient to their par- 
ents; persons of this character ordain bishops, that they may assist 
thee in opposing the Judaizers, 

7 For a bishop should be free from blame, as becomes the steward 
of the mysteries of God. He should not be headstrong nor ready 
to fall into a passion, nor addicted to wine; not a striker of those 
who displease him; not one who loves money so much that he 
makes gain by base methods; 

8 But, instead of loving money, hospitable, a lover of good men, 
prudent in conduct, just in his dealings, holy in speech, and tem- 
perate in the use of every sensual pleasure. 

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1:5,6 TITUS 

9 He should hold' fast the true Christian doctrine as he hath been 
taught it by the apostles, that he may be able, by wholesale 
teaching, both to instruct them who desire instruction, and to 
confute false teachers who speak against the truth to overturn it. 

Comment 1:5-9 

Vs. 5. Paul now takes up the burden of the letter. Paul had been 
on the. isle of Crete working for Christ. What he had not com- 
pleted he now wanted Titus to complete. To "set in order" means 
to set straight as a doctor would set a broken bone. This is. a gen- 
eral expression having reference to any and all needs of the con- 
gregations on the isle of Crete. "This verse gives us the historical 
setting for the Epistle. Titus is working on the island of Crete 
when Paul writes to him. Crete is one of the largest islands in 
the Mediterranean, .situated almost eauidistant from Europe, 
Asia, and Africa. A high state of civilization once flourished 
there, but by New Testament times the moral level of its inhabi- 
tants was deplorable. Their ferocity and fraud were widely 
attested; their falsehood was proverbial; the, wine of Crete was 
famous and drunkenness prevailed." (D. Edmond Heibert) 

By reading Titus 3:12 we can know Paul was leaving Titus on 
a temporary basis. He planned on sending another worker to 
replace him. 

We can not imagine there was anything of an arbitrary nature 
in the work of Titus. Correction was done by the means of in- 
struction and example. But let us not forget that deficiencies and 
dislocations were corrected by Titus. 

The appointment of elders is a specific work to be carried out 
in every church in every city on the island. As to the method 
of appointment, we refer you to our special study on the subject. 
We are particularly concerned with the qualifications of the 
elders. 

Vs. 6, We shall follow the same procedure- here as in our study 
in I Timothy — -i.e., a consideration of the qualifications in the 
order given by Paul, with no attempt on our part to group them 
(not that we have any objection to such grouping— see Special 
Studies). 

"blameless": This word means to be "unaccused." It will soon 
be known by those who are concerned in selecting candidates for 
the office, whether such persons are accused or not. Has the 

144 



TITUS 1:6,7 

prospective elder conducted himself in such a manner that no 
ugly stories concerning him are circulating in the community? 

"the husband of one wife" We have a special study upon this 
subject; to this study we refer all those who wish to pursue 
this theme further, Suffice it to say that there are several 
views on this verse: (1) that the elder must be married; (2) that 
he must remain a widower if his wife dies; (3) that he must not 
have more than one wife at a time, We ask you to thoughtfully 
decide which view is correct. Read I Timothy 5:14; Romans 
7:2, 3; I Cor, 7:39 as to second marriages, 

"having children that believe." Since elders would be chosen 
from older men, it would be natural to assume that most of them 
would have children; and that such children would be old enough 
to be Christians. It is not right or healthy for the elder to have 
pagan children, If the prospective elder accepted Christ late in 
life, he might not be at fault for the unbelief of his children, but 
he can not ignore his relationship to them. If his children are 
pagan in their attitude and conduct, it will reflect on him and his 
service to Christ, 

"who are not accused of riot or unruly." If the elder can not 
win his own children to Christ, how could he instruct others? 
"The family is the nursery of the church, and these two act 
and react upon each other so that a bad or weak father can 
never be an elder," (Lipscomb) 

The word "riot" means "inability to save"; the second word 
suggests insubordination. A father who has a prodigal son under 
his roof will have a very difficult, yea, impossible time in attempt- 
ing to lead others into a life of self-discipline and holiness. 

Vs. 7. The terms "bishop" and "elder" are used interchangeably 
as seen from the use of the word "for" in this verse. Verse seven 
is a conclusion to verses five and six. In verse five the term 
"elder" is used, then in reference to the same office the term 
"bishop" is used in verse seven, The men who hold this office 
are to be older in the faith and are to exercise oversight for the 
flock of God. The word "blameless" appears twice because of its 
inclusive quality. 

"God's steward" would seem a bit strange inasmuch as his 
service is to and for the church — one would imagine the elder 
would be called "the church's steward." The church is the house- 
hold of God. The elder serves in this household as a steward. In 

145 



1:7,8 TITUS 

such a responsible position he must be without blame ; moreover, 
it is required of a steward that he give an account of his steward- 
ship. 

In verse seven we have five negative qualifications: 

"not self-willed" : This has reference to pride. The elder must 
not be arrogant. The self-loving man will have little regard for 
others, except when they enhance his estimate of himself. 

"not soon angry": There is no place in the eldership for a "hot- 
head." The wrath of man never did work the righteousness of 
God (Jas. 1:20). In the eldership the wrath of man will work 
havoc with His saints. 

"no brawler": Literally, "not one who sits along side wine." 
Of course, the reference here is to the influence of wine. The 
bishop must leave wine alone. 

"no striker": The bishop must not be a pugilist. Discussions 
are never settled when fists are used to settle them. Corporal 
punishment should be confined to small children who have not 
reached the age where other types of reasoning can be used. The 
elder who would resort to physical violence is himself immature, 
and is using tactics reserved for his younger children. 

"not greedy of filthy lucre": "Not eager of shameful gain." 
Here is some hint as to the payment of elders for their service. 
Perhaps we should say that Paul assumed Titus knew that elders 
would, in their office, have opportunity to mishandle funds and 
thus included this comment. We should say this quality of greed- 
iness should be no part of a Christian's life in or out of the office 
of overseer. 

Vs. 8. In contrast to the five negative qualifications in verse 
seven are the six positive qualifications in verse eight: 

"given to hospitality": The elder is to be generous to guests; 
to entertain strangers with kindness and without reward. No one 
sets a stronger example than the overseers of the church. A gen- 
eral friendly and out-going attitude should prevail in the assem- 
bly and in the personal contact of each member. Let the elder 
set the pace in this regard. I Peter 4:9 and Galatians 6:10 indi- 
cate that such an attitude is the responsibility and privilege of 
every Christian. 

"a lover of good": The elder must not only be a lover of 
strangers — as inferred in the preceding qualification- — but also 
a lover of all that is good and holy. This is a cultivated quality 

146 



TITUS 1:8,9 

not often found, It is obtained by setting the mind upon those 
things which are good, and lovely, and just, and of good report 
(Cf, Phil. 4:8), It is a fruit of love which "taketh not account 
of evil, but rejoiceth with the truth" (Cf, I Cor, 13:5, 6). 

"sober-minded": The overseer should resist mind intoxication. 
Balanced judgment is such a needed quality in carrying out the 
important work of feeding and protecting the flock of God. There 
are some men who are compulsive drinkers and others who, under 
the influence of ambition, are compulsive thinkers— from both 
may the kingdom be delivered! 

"just": To be fair at all times with all people is such a com- 
mendable quality. How tragic it is when elders are partial and 
prejudiced instead of just and fair in their judgment. Many a 
congregation has been split asunder for lack of this important 
quality. 

"holy": The steward of God must be "unpolluted"; no man is 
worthy of the office who can be corrupted by Satan, The elder is 
to so keep his heart that no corrupt speech would come from his 
mouth — that no sensual thoughts would stain his mind. When 
examined by God or man, the elder should be pure in character. 
There is a wonderful beauty in holiness, such beauty should be 
seen in the life of the overseer. 

"self -controlled": This is literally, "in control of strength." The 
elder is a strong man — this is one thing — hut to be. in control of 
this strength is quite another. There are many men who possess 
great capacities, but mastering such and marshaling them into 
the service of Christ, is the need of the church. Joseph is a good 
example of "self-control." He did not allow men, circumstance 
or lust, to control him — he controlled them! 

Vs. 9. This verse has been taken by many to be a commentary 
of I Tim. 3:2— in which Paul states that the elder is to be "apt 
to teach." There must be some purpose or object in the qualifica- 
tions. We believe such a purpose is stated here; "holding to the 
faithful word . . . that he may be able both to exhort in the sound 
doctrine, and to convict the gainsayers." 

The expression "faithful word" is to be understood as a syn- 
onym for "the gospel" or "the faith," The elder is to both live 
and teach "the faithful word." He is to hold to it as a pattern 
for teaching and as a philosophy of life. 

147 



1:9. TITUS 

How shall we understand the phrase "which is according to 
the teaching"? Is this a reference to the teaching of the elder-^ 
"thus meaning that the elder must hold on to the teaching which 
was imparted to him. Or are we to understand that Paul is saying 
that, 'the elder must hold to God's Word which is in accordance 
with the recognized body of truth taught by the apostles' (cf. 
Acts 2:42)?" (Kent) We much prefer the latter interpretation. 

In so handling God's Word he will be prepared to encourage 
the saints and refute false teachers. To "exhort" means to encour- 
age or to incite to action. The "gainsayers" are those who Would 
speak against the truth of God, or in any way oppose the teachings 
of the Gospel. 

Fact Questions 7:5-9 

12. What is the meaning of the expression "set in order"? 

13. Give two facts about the isle of Crete. 

14. Why do we say that the stay of Titus on Crete was only of 
a temporary nature? 

15. What do we mean by saying that we do not believe Titus 
was arbitrary in his appointing of elders? 

16. Explain in your own words three of the negative qualifica- 
tions. 

17. What is the meaning of "riot or unruly"? 

18. Prove that the term "bishop" and "elder" refer to the same 
office. 

19. In what sense is the elder "God's steward"? 

20. Explain in your own words four of the positive qualifications. 

21. What is "the faithful word" of vs. 9? 

22. What is the two-fold task in the teaching of the elder? 

2. THE DESCRIPTION AND REFUTATION 
OF FALSE TEACHERS 1:10-16. 

Text 7:70-16 
10 For there ore many unruly men, vain talkers and deceivers, spe- 
cially they of the circumcision, 1 1 whose mouths must be stopped; 
men Who overthrow whole houses, teaching things which they 
ought not, for filthy lucre's sake. 12 One of themselves, a prophet 
of their own, said, 

Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, idle gluttons. 
13 This testimony is true. For which cause reprove them sharply, 
that they may be sound in the faith, 14 not giving heed to Jewish 
fables, and commandments of men who turn away from the truth. 

148 



TITUS 1:10-16 

I 5 To the pure all things are pure; but to them that are defiled 
and unbelieving nothing is pure; but both their mind and their 
conscience are defiled. 16 They profess that they know God; but 
by their works they deny Him, being abominable, and disobedi- 
ent, and unto every good work reprobate, 

Thought Questions 1:10-16 

42. Please show the connection of verse ten with the preceding 
verses. 

43. In what sense would the men described in verse ten be "un- 
ruly" or "vain talkers"? 

44. Is Paul discussing the Jews in vs. 10? 

45. Just how was Titus going to gag such false teachers? 

46. Is Paul discussing a problem in the churches of Crete? Prove 
your answer, 

4.7. Why would anyone be willing to pay to hear such false 
teaching? 

48. Why quote from one of the Cretan prophets? Can we iden- 
tify him? 

49. Why would Cretans be tempted above others to be liars, evil 
beasts, idle gluttons? 

50. Who is to be "reproved sharply"? 

51. From verse 13 it would seem the ones to be reproved sharply 
are Cretan Christians — is this true? — are they also the "un- 
ruly men"? 

52. A discussion of "Jewish fables" has already been considered 
— where? Discuss. 

53. Show how verse 15 relates to the context. 

54. Discuss a very basic principle of psychology involved in 
verse 15. 

55. How are the words "mind and conscience" used in verse 15? 

56. How was God denied in the works of certain men? 

57. What is the meaning and use of the word "abominable" in 
verse 16? 

58. Discuss the term "reprobate," 

Paraphrase 1:10-16 

10 For there are many teachers, who, being unsubjected to us, 
talk in a foolish manner concerning genealogies and fables, and 
deceive others; of this sort especially are the Jewish teachers, 

II Whose mouths must be stopped, neither by persecution nor 
force, but by clear and strong reasoning, because they carry off 
whole families to Judaism, teaching things which they ought not, 

149 



1:10-16 TITUS 

for the sordid purpose of drawing money from their disciples. 

12 The Judaizers in this are true Cretians, agreeably to what one 
of themselves, a prophet of their own, hath said, The Cretians 
are exceedingly addicted to lying, and of a savage noxious dispo- 
sition, and lazy gluttons. 

13 This testimony concerning the Cretians is just; for which 
cause I order thee to rebuke them and their disciples sharply, 
that, laying aside their wicked principles and practices, they may 
be healthy in the faith; 

14 Not giving heed to Jewish fables concerning the law, and to 
precepts concerning meats, enjoined by men who turn away true 
doctrine from themselves and others as a thing noxious. 

15 All meats indeed are pure to the well-informed and well- 
disposed: but to those who are polluted by intemperance, and 
who are unfaithful to Christ, no kind of meat is pure; for both 
their understanding and conscience is polluted by their intemper- 
ate use of the meats which the law reckons clean. 

16 They of the circumcision profess to know the will of God 
better than others; but by their works they deny him — being 
abominable on account of their sensuality, and disobedient to the 
express commands of God, and to every good work without dis- 
cernment: They neither know nor approve of any good work. 

Comment 1:10-16 

Vs. 10. We are now introduced to the "gainsayers" or those who 
contradict. Paul says four things about them: (1) they are in- 
subordinate, (2) they are empty talkers, (3) they are deceivers, 
(4) they are Jewish. 

Such men were very numerous on the isle of Crete. Are we 
to understand that they were Christians? If they were not mem- 
bers of the church they were very closely associated, because 
they were upsetting "whole houses" in the church. 

Timothy had the same problem in Ephesus — and must deal 
with it in the same manner (Cf. I Tim. 1:6-8). The admonition 
to "gag" such persons can be understood when we look at their 
character: insubordinate, proud, and deceitful or dishonest. Such 
persons are not all Jews, but most of them are. The elders are 
to be so taught that they could recognize such teachers. 

Vs. 11. With some heretics it is better to ignore them than to 
challenge their teaching; not so with these teachers. They must 
be muzzled! A simple authoritative charge to cease teaching, 

150 



TITUS 1:11-14 

backed up with an apostolic letter, would stop such mouths, 

It does make a vast difference what is taught! It is always a 
constant wonder why there are some among the saints who will 
hear and heed a false teacher, Paul knew of whole families who 
were being infected by this diseased doctrine. The deceived mem- 
bers of the churches on Crete were paying money to be duped! 
Such a tragic condition must be changed; elders were to be ap- 
pointed for this purpose, 

Vs. 12, Paul characterizes the Cretans by the words of Epimen- 
ides, one of the prophets of this people, Epimenides lived about 
600 B,C. and was held in almost divine regard. His testimony 
concerning his own countrymen was anything but complimen- 
tary, Three things are said of Cretans: (1) they are habitual 
liars, (2) evil, brute-like people, (3) indolent belly -worshippers, 
What is known from all sources confirms this testimony, A spe- 
cial expression was coined to describe the lying of the Cretans. 
"The expression 'to Cretize' meant 'to lie,' and 'to play the Cretan 
with a Cretan' meant 'to out-trick a trickster.' " (Hiebert) The 
expression "evil beasts" indicated the level on which they were 
living' — their lower natures were in full control, No attempt was 
made to curb any selfish, sensual or vengeful desire, The expres- 
sion "lumpish greedy-guts" is used by Simpson to describe the 
third quality of such persons. When no attempt is made to con- 
trol the appetites of the body, such a person will carry around 
an advertisement of his lack of self-control. It will be a large 
stomach! 

Vs. 13. Paul used the words of a respected prophet — not that he 
believed in the prophetic powers of such — to say with sharper 
meaning and condemnation what he also wanted to say. It is not 
to be imagined that all Cretans were under such condemnation, 
for some of them were "new creatures in Christ Jesus," but some 
among the believers were being influenced, To such members of 
the churches, Titus was to deliver a charge with the force and 
cutting power of a sharp ax, Such diseased teaching must be cut 
off with an accurate clean stroke! The result will be very good: 
health and vigor will return and they will be strong in the grace 
that is in Christ Jesus, 

Vs. 14. The Jewish fables have been discussed before in I Tim- 
othy, Please notice Paul's estimate of such teaching- — "fables, and 
commandments of men." There is no foundation in reality, and 

151 



1:15,16 TITUS 

no divine authority behind such teachings. The expression "turn 
away" means that they continue turning away. Such men are 
willful and do not want to follow the truth. There is Satanic 
influence at work in these men to blind their eyes to the truth; 
such influence is to be avoided at all costs, hence the urgency of 
the admonition. 

Vs. 15. Paul states in this verse a principle that will both cure 
and condemn. "To the pure all things are pure." Please keep this 
principle in its context. The distinctions made by the Jewish law 
to clean and unclean meats and men, is probably in view. The 
apostle is saying that such distinctions have been removed, and 
therefore, such teaching is to be ignored. The point implicit in 
Paul's principle is: You, not the meats, are impure! When the 
heart is clean, then all nonmoral objects are clean, but when 
your heart is polluted, then all you use is also unclean. 

To such law teachers in Crete (even as in Ephesus) Paul has 
no hesitancy in saying they are "defiled and unbelieving," When 
we will not believe the truth, we must look deeper than an intel- 
lectual difficulty. The defilement of the heart precedes the dis- 
belief of the mind. The effects of moral dishonesty are tragic: 
"nothing is pure — mind diseased — conscience seared." Only in 
humble acceptance of God's word is there moral and intellectual 
purity. 

Vs. 16. Profession without possession spells condemnation. To 
claim a knowledge and association with the infinitely holy God, 
while we live the loose life of the self-indulgent, is to make our- 
selves liars and to deny the very one we profess to follow. Such 
persons are seen by God as detestible and loathsome. The hypoc- 
ricy of those who declare their faith, and live in denial of it, are 
plainly willful in their conduct; such men are not sick or mal- 
adjusted, they are "disobedient." The word "reprobate" has ref- 
erence to the testing of coins for genuineness. The errorists have 
been tested and have been found spurious. Their works have been 
examined and have been found worthless. 

Fact Questions ?. -10-16 

23. Show the distinction in the use of the words "unruly — vain 
talkers — deceivers." 

24. How was Titus going to carry out the injunctions of Paul to 
"gag" or "muzzle" certain men? 

152 



TITUS 2:1,2 

25. Were the false teachers on the inside, or the outside of the 
church? Explain, 

26. Try to reconstruct the situation in which certain men would 
be paid to deceive, 

27, Wouldn't Paul antagonize the very ones he was trying to 
help, in citing the very critical comment of Epimenides? 
Discuss. 

28. Who was to be reproved sharply? Why? 

29. Are "Jewish fables, and the commandments of men" the same 
thing? Explain. 

30. Give your exegesis of vs, 15. Please relate this verse to the 
context. 

31, Show how the principle stated in vs, 15 relates to our life. 

32, Is it possible to defile the conscience beyond repair? Discuss. 

33, If professing we know God will not make it so — what will? 

34, Is Paul saying in 16b that the works of such men are worth- 
less, or that they are worthless regardless of their works? 

EXEGETICAL EXAMINATION OVER 
CHAPTER ONE 

1, What is the meaning of the expression: "according to the 
faith of God's elect"? 

2, Give your own exegesis of verse three. 

3, Write from memory your own outline of this chapter, 

4, Explain the responsibility of Titus in appointing elders. 

5, Discuss the qualifications of the elder as found in verse eight. 

6, Show the connection of verse ten with the preceding verses. 

7, Discuss the force of verse twelve. 

8, Explain how to "reprove them sharply," and yet not lose 
them quickly. 

9, How shall we develop the capacity to be those persons to 
whom "all things are pure"? 

10. Discuss the supposed reasons for the prevalence of false 
teachers on Crete. 

II. THE CONDUCT OF CHURCH MEMBERS 2:1-15 

1, OLDER MEN 2:1, 2. 

Text 2:1,2 
1 But speak thou the things which befit the sound doctrine: 2 that 
aged men be temperate, grave, sober-minded, sound in faith, in 
love, in patience: 

153 



2:1,2 TITUS 

Thought Questions 2:7, 2 

59. Evidently a contrast was intended, since the word "but" is 
used; what is the contrast? Please think this through — it will 
be worth your time. 

60. The speaking of Titus in this particular context refers to 
ordinary conversation. How would Titus fulfill this admoni- 
tion? Show examples of circumstances in which Titus would 
fulfill the instructions here given. 

61. In what particulars would some aged men be "intemperate"? 

62. There are two extremes on either side of this word "grave" 
— what are they? 

63. Show some distinction in the use of the word "sober-minded" 
as contrasted or compared with "temperate" and "grave." 

64. Older meri are to be sound or healthy in three particulars — 
discuss each of them. 

Paraphrase 2:7,2 

1 The fables and commandments of men taught by the Judaizers 
sicken the soul; But do thou inculcate the practices which are 
suitable to the wholesome doctrine of the gospel: 

2 That aged men, who hold sacred offices, be attentive to the be- 
haviour of their people, venerable in their own manners, prudent 
in their behaviour, spiritually healthy by faith, love, patience, 

Comment 2:7,2 

Vs. 1. The care of the congregation in its eldership and faith, 
was the subject of chapter one. The care of individual members 
of the church, is the subject of chapter two. Paul is concerned 
about the family. If the family is holy, the whole church will be 
holy. There are five members of the Christian family before the 
mind of the apostle. Perhaps we should say there are five 
classes: aged men, aged women, young married women, young 
men, and slaves. 

In sharp contrast to the disease-spreading talk of the "empty- 
talkers," Titus is to spread in his ordinary conversation, the 
health-giving word of the faith. 

Vs. 2. When visiting in the homes; when conversing in the 
market-place; when helping with a personal problem — instruct 
the older men in the following attitudes: let them be temperate 
or moderate. Older men are tempted to lose patience and be car- 
ried away with exasperation. Some are prone to other extremes 

154 



TITUS 2:1-3 

of attitude, Titus is to teach them by word and example to curb 
these tendencies, 

grave: The same qualities to be found in elders and deacons, 
are here applied to the older men of the congregation, It should 
be said that all the qualities of character necessary for the elder 
and deacon, are also to be a part of the Christians' conduct, To be 
"grave" means to be "serious, dignified, or respectable." 

sober-minded: This has reference to being sensible, balanced 
in judgment. 

The older men are to be strong and healthy in three areas: 
(1) in the faith, (2) in the love, (3) in the patience, 

Hendrikson wisely suggests that the older men have a three- 
fold obligation: (1) To God— to be sound in their faith, (2) To 
others — sound in love, (3) Toward trials — sound in patience. 

Fact Questions 2:1,2 

35. How are chapters one and two alike, yet different in content 
and purpose? 

36. "But speak thou the things which befit the sound doctrine" 
— what type of speaking is here involved — i.e., public? pri- 
vate? etc. 

37. Show how the instructions for the aged men are appropriate 
to their needs, 

38. Discuss the threefold obligation of the aged men. 
2, OLDER WOMEN 2:3. 

Text 2:3 
3 That aged women likewise be reverent in demeanor, not slan- 
derers nor enslaved to much wine, teachers of that which is good; 

Thought Questions 2:3 

65. To what does the word "likewise" in vs. 3 refer? 

66. Define the word "demeanor" in vs. 3. 

67. Would older women be especially tempted to be "slanderers"? 
Discuss. 

68. Why were aged women "enslaved to much wine"? Is this a 
problem today? 

69. Where and when would the older women teach? Define the 
use of the word "good" in vs. 3b. 

Paraphrase 2:3 

3 That the aged women, whom the church employs to teach the 
young of their own sex, in like manner, be in speech and be- 

155 



2:3-5 TITUS 

haviour as becometh persons- employed in sacred offices; not slan- 
derers, not enslaved to much wine, but good teachers: 

Comment 2:3 

Vs. 3. Titus has an urgent and large responsibility: he must 
prompt action on the part of the older and younger members of 
the churches to fullfil the qualities of character and conduct here 
described. To the aged women: they should be first of all con- 
cerned with their general impression on the public. What is: the 
first, as well as the total; impression, given by the older women? 
Is it one of holiness and reverence? 

Older women are sometimes especially tempted in two areas. 
Because they many times are alone^and sometimes in poor 
health — they are open to the temptation to seek solace in wine 
instead of worship. While thus addicted to wine they can become 
the tool of the great accuser, and begin to slander the various 
members of the church. 

In contrast to the idle, slandering, wine-filled life,, the reverent 
older woman will seek out some avenue of service in which she 
can be a teacher of good. The particular areas are specified in 
vs. 4. 

Fact Questions 2:3 

39. Just how was Titus going to fulfill the admonitions of these 
verses? i.e., how was he to obtain co-operation from the older 
men and women? 

40. Show how the first quality of character is inclusive of all 
the others. 

41 . Explain how and why older women would be tempted to be 
slanderers and addicted to much wine. 

42. Is there anything for an older woman to do in the church? 
What is it? 

3. YOUNGER WOMEN 2:4, 5. 

Text 2:4, 5 
4 that they may train the young women fo love their husbands, 
to love their children, 5 to be sober-minded, chaste, workers at 
home, kind, being in subjection to their own husbands, that the 
word of God be not blasphemed: 

Thought Questions 2:4, 5 

70. When would a young woman become an older woman? How 
young is young? 

156 



TITUS 2:4,5 

71. Would young women need special training in loving their 
husbands? Explain, 

72. Isn't it natural for mothers to love their children? Why the 
need for training? 

73. "Sober-minded" seems to be a very needed qualification- 
explain. Show how this quality is especially related to young 
married women. 

74. If a young woman was a Christian, would she need special 
training to be chaste? 

75. With whom would the young married women be tempted 
to be unkind? 

76. Does the expression "workers at home" suggest that they 
should not work away from home? 

77. Just what is involved in "being in subjection to their own 
husbands"? 

78. The spiritual education of the young married women was 
for a very worth-while purpose — what was it? Discuss the 
meaning of the expression "the word of God," 

Paraphrase 2:4, 5 

4 That they may persuade the younger women under their care 
to be lovers of their husbands, performing the duties of marriage 
from affection, and lovers of their children, by bringing them up 
religiously; 

5 To be of a calm disposition, chaste, attentive to the affairs of 
their families, good to their domestics, obedient to their own hus- 
bands, that the gospel may not be evil spoken of, as encouraging 
wives to neglect their husbands and children, on pretence of their, 
attending on the offices of religion. 

Comment 2:4, 5 

Vs. 4 & 5. Neither Titus nor the elders are given the responsi- 
bility of training the young married women. This is the respon- 
sibility of the older women. Who would be better qualified? This, 
of course, presupposes that such older women have themselves 
learned the lessons they are to teach the younger women. Much 
of this training can and does take place before the daughter leaves 
home, The best lesson is a good example, There are seven quali- 
ties to be instilled by the older women (whether it be the mother 
or someone else) : 

157 



2:4-8 TITUS 

(1) Husband-lovers, (2) Children-lovers, (3) sober-minded, 
(4) chaste, (5) worker at home, (6) kind, (7) in subjection to 
her own husband. 

Paul has more to say about this group than any other; and well 
he might, for if failure is found here, it will affect all other groups. 
The one big lesson is the lesson of love: love your husband, your 
children, your home, your Lord — and we might add, your posi- 
tion as help-meet. When the proper motive is used to obtain these 
virtues (Cf. 2:11-14) they seem but a natural outgrowth of the 
Christian life. 

Conduct and character have never been divorced either in the 
mind of God or in the eyes of the world. If the young married 
women are examples in the above particulars, the word of God 
will be honored! 

Fact Questions 2:4-5 

43. Why is the training of young married women given to the 
older women? 

44. Who are these older women? How shall they teach? i.e., by 
a class, by private lessons, or just how? 

45. Mention from memory four of the seven areas in which the 
older women are to give instruction. 

46. Why so much to say about this group? 

47. How does the proper motive relate to this teaching? 

48. When will the word of God be honored? 

4. THE YOUNG MEN 2:6-8. 

Text 2:6-8 
6 the younger men likewise exhort to be sober-minded; 7 in all 
things showing thyself an example of good works; in thy doctrine 
showing uncorruptness, gravity, 8 sound speech, that cannot be 
condemned; that he that is of the contrary part may be ashamed, 
having no evil thing to say of us. 

Thought Questions 2:6-8 

79. Would it be right to assume that all men who are not called 
"older men" would be classified as "younger men"? 

80. Give the meaning of the word "exhort." 

81. Please notice the repetition of the term "sober-minded" 
(Cf. 1:8; 2:2, 4, 5). Give the meaning and application of 
this word. 

82. Show how Paul's word to Titus Was prompted by the context. 

158 



TITUS 2:6-8 

83, To what, in previous verses, does the expression "all things" 
(vs, 7) refer? 

84, Is there some difference in an "ensample" and an "exam- 
ple"? If so, what? 

85, Read Matt, 23:3 and relate this to Titus, and then to present 
day preachers, 

86, To what do the two words, "uncorruptness" and "gravity" 
refer? Do they relate to the content of the teaching, or to the 
manner in which it is taught? Discuss, 

87, The content of the message is the subject of vs, 8, Give the 
meaning of the word "sound," What will be the evidence of 
sound speech? 

88, Who would criticize the teaching of Titus? Explain the use 
of the word "condemnation" in vs. 8, 

89, Who is "he that is of the contrary part"? 

90, Describe the possible circumstances under which someone 
would be "ashamed," 

Paraphrase 2:6-8 

6 The young men, in like manner, exhort to govern their passions, 
that they may behave soberly in the giddy season of youth. 7 To 
give weight to thy exhortations, in all things make thyself a pat- 
tern of those good works which thou enjoinest to others. In teach- 
ing, shew incorruptness of doctrine, gravity of speech,, and sin- 
cerity with respect to the motives by which thou art influenced, 

8 In conversation, and in proving offenders, use clear and strong, 
but temperate speech, which cannot be found fault with even by 
the offenders themselves; that he who is not a Christian may be 
ashamed of his opposition to thee, and to the elders, thy assistants, 
having nothing bad to say concerning you as teachers. 

Comment 2:6-8 

Vs. 6. Paul has but one word to give the young men, and it 
should be sufficient; —"be sensible"! Exercise control over your- 
self, think through your decisions and words. Some commenta- 
tors would place the phrase "in all things" with verse six instead 
of verse seven. In such a case Paul would be asking the young 
men to be balanced in judgement in every area of life, Morals 
and doctrine have both been discussed in these verses. Let the 
young men be prompted to exercise self-mastery in both areas. 

Vs. 7. Both Timothy and Titus are urged by the Apostle to set 
the example for those who are being taught (Cf. I Tim, 4:12). 

159 



2: 7,8 TITUS 

The word "pattern" literally means "an impress of a die", and 
hence in a metaphorical sense an "example." This pattern is to 
be presented in all things — or for all things. If the elders of Crete 
or Ephesus wanted to know the meaning of any of the teaching 
given, they could see a living translation of it in the conduct of 
Titus or Timothy. What an awesome responsibility! — "who is suf- 
ficient for these things?" — "our sufficiency is in God." 

Are we to understand the words: "in thy doctrine showing 
uncorruptness, gravity," to refer to the content of teaching, or to 
the manner in which the teaching (or doctrine) is given? We 
prefer the latter. So much depends on the manner of presentation. 
Two words are used: "uncorruptness" and "gravity" — let the 
man of God so speak as to pursuade men by his manner as well 
as by his material, that he could not be corrupted by those who 
would seek to influence him by base gain — whether it be for 
money or popularity. Let the man of God desist from all clown- 
ing and tom-foolery while teaching and preaching the Word of 
God. If seriousness can be turned off and on like a faucet, the 
preacher becomes suspect in his manner of teaching. This is a 
serious matter — "be serious" about it! 

Vs. 8. This verse discusses the content of teaching — "healthy 
speech" — the word speech could relate to all speaking whether 
publicly or in private. There are preachers who destroy by their 
unhealthy speech in private, all they have built up by their 
healthy speech in public. This MUST NOT be! There is no way 
to produce strong, profitable servants on a mixed diet of flesh and 
Spirit. 

Those on the outside are always waiting and watching for 
something evil to say of the man of God. Paul personifies the 
opposition by the use of the pronoun "he." It should be "he that 
is of the contrary part" who is ashamed — not the preacher. When 
word is spread around the community concerning some incon- 
sistency of word or action, let the life of the evangelist be so ex- 
emplary that when the truth is known, those who doubted him 
would be ashamed they ever entertained such thoughts. When 
the trial is over, there is no evil thing to be said against God's 
man. 

Fact Questions 2:6-8 

49. Give the meaning and application of the one word to young 
men. 

50. When Paul instructed Titus to be "an example" what did 
he mean? 

160 



TITUS 2; 9,10 

51, To what do the words "uncorruptness" and "gravity" refer? 

52, Explain the use of the word "speech" in vs, 8, 

53, Who is the one "of the contrary part"? What is our respon- 
sibility to him? 

SLAVES 2:9, 10 

Text 2:9,10 
9 Exhort servants to be in subjection to their own masters, and to 
be well-pleasing to them in all things; not gainsaying; 10 not pur- 
loining, but showing all good fidelity; that they may adorn the 
doctrine of God our Saviour in all things. 

Thought Questions 2:9, 10 

91. Does Paul condone slavery by his reference to it in vs. 9a? 

92. Are these slaves Christians? How shall we decide this 
question? 

93. How could a slave be well-pleasing to his master if the master 
was a despot? 

94. What is "gainsaying"? 

95. Explain "purloining." 

96. Give a synonym for the word "fidelity." Show how it is 
used here. 

97. Slaves are to provide the clothing for the teaching of God — 
explain, 

Paraphrase 2:9, 10 

9 Slaves exhort to continue subject to their own masters, and, 
in all things, lawful, to be careful to please; especially by per- 
forming their service cheerfully; not insolently answering again, 
even though they may be reproved unjustly or with too much 
severity. (See I Pet. ii. 18). 10 Not secretly stealing any part of 
their master's goods, but shewing the greatest fidelity and hon- 
esty in every thing committed to them; that, by the whole of 
their behaviour in their low station, they may render the doc- 
trine of the gospel amiable, even in the eyes of their heathen 
lords, 

Comment 2:9, 10 

Vs. 9. There are five groups with whom Titus is to work, Each 
of the preceding four have been in the church. We believe the 
slaves are also members of the church. The instructions given 
could not be followed by less than a Christian. The latter part 
of verse 10 settles the matter: slaves are to conduct themselves 

161 



2:9,10 TITUS 

in the manner here prescribed so as to offer attractive testimony 
to the non-Christian of the doctrine of God. 

The thought of Christian slaves becoming restive because 
of their position, has been discussed in Paul's first letter to Tim- 
othy (Cf. I Tim. 6:1,2). The word "exhort" is supplied by the 
translators of the American Standard Version, for smooth reading 
— Please do not overlook the fact that the whole section (i.e. vss. 
9, 10) is given not as suggestions, but as imperatives of Christian 
conduct. 

The Christian slave will serve with a purpose. His purposes 
will be to serve Christ in his service for man. In doing this, he 
will accomplish the lesser but nonetheless important purpose 
of pleasing his Master. Such service is to be given "in all things." 
In those tasks where human choice and preference enter — put 
the desires of your Master above those of yourself. 

Two very common faults (shall we call them "sins") of 
slaves are here brought to light. The Christian slave should not 
"sass-back" — offer no "back-talk." Do your work without mur- 
muring or complaining. Paul does not discuss who is right — he 
points out what is right. 

Vs. 10. "Not taking things for themselves" (Lenski). This has a 
broader scope than petty thievery. The reference here is to em- 
bezzlement in any and all forms. Slaves held very responsible 
positions in the society of the first century. Opportunity of ap- 
propriating that which belonged to another was very great. The 
master of the Christian slave should be able to trust the slave im- 
plicitly. It would not be easy to serve as a Christian slave. To 
know that all men are created equal in the sight of God, and yet 
to be bound as property to another man, would indeed be difficult. 
For this reason, there must be a higher and holier purpose in the 
service of the slave than mere free labor for another man — even 
if he is a Christian brother. That higher, holier purpose is to pro- 
vide luster and beauty to the teaching of God. The slave could 
exemplify in his service the beauty and power of the teaching he 
professed. The doctrine of God is only attractive to others if we 
make it so by our lives. If God can save the slave in his lowly, 
unpaid position, He is, indeed, in truth — the Saviour. 

Facf Questions 2:9, 70 

54. What is the conclusive point indicating that the slaves were 
Christians? 

162 



2:11-15 TITUS 

55, In what manner was Titus to deliver these instructions to 
slaves? 

56, What attitude must prevail in the heart of the slave before 
he could "please his Master in all things"? 

57, The Christian slave is to serve without "gainsaying" — ex- 
lain, 

58, "Purloining" is more than petty thievery. Discuss it's broader 
applications, 

59, How could the slave become "an adornment for the doctrine 
of God"? 

6, THE MOTIVES FOR CONDUCT 2:11-15 

Text 2:11-15 
1 1 For the grace of God hath appeared, bringing salvation to all 
men, 12 instructing us, to the intent that, denying ungodliness and 
worldly lusts, we should live soberly and righteously and godly 
in this present world; 13 looking for the blessed hope and appear- 
ing of the glory of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ; 14 
who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, 
and purify unto himself a people for his own possession, zealous of 
good works, 15 These things speak and exhort and reprove with 
all authority. Let no man despise thee. 

Thought Questions 2:11-15 

98. The word "for" in vs, 11 connects this new section with the 
one just concluded. Show how. 

99. Discuss the meaning of the expression "the grace of God." 

100. When and where did the grace of God appear? 

101. How shall we understand the phrase "bringing salvation to 
all men" — all men are not saved. How is this true? 

1 02. Please think carefully and personally as to just how the grace 
of God becomes a great teacher or instructor. Express the 
truth in your own words. 

103. Read Rom. 1: 18-32 for a definition of ungodliness and world- 
ly lusts. Is it enough to just "deny" these things? Explain. 

104. Show the distinction in the words: "soberly - righteously - 
godly." 

105. How are Paul's words applicable to us in-as-much as our 
word or age is somewhat different than his? 

106. What is our blessed hope? In what way is this hope blessed? 

107. How is the word "glory" used in vs. 13? 

108. Does the text here say that Jesus is our Saviour and great 
God? Discuss, 

163 



TITUS 2:11-15 

109. In what sense did Jesus give Himself for us? 

110. Since Christ redeemed us from our iniquity, does this excuse 
our continued sinning? 

111. When, where and how does Jesus purify a people? 

112. If certain people are not zealous of good works, does it follow 
that such persons do not belong to Christ? 

113. How much of chapter two is included in the 15th verse? 

Paraphrase 2:11-15 

11 These things I command, because ths gospel of God, which 
bringeth both the knowledge and the means of salvation, hath 
shone forth to all men, to Jews and Gentiles, rich and poor, 
masters and slaves, without distinction, 12 teaching us, that re- 
nouncing ungodliness, especially atheism and idolatry, and. put- 
ting away worldly lusts, we should live temperately, righteously, 
and godly in this present world, 13 expecting not any temporal 
rewards, such as the law promised, but the accomplishment of 
the blessed hope of the appearing of the glory of the great God, 
and our Saviour Jesus Christ, who will bestow eternal life on all 
who deny ungodliness and worldly lusts;, 14 who, during his 
first appearing on earth, gave himself to death for us, that he 
might redeem us from the power, as well as from the punishment, 
of all iniquity, and purify to himself a peculiar people, not by 
circumcision and other ceremonial observances, but by being 
zealous of good works. 15 These things inculcate as necessary to 
be believed, and exhort all who profess the gospel to live suitably 
to them. And such: as teach otherwise, confute with all the au- 
thority which is : due to truth, and to thee as a teacher commis- 
sioned by Christ. Let no one have reason to despise thee. 

Comment 2:11-15 

Vs. 1 1 . The well-springs of action are here discussed. Paul has 
instructed Titus to speak to five groups of Christians about some 
very important and difficult matters. He is here to discuss the 
motives for translating into life such admonitions. 

The "grace of God" is a great instructor. What is the grace 
of God? It is the unearned, unmerited favor God has toward sin- 
ful man. We are constrained to exclaim with Paul elsewhere: 
surely "the goodness of God leadeth thee to repentance;" (Ro. 
2:4) '• 

The love of God for the lost world, was made flesh in the 
person of His own Son. God's grace appeared in Christ from His 
birth to His ascension; and even more, in the establishment of 
His church on Pentecost. 

164 



TITUS 2:11,12 

In what way did the grace of God bring salvation to all men? 
Or should we ask; In what manner did the grace of God appear to 
all men to bring Salvation? We much prefer the first translation, 
which states that the grace of God in the person of His Son came 
to provide salvation for all men. We cannot see how it has been 
true, or is now true, that all men have heard of the grace of God 
in Christ. We are sure God intended that all men should hear of 
His love in the person of His Son, but for 1900 years we have 
failed to fulfill this intention. 

God intended, and does now intend, that none should perish, 
but all come to salvation and a knowledge of the truth. (II Pet, 
3:9) (I Tim, 2:1) 

Vs. 12. The grace of God is a wonderful pedagogue. The word is 
stronger and broader than the term "teacher" — it quite literally 
means "to train a child, to bring up a child." Instruction is a part 
of child training, and God's love toward us has provided such in- 
struction in His word. But such training includes far more than 
mere instruction or information. "He scourgeth every Son whom 
He receiveth." The loving concern of God provides discipline 
as well as instruction. In what way will God our Father lead us 
to deny ungodliness and worldly lusts? There are so many ways 
best known to Him, but all of them have their basis in a knowl- 
edge of His will. It is one thing to know that we should deny 
ungodliness and worldly lusts, it is quite another thing to have 
the desire to do so. But the grace of God will see to it that each 
child of His will have reasons to decide in favor of doing so. The 
fruitless, frustrating experience of indulging in ungodliness and 
worldly lusts could be a strong reason for denying them. A clear 
and full view of the punishment of the ungodly and lustful, would 
also turn us to the side of righteousness. This is a school from 
which we never graduate. The loving concern of our Father con- 
tinues while life shall last. 

Now appears the positive side of the instructive power of 
grace. We are not only to be repulsed by sin, but we are to learn 
to love righteousness. Three qualities are here discussed: (1) 
Soberly or "sensibly," Five times this word is used in this short 
letter: (Cf 1:8, 2:2, 4, 5, 6). Refer to these other instances for a 
more detailed explanation (2) "Righteously." In our relation- 
ship to our fellow man, we must live a life above reproach. May 
our lives be a translation of the virtues we espouse. (3) "Godly," 

165 



2:12-14 TITUS 

The thought here is to include God in all your plans. God too 
often becomes "the third man out," with the average church 
member. It is too easy to leave God at home or at church. The 
Christian who allows God's grace to instruct him aright, will be 
ever conscious of the Omnipresent God. 

Please remember Titus was on the wild wicked isle of Crete 
when he received such instructions. Paul expected the Cretans 
to live out in their daily associations the implications of this in- 
struction. "In the present course of things" let the grace of God so 
teach us. Surely if the Cretans were expected to do this, we have 
little excuse for less. 

Vs. 13. The motives for holy living — what are they? The un- 
earned concern of God is one motive — this we have discussed. 
In vs. 13 we are introduced to another motive: "the blessed 
hope and appearing of the glory of the great God and our Saviour 
Jesus Christ." We know that one day all our aspirations of tri- 
umph over sin, Satan and the grave will find fulfillment. 

The second coming of Christ will vindicate all our efforts to 
live for Him. It will also be a vindication of His own claims. It is 
a blessed hope to us. It shall be a glorious appearing for Him. He 
appeared once for sin. He shall appear the second time apart from 
sin for those who wait (hope) for Him. D. Edmond Hiebert has 
asked very pertinently, "When He thus returns 'in glory,' whose 
glory is it?" Is Paul referring to one person or to two persons? 
There is a great deal of divided opinion over this question. We 
prefer to believe this is a reference to the diety of Jesus. However, 
the term could be applied to either God or Jesus with almost equal 
reason, as will be noted from the alternate reading given in the 
American Standard version. Reference to Christ as God can be 
found in other Scriptures: Cf. John 20:28; Rom. 9:5; Heb. 1:8; 
II Pet. 1:1. We do suggest that you read one of the many discus- 
sions on this interesting point. 

On that day when He comes He will come as "our Saviour." 
On that day we shall be delivered from all that thwarts and hind- 
ers the full expression of His rule among men. 

Vs. 14. Yet another motive for holiness is seen in recognizing 
the purpose of God and Christ in the redemption of the cross. 
Why did Christ die? To "redeem us from all iniquity, and purify 
unto Himself a people for His own possession, zealous of good 
works." 

166 



TITUS 2:14 

Our blessed Lord voluntarily "gave Himself for us." No man 
took His life — He freely laid it down as payment for the guilt of 
our sin, In a grand sense, Jesus gave Himself to us, all during His 
earthly life, But in a unique sense, He gave Himself at Calvary 
for us, If the thought of substitution is not in this expression, 
then it is meaningless. 

We were taken captive unto the will of Satan — such captivity 
must be broken. It was broken by payment of the redemption 
price. He has redeemed us — but to what intent? There is both a 
negative and a positive answer to this question. (1) That He 
might redeem us from all iniquity — that He might purify unto 
Himself a people for His own possession, 

If we do not turn from iniquity or "lawlessness," what shall 
we say of the purpose of redemption? We must say that in our 
understanding of the death of Christ for us, we have missed the 
point. Christ did NOT come to save us in our sins but from them, 
How can we continue in sin while beholding what it cost God 
and His son? Our acceptance of Christ's redemption is fatally 
faulty, if it fails to include a turning from all our iniquity. 

"We were not only guilty, but dirty." We are also delivered 
and purified. We immediately think of the sanctifying services of 
the Old Covenant. The purifying of the priests was but a shadow, 
of which we are the substance. We are cleansed from the inside, 
by our acceptance of God's Lamb, and His Sacrifice for us. This 
is true if we understand the power of the cross in our hearts, and 
meet the requirements of cleansing as stated in His Word. Cf. 
Rom. 6:1-6 for a discussion of where and when we meet the 
death of Christ for the inward cleansing, 

The King James version uses the expression "peculiar peo- 
ple" where the American Standard has "a people for his own 
possession." The thought of the word is in reference to something 
that "belongs in a special sense to oneself." The word "particular" 
is better understood by us today, instead of "peculiar." We be- 
long to Christ in a "particular" sense; we are His very own. 

(2) Christ redeemed us to the intent that we should be "zeal- 
ous of. good works." This is the positive aspect of redemption. 
Once again we must say, that if we are not eager and urgent in 
our living the Christian life and communicating the good news 
to others, we have not a clear view of the purpose of Calvary. 

167 



2:15 TITUS 

Vs. 15. This is a fitting conclusion to the chapter, We refer the 
expression "these things" to the instructions and. admonitions of 
chapter two. But we could as well include chapter one; or even 
allow this to stand at the head of chapter three, as applying to it. 
Someone has said, the words here given to Titus outline the 
preaching and teaching ministry of the evangelist: 
speak: "talk" would be a good synonym, In ordinary conversa- 
tion with the persons mentioned, do not hesitate to discuss these 
important matters. Let others discuss the weather and relatives, 
but do not forget to "talk" about these more important subjects 
discussed in this letter. 

exhort: Some will need help in applying the truth to life. This is 
your place in God's program, It is always easier to see the impli- 
cations of the truth, when pointed out by someone else. We are 
reluctant to apply it by ourselves to ourselves. 
reprove: Others will need chastening. The man of God has the 
holy responsibility of indicating short-comings in reference to 
God's laws for living. He must remind the Christian that God 
has punishment for violators. 

Titus is to do this with "all authority." He is to be aware that God 
speaks through him. This letter will confirm the importance and 
source of what he says. 

"Let no man despise thee." The word "depise" means "to think 
around." 

Among the older men, older women, younger men, or the slaves, 
there will be those who seem to continue in their error in spite 
of your words. Do not ignore this attitude! Be sure each one faces 
squarely and personally the will of God for his life. Stand boldly 
in the pathway of those in need. 

Fact Questions 2:11-15 

60. Give the central thought of vss. 11-15. 

61. When and where was the grace of God manifested? 

62. In what way did the grace of God bring salvation to all men? 

63. The grace of God is a great "pedagogue." Explain. 

64. How do we learn from the "grace of God" to deny ungodli- 
ness and worldly lusts? 

65. Explain the meaning of the three words: soberly, righteously 
and godly, as in vs. 12. 

66. Show how the Second Coming of Christ becomes a motive for 
holy living. 

168 



TITUS 3:1,2 

67, When He returns "in glory" whose glory is it? Discuss, 

68, Explain in your own words how the cross becomes a motive 
for holy living, 

69, To what intent has Christ redeemed us? Give both the nega- 
tive and the positive answer to this question. 

70, Show how we are sanctified by our acceptance of the death 
of Christ, 

71, In what sense are we a "peculiar people"? 

72, If we are not eager and urgent in living the Christian life, 
what is the difficulty according to vs, 14b? 

73, What are the "things" of vs. 15a? 

74, How is the word "speak" used here? 

75, Explain how the word "reprove" is used in vs, 15. 

76, Give the meaning of the phrase, "Let no one despise thee." 

EXEGETICAL EXAMINATION 

OVER CHAPTER TWO OF THE 

EPISTLE TO TITUS 

1 , Give from memory your own outline of this chapter. 

2, Present an explanation as to how to help older men, young 
women and young men, 

3, Explain the responsibilities of the older women. 

4, Give your own exegesis of vs. 8. 

5, Show the pertinency of the instructions to slaves. 

6, How can we "adorn the gospel"? 

7, What is "the grace of God" as in vs. 11? 

8, What is the powerful incentive for denying ungodliness and 
worldly lusts? 

9, Show the relationship of holiness and the second coming. 
10, Give your own exegesis of vs. 15. 

III. CHURCH MEMBERS IN SOCIETY 3:1-1 1 

1. AS CITIZENS 3:1, 2 

Text 3:1/2 

1 Put them in mind to be in subjection to rulers, to authorities, 
to be obedient, to be ready unto every good work, 

2 to speak evil of no man, not to be contentious, to be gentle, 
showing all meekness toward all men. 

Thought Questions 3:1,2 

114. Had the Cretans been instructed before on the matter of 
their relationship to civil authorities? When, and by whom? 

169 



3:1,2 TITUS 

115. Is there some distinction between rulers and authorities? 
Specify. 

116. Why say "to be obedient" when they are already reminded 
to be "in subjection"? 

117. What "good work" would be open to Christians on Crete? 
Please note that this "good work" is civil in nature. 

118. In what sense are we "to speak evil of no man"? Paul out- 
lined and itemized the evil works of many men. 

119. How can we "contend for the faith" and yet not be conten- 
tious? 

120. Discuss the strength of gentleness. 

121. Surely "showing all meekness toward all men" is an over- 
statement. Show how such an injunction could be translated 
into life. 

Paraphrase 3:1 , 2 

1 Put the Cretians in mind of what I have taught them; namely, 
to be subject to the governments and powers established in Crete; 
to obey magistrates though they be heathens; to be ready to per- 
form every good work enjoined by the laws of their country; 

2 To speak evil of no one on account of his nation or religion, 
to be no fighters, but of an equitable disposition, (Phil. 4:5, note), 
and to show the greatest meekness to all men, even to enemies. 

Comment 3:1,2 

Vs. 1 Here are some of the "good works" for which the Christians 
on Crete are to be zealous. Evidently Paul had spoken to the Cre- 
tans about this before— it now remains for Titus to "put them in 
mind" of these things, for the truth to be carried out. If we are to 
believe historians of the time (and we have no reason to doubt 
them), Cretans were very dissatisfied with the Roman rule, and 
showed signs of revolt. So says Polybius and Plutarch. In the 
light of this situation, the Christians leave a testimony to present 
to the world. 

Adopt a willingness to subject yourselves to your rulers. 
Even if such rulers live evil lives, yet God has ordained law and 
order. As long as the laws of the land do not contradict the laws 
of God, we should be perfectly willing to obey men (Cf. Acts 
5:29). The word "authorities" as coupled with "rulers" simply 
enlarges on one thought, that is, rulers have authority. Romans 
13:1-6 indicates such authority is from God. 

The Christian is not only to be willing, but when called upon 
to act, he will obey. How easy it is to justify disobedience when 

170 



TITUS 3:1,2 

we feel the ones who command obedience are themselves dis- 
obedient' — most especially is this true when the laws are appar- 
ently but a matter of opinion or interpretation, Such attitudes 
cannot be indulged in by the Christian, for his example is watched 
and followed. To those looking for an opportunity to criticize The 
Way, he has provided it, To those looking for occasion to rebel, 
he has unwillingly given excuse, 

In what "good work" would the civil authorities engage, to 
which we could lend assistance? We can think of a number of 
community projects to which we could pledge our support if we 
would, Is the donation of blood a "good work"? Would the relief 
of war victims be a "good work"? Would appeal to our public offi- 
cials for righteous legislation, or support of some who are attempt- 
ing to persuade such legislation, be a "good work"? What are we 
doing about it? 

Vs. 2. There are in vss. 1, 2 seven responsibilities for the believer, 
Three are in vs. 1 and four in vs. 2: (1) Be in subjection to rulers 
and authorities; (2) Be obedient; (3) Be ready unto every good 
work; (4) Speak evil of no man; (5) Do not be contentious; (6) 
Be gentle; (7) Show all meekness toward all men. 

Vs. 2 seems to relate to those on the outside of the church, 
whereas verse one discusses those on the inside. To "speak evil of 
no man" in the midst of a wicked world, is no easy injunction. 
The word used is stronger than criticism; it means "to heap 
curses upon" or "to blaspheme." No good is accomplished by such 
words — our attitude of "good will toward all men," is hardly up- 
held by such outbursts. 

Someone has humorously said, "Some church members are 
born in the objective case and the ldckative mood." Such a one 
might be designated as "contentious." Such persons are also very 
poor witnesses for Christ, to say nothing of being poor neighbors 
and citizens. 

The word "gentle" is a good one as relating to its root mean- 
ing — one filled with a positive good will — "ready to yield per- 
sonal advantage, eager to help the needy, kind to the weak, con- 
siderate toward the fallen, always filled with the spirit of sweet 
reasonableness" (Hendriksen) , We could easily say of the thought 
here, that a true Christian will be a true gentleman. 

How did Paul imagine believers would be able to show "all 
meekness (or mildness) to all men"? Was this the attitude needed 
with these "liars, evil brutes, and lazy bellies"? (Cf, 1:12) We 

171 



3:1-7 TITUS 

have no right to ask such a question. We do not want to over- 
come evil with good. We somehow imagine we shall overcome! evil 
with force or demanded respect. Until the world can see some of 
the humility and meekness (which is but strength under con- 
trol) of our Lord, we shall have but little progress in making the 
kingdoms of this world the kingdom of our Lord and of His 
Christ. 

Please do not shrug off this word as an ideal. It is more — 
it is God's answer to a lost world. 

Fact Questions 3:1,2 

77. How was Titus finishing a work started by Paul? 

78. Timothy was told to pray for rulers. Titus was told to com- 
mand obedience to them. Is this a fair comparison? If not, 
why not? If so, why so? 

79. When, and only when, should the Christian rebel against au- 
thority? 

80. Is there some distinction in the use of the terms, "rulers and 
authorities"? 

81. Since many laws are only a matter of opinion, why should 
we bother to obey them? (Especially when we are in a hurry 
to keep an important appointment.). 

82. In what "good work" could the believers help? 

83. List the four responsibilities of vs. 2, and give a specific, per- 
sonal example of how they are fulfilled in daily life. 

2. THE MOTIVE FOR PROPER CONDUCT 3:3-7 

Text 3:3-7 

3 For we also once were foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving 
divers lusts and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hateful, hat- 
ing one another. 

4 But when the kindness of God our Saviour, and his love toward 
man, appeared, 

5 not by works done in righteousness, which we did ourselves, but 
according to his mercy he saved us, through the washing of re- 
generation and renewing of the Holy Spirit, 

6 which he poured out upon us richly, through Jesus Christ our 
Saviour; 

7 that, being justified by his grace, we might be made heirs ac- 
cording to the hope of eternal life. 

172 



TITUS 3; 3-7 

Thought Questions 3:3<-7 

122. Just who is included in the "we" of vs, 3? 

123. If all such actions as those described in vs. 3 are in the past 
tense, why the need for the injunctions of vs. 1 and 2? 

124. In what context is the word "foolish" used in vs. 3a? 

125. Is there some order of progress in the sins described in vs, 
3? Please examine them carefully. 

126. In what sense is the word "deceived" used? 

127. Why would anyone actually serve something that offers so 
little, if any, benefit as "divers lusts and pleasures"? 

128. Is there any genuine "pleasure" in serving Satan? Discuss. 

129. Show the distinction between; malice and envy— hateful 
and hating one another, 

130. Point out the difference in the use of the words "kindness" 
and "love" as in vs. 4. 

131. Is Paul discussing the conversion of the Cretans, in vs. 4, or 
is this a reference to the first advent of Christ? 

132. We are not saved by works — or are we? Please explain. 

133. Paul plainly states that the Cretans were saved from the 
power and penalty of the sins mentioned in vs. 3, If we as 
church members continue to practice some of these sins, 
can we say we are saved? Discuss. 

134. We are saved "by the means of" the "washing of regenera- 
tion and renewing of the Holy Spirit." Please explain just 
what experience this describes. 

135. What did God pour out upon us richly? 

136. Explain the phrase, "justified by his grace." 

137. Is eternal life the inheritance of the "heirs" of vs. 7b? Please 
note the marginal reading. 

Paraphrase 3:3-7 

3 This behavior, towards those who profess false religions, be- 
cometh us Jews: For even we ourselves were formerly foolish in 
our notions of religion, and in observing the traditions of the 
fathers; disobedient to God, erring from the truth, slavishly serv- 
ing divers inordinate desires and pleasures, living in malice and 
envy, hated by the Gentiles, and hating one another. 

4 But when the goodness and philanthropy of God our Saviour 
(Chap. 2:11), shone forth to all mankind, through the preaching 
of the gospel, 

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3:3-7 TITUS 

5 He saved us Jews from the miserable and wicked state in which 
we were living, not on account of any works of righteousness 
which we had done under the law to merit such a deliverance, 
but in prosecution of his own merciful purpose, which he ac- 
complished through the bath of regeneration, and the renewing 
of the Holy Ghost, 

6 Which he poured out on us richly, in his various gifts at our 
conversion, through Jesus Christ our Saviour, who procurred 
these gifts for men; 

7 That being delivered, by the mere favor of God, from the wick- 
edness and misery of our former state, we might be made children 
and heirs, agreeably to the hope of eternal life given us by the 
promise of God. 

Comment 3:3-7 

Vs. 3. Paul is to say, that since the Cretans were Christians, it 
should not be difficult to follow out the seven points of instruc- 
tion in vss. 1, 2. But what a grand way to approach the subject! 
Surely the incentive to act as Paul asks will be developed by his 
approach. 

Notice the inclusion of himself and Titus in what he says: 
"For we also were once foolish. "It will be observed that whereas 
there were seven areas of obedience (vss. 1, 2) there are here 
seven areas of disobedience (vs. 3): (1) Foolish; (2) Disobedient; 
(3) Deceived; (4) Serving divers lusts and pleasures; (5) Living 
in malice and envy; (6) Hateful; (7) Hating one another. 

This is also a description of the former life of the Chris- 
tians on Crete. We were once this way, but from these things we 
were delivered — the strong inference being "we cannot fall back 
into the pit from whence we were digged"! It will be greatly prof- 
itable to meditate a moment on each of these descriptive terms. 

Foolish: Sin is foolishness. It is not that the unregenerate is 
not intelligent, but rather that he Walks in the vanity of his own 
understanding which has been perverted by Satan. The philoso- 
phy of the unregenerated is not cohesive; he has left out the one 
who holds- all things together. 

Disobedient: This is an outgrowth of foolishness. The sinner 
is not only disobedient to God, but to his own better self; to will 
to do right is present, but the power to carry it out is not. 

Deceived: We could say with Paul elsewhere "deceived and 
being deceived." Those who offer no resistance to Satan are help- 

174 



TITUS 3:3,4 

less victims of his wiles, Those who walk not according to the 
truth, inevitably walk in error, Sin is an illusion of worth' — those 
who pursue it for reality are deceived. 

Serving divers lusts and pleasures; The strong drives of 
human nature have become their masters, They are no better 
than animals who live only for the sensations of the body. When 
control is not exercised in the area of appetites, we become the 
unhappy and almost unwilling slaves. How fleeting the pleasure 
offered — how empty is all the satisfaction our heart desires. 

Living in malice and envy. Perhaps envy is an outgrowth 
of malice. Malice is a desire for evil directed toward another per- 
son. In contrast to the one who would want good for his neighbor, 
the one living in malice would wish him every misfortune. It 
could be that envy was one of the reasons for such an attitude 
developing. 

Hateful; Detestable or abominable would be a better word. 
From God's viewpoint, such a person has become loathsome. The 
strange part of the whole life of indulgent living is, that we can 
never quite understand why people do not like us — except to 
their own advantage. Ingrown selfishness produces an impossible 
associate, 

Hating one another: The selfish man is never wrong, that is, 
in his own eyes. Such an attitude develops hatred for those who 
disagree with us. When two or two dozen such people associate 
together, the expression "hating one another" is an accurate de- 
scription of their attitude. 

Vs. 4 God made an appearance on the stage of our life. When 
He came, He was full of kindness and love. We did not deserve 
kindness- — indeed, our repulsive conduct would call for punish- 
ment! There was nothing loveable about us. But God came to 
stretch out arms of love to us, even if He must stretch them on the 
cross of Golgotha, There is a whole vista of understanding in the 
little expression, "the kindness and love toward man." As Hen- 
driksen states, "The expression — is one concept; hence, the verb 
in the original is singular." It is one thing to love — and God can 
do no other, for He is love — but to be kind, one must have a per- 
sonal interest and concern. God not only loved us, but sought to 
personalize His love in speaking to our individual needs. How 
did the preacher know what you needed when first you heard the 
good news? It was the kindness of God adapting His love to your 
deepest need through the man of God. 

175 



3:5 TITUS 

Vs. 5 We can have patience with persons yet in sin, when we 
remember our deliverance or salvation. We cannot look down on 
them, inasmuch as we also remember it was out of God's mercy 
and grace we were saved, and not by or because of any merit of 
our own. 

Our salvation was obtained by or through the means of "the 
washing of regeneration and renewing of the Holy Spirit." The 
alternate reading in the American Standard version reads: "laver 
of regeneration and through renewing of the Holy Spirit." The 
means by which our salvation or regeneration was affected is 
here described. What is the import and meaning of the expres- 
sion, "the washing of regeneration and the renewing of the Holy 
Spirit"? We shall discuss these two phrases separately. 

Washing or laver of regeneration: To be regenerated is to be 
born again. We were given birth once by our earthly parents; 
we are given a new or second birth by our heavenly Parent. We 
are almost constrained to ask with Nicodemus — "How can a man 
be born when he is old?" The answer is here — it is through the 
laver or washing and through the renewing of the Holy Spirit. 
Let us not overemphasize one to the exclusion of the other. We 
shall call in a few witnesses as to the meaning and application of 
the term "washing or laver." 

Hendriksen: "It is clear from such passages as John 3:3,5 and 
especially Ephesians 5:26 (Cf. Heb. 10:22) that this 'washing 
of regeneration and renewing' stands in some relation to the rite 
of baptism." (Ibid., p. 392) 

Lenski: "God saved us by means of baptism. Baptism is a 
bath of regeneration and renewing, in both of which the Holy 
Spirit is the actor. That is why God could use baptism as such a 
means; by baptism, is by no means a mere symbol or picture, 
but a true means of divine grace. It is not an opus operatom as 
when a crowbar turns over a stone, but as when spiritual grace 
operates spiritually by the Holy Spirit's entering the heart with 
his grace and kindling the new life" (Ibid.). 

Hoven: "It is motivated by 'the kindness of God'; accom- 
plished, not by man's moral goodness, but by two agencies — 
'washing of regeneration' (laver, bath of rebirth, or immersion 
into Christ) and 'renewing of the Holy Spirit,' that is, renewing 
of the human spirit by the Spirit of God. (Cf. Psalms 51:10) In 

176 



TITUS 3; 5 

conversion, the Spirit presents to the human mind what to do to be 
saved from past sins, I Peter 1:23; James 1:18; the result is 
a new person, After conversion, the Spirit continually renews the 
mind of the Christian by His word, II Corinthians 4:16; Ephe- 
sians 4:22,24, The result is a new life. The final objective is 
eternal life," (Ibid,, p. 99) 

W. J. Conybeare: "Laver — the word does not mean "wash- 
ing", (A,V,), but laver, that is, a vessel in which washing takes 
place," {The Epistles of Paul, p, 188.) 

Fairbaim: "And the only question is, how the expression, 
when coupled here with regeneration, is to be explained. Some 
have taken it in an altogether figurative sense, as emblematically 
representing the spiritual change; some, again, of the Holy Spirit, 
or of the word — the one as the efficient, the other as the instru- 
mental cause of regeneration. But these cannot be termed quite 
natural explanations; and neither here nor in Eph. 5:26 do they 
seem to have occurred to the ancient interpreters. They all apply 
the expression to the baptismal ordinance." (Ibid., p. 294) 

Thus we have a good company of witnesses when we relate 
the washing or laver of regeneration to the waters of baptism. 
It is not to say there is something magical in the water of bap- 
tism. But we do intend to say that it is here we are buried into 
the death of Christ. (Cf, Rom. 6:1-3), It is here we appropriate 
the cleansing power of His blood. It is here we receive in our 
watery grave the gift of God which is the Holy Spirit (Acts 2:38) . 
It might be significant to point out that Christ received the re- 
newing of His spirit in Joseph's tomb. We do not know why God 
ordained that in baptism man finds the "bath of regeneration" 
but that He did, we cannot ignore. We are also aware that to 
many, baptism is no more than "going down a dry sinner and 
coming up a wet one", but this does not negate God's teaching 
on the bath of regeneration. When one comes to baptism in whole- 
hearted faith and repentance, it becomes just what God intended 
—a "new birth," 

Renewing of the Holy Spirit; Is this a renewing of the Holy 
Spirit Himself, or a renewing accomplished by the Holy Spirit? 
From what we have already written, one could conclude we be- 
lieve this has reference to the renewing of the spirit of man by 
the Holy Spirit, Just how is this accomplished? The Holy Spirit 

177 



3:5-7 TITUS 

presents His transforming — life-giving truth to the mind of 
man. When man is ready to accept such truth, our minds or 
spirits are renewed, and we are transformed into His likeness. 
(Cf. Rom. 12:1, 2). 

Vs. 6 What is it that is "poured out upon us"? Is this in refer- 
ence to the Holy Spirit? We believe that it is. The figure of pour- 
ing out in reference to the Holy Spirit, is a very familiar one. The 
reception of the Holy Spirit on the part of all Christians, is not 
expressed with any frequency. God has been no respector of per- 
sons in this expression of His love; He has given the Holy Spirit 
to all who obey Him. (Cf. Acts 5:32). This is the sense in which 
the word "abundantly" or "richly" is used. Of course, Paul had 
received the outpouring of the Holy Spirit in the baptism of the 
Holy Spirit: many of the leaders of the churches had received 
special gifts of the Spirit from the hands of Paul undoubtedly in- 
cluding Titus. But this is a reference to the general reception of 
the Holy Spirit by all Christians, as an expression of God's love 
and mercy. 

Vs. 7 The final objective of the new life in Christ — "eternal 
life." "The process of reasoning which we find in these verses 
(3-7) is familiar to the student of Paul's epistles. Note the three 
stages: We were by nature children of wrath— we have been 
made alive — we now look forward by faith to the ages to come 
when we shall receive even greater glory (Eph. 2: 1-10) ; We were 
idol-worshippers — we now serve the true and living God — we 
await the coming of the Son of God from heaven (I Thess. 1:9,10) 
and our everlasting fellowship with Him (I Thess. 4:13-18). We 
were ungodly and ruled by worldly passions — we have renounced 
all this and are now living lives of self-mastery, fairness and 
devotion — we are waiting for the realization of the blessed hope 
(Titus 2:11-13." (Hendriksen, Ibid., pp. 392, 393.) The con- 
cluding thought in the motive for holy loving, is the hope of 
reward. We are now heirs of the eternal life to come. 

Fact Questions 3:3-7 

84. Explain the purpose of Paul's approach to the instructions 
for Christian living. 

85. Define in your own words three of the seven words describing 
the former state in sin. 

86. What distinction was made between "kindness" and "love"? 
Do you agree? Explain. 

178 



TITUS 3; 8-11 

87. What is "the laver or bath of regeneration"? Please do not 
accept our conclusion unless you have good reason to do so. 
Discuss, 

88. What is "the renewing of the Holy Spirit"? 

89. What has God poured out upon us richly? 

90. Show how this whole section, i.e,, vss. 3-7, relates to the head- 
ing, "The motive for proper conduct," 

3. TRUTH AND ERROR 3:8-11 

Text 3:8-7 7 

8 Faithful is the saying, and concerning these things I desire that 
thou affirm confidently, to the end that they who have believed 
God may be careful to maintain good works. These things are 
good and profitable unto men: 

9 but shun foolish questions, and geneaologies, and strifes, and 
fightings about the law; for they are unprofitable and vain. 

10 A factious man after a first and second admonition refuse; 

11 knowing that such a one is perverted, and sinneth, being self- 
condemned. 

Thought Questions 3:8-7 7 

138 What is the "faithful saying"? 

139 Concerning what things is Titus to "affirm confidently"? 

140. Were the saints on Crete so weak that they needed constant 
help? Explain. 

141. What things are good and profitable to all men? Who is 
included in "all men"? 

142. Try to approximate the circumstances prevailing with Titus, 
as he followed out the command to "shun foolish question- 
ings", etc., i.e. just how would he accomplish it? 

143. Are "foolish questionings and genealogies" the same as 
"strifes and fightings about the law"? Discuss possible dis- 
tinctions. 

144. In what sense "unprofitable" and in what sense "vain"? 

145. Who is to determine when a man is factious? It could be 
done with the churches on Crete — it can be done now— 
how? 

146. Just what is involved in "the first and second admonition"? 

147. Is this a discussion of "disfellowship"? 

148. How could Titus be so confident that certain men were "per- 
verted", "self -condemned"? 

149. Define the word "perverted", i.e. in its context. 

179 



3:8-11 TITUS 

Paraphrase 3:8-11 

8 This doctrine, that men are justified and made heirs merely 
by God's grace, is true; yet, .concerning these heirs, I command 
thee strongly to affirm, that they . , Who have believed in God 
should take care to promote good \yprks., These are the things 
honourable and profitable to men: They are good for others, as 
making them happy; and most profitable to one's self,, as produc- 
tive of happiness both here and' hereafter 1 , ; '-' 

9 But the frivolous questions proposed, by the Judaizers, and the 
genealogies by which they pretend to prove individuals rightly 
descended from Abraham, and their strifes and fighting -abdut 
the law, resist; for they are unprofitable] arid destitute of founda- 
tion.." - ■ • ■■. 

10 An heretical teacher, who, after a first arid second admoni- 
tion, continues in his evil courses, cast out of the church, and 
have no further communication > with him, because he isirre-* 
claimable;! . ;, , , ; 

11 , Knowing that such a teacherjis utterly depraved,! -and in teach- 
ing false doctrine from worldly motives, sinneth, being, self rcon- 
demned. 

Comment 3:8-11 

Vs. 8 As near as we can conclude the, "faithful saying" is con- 
tained in verses four through seven. It is with the content, of this 
word, Paul is concerned. He urg^s Titus to speak with all confi- 
dence and assurance. Unlike the law teachers who knew not of the 
things they so confidently affirmed, Titus can speak with the 
confidence of inspired and experimental knowledge, There is a 
grand purpose in such continual instruction; "that they who have 
believed may be careful to maintain good works." Unless men 
are often reminded of their duties and privileges, they , soon for- 
get. Titus had been heralding forth the good news. Paul, urges 
him to keep it up andto look for the fruit, in the lives of the saints 
in the form of "good works." ;,,, 

To what does the little phrase: "These things are good and 
profitable to all men" refer? What are "the things" and who are 
"the men"? We cannot relate, this to only the faithful saying of 
the verses immediately preceding. We believe it has a wider ap- 
plication- — indeed to all that is written in the letter. All: the advice 
and doctrine here written is good and profitable, not alone to the 
Christians, but to "all men-'— believers or unbelievers. If the 

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TITUS 3; 8-11 

world wants a good and profitable philosophy of life, they cannot 
do better than to follow Paul. 

Vs. 9 Now to the negative side of the work of Titus! As Titus was 
to continue to teach the whole council of God, he was also urged 
to continue to ignore silly questions and discussions about geneal- 
ogies. When strife and word-battles arise, turn your back upon 
them. Do not enter into a discussion as to who is right or wrong, 
Neither is right — they are both wrong. Here is the place for con- 
tempt. Lenski describes such persons as, ", . . full of a lot of silly 
stuff that was unworthy of serious attention and created nothing 
but fussing and fighting with true Christians, and deceived those 
Christians who were not yet well grounded," (Ibid., p. 941). Such 
advice is very much like that given by Paul to Timothy (Cf. I 
Tim, 1:4-7). 

Vs. 10, How shall we relate vs. 10 with vs. 9? Or should we see 
a connection between the two verses? We believe the heretical 
man of vs, 10 is one who has been beguiled from the faith by the 
teachers of vs. 9. If such treatment as described in vs. 10 is ac- 
corded the disciples of false doctrine, what shall be the action 
taken against the teacher? It will be the same. A factious man 
is any man who holds any opinion different from the Scriptures, 
It makes little difference if the opinion be considered important 
or unimportant. If he teaches it as from God and it is not in 
accord with the Word of God, he is a heretic! He should be 
treated in the manner here described, Please notice that a factious 
man and a heretic are the same man — a heretic is one who holds 
his own opinion in the realm of faith. 

Vs. 1 1 . This verse indicates the seriousness of the sin committed, 
from the viewpoint of the one committing the sin. Such a one is 
"perverted" or "turned out from" the true doctrine of Christ, 
When the elders from the church attempt to lead him back into 
the path of truth, he rejects both attempts. Yet all the while his 
conscience condemns him. This is no pagan unbeliever; this is a 
prominent member of the Church. Even while loudly and ener- 
getically promoting his own opinion, he is yet aware that he is 
wrong and is, therefore, sinning. But because of the popularity, 
the money or the prestige, he will not listen; he will not change 
— it costs him too much by human values. No one need condemn 
him; he is self -condemned. What a havoc such a one can cause 
both to himself and to those who. heed him. Let all the members 
of the churches give such a one the cold shoulder of indifference. 

181 



3:8-15 TITUS 

Fact Questions 3:8-11 

91. What is it Titus is to "affirm confidently"? Show how his 
effort would be like, yet different from, the law-teachers of 
I Tim. 1-4-7, ,,,,., 

92. Who are the persons involved in the little phrase, '.'all men" 
of vs. 8b? What is profitable to them? 

93. What is to be done when strife and word-battles arise?, Is 
there a present day application of this situation? If so, discuss. 

94. Show how Matt. 18:15-17 relates to. vs. 10. 

95. How does one. become a heretic? Is there an admonition here 
to public disfellowship? Discuss. 

96. What is the meaning and use of/the term "perverted" a;s used 
in vs. 11? 

97. Explain how such a one as the heretic is "self-condemned." 
Do you believe this applies to all factious men and women? 
Discuss. 

98. What are some of the comparisons and contrasts of Cretan 
churches and those today? 

CONCLUSION 3:12-15 
Text 3:12-15 

12 When I shall send Artemas unto thee, or Tychicus, give dili- 
gence to come unto me to Nicopolis: for there I have determined 
to winter. 

13 Set forward Zenas the lawyer and Apollos on their journey dil- 
igently, that nothing be wanting unto them. 

14 And let our people also learn to maintain good works for nec- 
essary uses, that they be not unfruitful. 

15 All that are with me salute thee. Salute them that love us in 
faith. Grace be with you all. 

Thought Questions 3:12-15 

150. Why was Paul sending Artemas or Tychicus to Titus? 

151. Where is Nicopolis? (Do not shrug this question off with a 
"I do not know"— you have a map; look it up!) 

152. Why spend the winter in Nicopolis? That is, why not move 
on to other fields? 

153. What is the meaning of the expression, "set forward," in 
vs. 13?' < 

154. How is the word, "diligently," used in vs. 13? 

155. Is Paul asking Titus or the churches to pay the traveling 
expenses of Zenas and Apollos? Where are these men going? 

156. What are the "good works" and the "necessary uses" of 
vs. 14? 

182 



TITUS 3; 12-15 

157. In what sense would the Cretans be "unfruitful," as used 
in vs. 14b? 

158. From where was this epistle to Titus written? Please refer 
to the introduction for your answer, Who are some of the 
possble persons to be with Paul? 

159. Just what was the "salute" mentioned in vs, 15? 

160. How is the word "faith" used in vs. 15b? 

Paraphrase 3:12-15 

12 When I shall send either Artemas to thee, or Tychicus, to 
supply thy place in Crete, leave the churches to his management, 
and as speedily as possible, come to me at Nicopolis, for there I 
have determined to winter, 

13 Diligently supply Zenas the lawyer, and Appolos (see Acts 
18:24-28), with whatever is necessary for their journey, that, in 
coming to me, nothing which they need may be wanting to them, 

14 And, that the expense necessary to such offices may be de- 
frayed, let our disciples in Crete also learn to follow honest trades 
for supplying what is necessary to themselves, and that they may 
not be unfruitful in good offices to others. 

15 All my fellow-labourers who are with me in Colosse wish thee 
health. Present my good wishes to them in Crete, who shew their 
love to me by maintaining the true faith of Christ, The favour and 
blessing of God be with all of you. Amen. 

Comment 3.72-75 

Vs. 12. A few closing and personal words from Paul to Titus, 
It is vain to speculate as to the identity of Artemas. Attempts 
at identification have been made, and if you wish to read them, 
we refer you to our bibliography. Tychicus is well-known to us; 
see: Acts 20:4; Eph. 6:21; Col. 4:7; II Tim. 4:12. We do know 
Paul trusted these men and intended for one of them to carry 
out the work after Titus left. There must have been, for Titus, 
further plans for evangelism and the establishment of churches. 
We prefer to locate Nicopolis on the coast of Greece. There were 
a good number of cities with the name, Nicopolis (city of vic- 
tory), so-called because of some military triumph. Paul refers to 
the one at Epirus, founded by Augustus in 30 B.C. in honor of 
his victory at Actium, four miles from Nicopolis. Paul had not 
yet arrived in this city, but planned to be here for work and plans 
during the winter. Surely he selected an excellent place by way 
of climate. 

Vs. 13. Perhaps we have here a reference to those who carried 
the letter from Paul to Titus. Was Zenas a "law expert" or "jur- 

183 



3:13-15 TITUS 

ist" in the Roman sense, or with the Old Testament? His name 
is Roman, but then, so is "Paul" a Roman name, and so is the 
name "Apollos." We prefer to think of him as referred to in 
Acts' 18:24 and last mentioned in I Cor. 16:12, Titus is here in- 
structed to "outfit and expedite for a journey" (Lenski) these 
faithful men. They are not on Crete as yet, but are on their way 
(perhaps with this letter) , and- when they arrive they are to be 
helped on this way, and this is to be done in a diligent manner. 

Vs. 14. Titus could not himself provide the funds necessary for 
Zenas and Apollos. He is to lead in obtaining from the churches 
the necessary provisions. But Titus is not alone responsible for 
such leadership in good works. "Our people" are to lead out in 
such cases of necessity, that at other times of less obvious need 
they will not be unfruitful. Paul looked upon the matter of help- 
ing one another as an opportunity for Christian growth, not a 
burdensome duty. 

Vs. 15. Where was Paul when he wrote this letter? We have 
suggested he was probably in some part of Macedonia — possibly 
Philippi. Those traveling companions of Paul (which seem al- 
ways to be with him) send greetings to Titus who probably at 
other times were co-labourers with Titus and the apostle. Paul 
assumes that many, if not all, of the saints of the churches on 
Crete will feel warmly toward him as an apostle and servant of 
Christ Jesus. On this basis he greets each of those who read or 
hear this letter read. 

May all be constantly aware of God's favor toward us in Christ 
Jesus. 

Fact Questions 3:12-15 

99 Give two facts about Artemas and Tychicus. 

100. Give two facts about Nicopolis, 

101. What did Paul plan to do while in Nicopolis? 

102. State two facts about Zenas and Apollos. 

103. Just what was Titus' responsibility for Zenas and Apollos? 

104. The churches on Crete were going to have an opportunity 
to be fruitful in Christian service — what was this oppor- 
tunity? 

105. Where was Paul when he wrote this letter? Who sends 
greetings to whom? 

184 



TITUS 

EXEGETICAL EXAMINATION 
OVER CHAPTER THREE 

1. Give from memory an outline of this chapter. 

2. Define and discuss in context the following words; "every 
good work"; foolish"; "not to be contentious"; "living in mal- 
ice and envy. 

3. Show the distinction and application of the words "kindness" 
and "grace" in vs. 4, 

4. Discuss in your own words, "The renewing of the Holy 
Spirit." 

5. What has been "poured out upon us richly"? 

6. In what sense are verses four through seven a "faithful 
saying"? 

7. Give your own exegesis of vs. 9, 

8. Who is the "factious man"? How applied to present day 
situation? 

9. Is every factious man perverted and self-condemned? Explain. 
10. Give your own exegesis of vs. 14. 

EXAMINATION ON PAUL'S EPISTLE 
TO TITUS 

1. When and where and why was the epistle to Titus written? 

2. Give the outline of the epistle. 

3. In the introduction the writer gives his position — his stan- 
dard — his commission — what are they? 

4. What responsibility did Titus have to the elders on Crete? 

5. Give and explain three qualifications of the eldership. 

6. Give and explain two characteristics of the false teachers. 

7. Give the meaning of the expression: "All things are clean to 
the clean," 

8. State and explain one point of instruction to the older men. 

9. Give two responsibilities of the younger women. 

10. Explain the two sins slaves were to especially avoid. How? 

11. Give and explain two things the grace of God teaches us. 

12. How does the second coming of Christ provide a desire for 
Christian conduct? 

13. Give the meaning of the expression "toward every good work 
to be ready." Give the explanation in the context, 

14. Why not be a "slave of desires and pleasures of various 
kinds"? 

15. Can you put any water into "the washing of regeneration"? 
Explain, 

185 



PAUL'S SECOND LETTER TO TIMOTHY 

We once again refer you to our introduction for a prepara- 
tion in understanding the circumstances of the writing of this 
letter. Suffice it to say here that this epistle is far more per- 
sonal in style and content than Paul's first letter, and that it was 
written from Rome in the year A.D. 67. It is a letter written 
under the long shadow of death; probably not more than a few 
months before Paul's martyrdom. Paul wants once more to see 
his son in the faith. He urges him to mate haste to his side — we 
like to belieye Timothy reached Paul before he died. 

Without analysis, there can be no synthesis. In other words, 
if you do not understand the structure of this letter, you will have 
great difficulty with any conclusions from it. It is imperative that 
you have a useable outline of this letter. 

Here are four outlines from men who have thought through 

the structure of the letter. Read Paul's second letter to Timothy 

once for each outline — notice carefully each outline as you read. 

1 . Russell Bradley Jones — from The Epistles To Timothy — ■ A 

Study Manual — Baker Book House, 1959. 

INTRODUCTION (1:1-5) 

A. The Writer (1:1). 

B. The Addressee (1:2a). 

C. The Blessing (i: 2b). 

D. The Thanksgiving (1:3-5). 

I. EXHORTATIONS (1:6—2:26) 

A. "Stir Up the Gift of God" (1:6-10). 

1. The Exhortation. 

2. The Reason for this Exhortation. 

3. The Basis of the Exhortation. 

B. "That Good Thing . . . Guard" (1:11-14). 

1. The Example of Paul. 

2. The Duty of Timothy. 

C. "Suffer Hardship with Me" (1:15—2:13). 

1. Paul's Experience with Fellow- workers. 

a. The Failures. 

b. The Faithful. 

2. Paul's Appeal to Timothy. 

a. The Urgent Duty. 

b. The Glorious Example. 

c. The Saving Purpose. 

d. The Faithful Saying. 

186 



II TIMOTHY 

D, Be an Unashamed Workman (2:14-26), 

1, Reminding Others, 

2, Seeking Approval 

3, Shunning Babblings. 

4, Confident in the Lord, 

5, Forsaking Unrighteousness. 

6, Exercising a Restrained Gentleness, 

7, Correcting Others, 

II. WARNINGS (3:1—4:5) 

A, Perilous Times Shall Come (3:1-13), 

1 , Decadent Men, 

a. Characteristics, 

b. Actions, 

c. End, 

2, Delivered Men. 

a. Paul, 

b. All the Godly. 

3, Deception's Power. 

B. "Fulfill Thy Ministry" (3; 14— 4:5) . 

1 . Abide in the Things Learned. 

a. From the Apostle. 

b. From the Sacred Writings. 

2. "Preach the Word." 

a. The Charge. 

b. The Manner. 

c. The Need. 

d. The Duty. 

III, TESTIMONY (4-6-18) 

A, Paul's Confidence as He Faces Death (4:6-8) . 

1. The End. 

2. The Record. 

3. The Reward. 

B. Paul's Request that Timothy Come to Him (4:9-15). 

1. Paul and His Fellow- workers. 

a, Timothy 

b, Demas 

187 



II TIMOTHY 

c. Crescens. ' •■; 

d. Titus 

e. Luke 

f. Mark 

g. Tychicus 

2. Paul and His Cloak, Books, arid Parchments. 

3. Paul and an Enemy. 

C. Paul's Praise of His Faithful Lord (4: 16-18), 

1 . The Lord Delivered. 

2. The Lord Will Deliver. 

CONCLUSION (4:19-22) 

A. Added Personal References (4:19-21)'. 

1. Salutations. 

2. News. 

3. Renewed Appeal. 

4. Greetings. 

B. Benediction (4:22). 

2. David Lipscomb and J. W, Shepherd, New Testament Com- 
mentaries — -Gospel Advocate, 1942. 

PERSONAL APPEAL FOR LOYALTY TO THE GOSPEL 

(1:1—2:13) ! ' ; ' 

1. Apostolic Greeting. 

2. Thanksgiving for Timothy's, Past, and Exhortation That He 
May Be Zealous and Willing, Like Paul, to Suffer for the 
Gospel. 

3. Deserters and Loyal Friends. 

4. Renewed Appeal to Transmit to Others the Gospel, Even 
at the Cost of Suffering. 

THE MINISTERS OF GOD AND FALSE TEACHERS ... 
(2:14—4:8) 

1 . He Dissuades from Unprofitable Discussion. 

2. Grievous Times Impending. 

3. Charge to Timothy to Fulfill His Ministry. 

4. Requests arid Personal Details. 

5. Salutations and Benedictions. 

3. Leslie G. Thomas, An Introduction To the Epistles of Paul, 
Gospel Advocate, 1955. 

188 



SALUTATION (1:1,2) 

I. A PERSONAL PLEA FOR LOYALTY TO THE GOSPEL IN 
THE FACE OF A GRAVE CRISIS (1:3-18), 

A. Thanksgiving for Timothy's Past (1:3-5), 

B. An Exhortation to follow Paul's Example in Suffering, Will- 
ingly, and Zealously, for the Gospel (1:6-14), 

C. Deserters and Loyal Friends (1:15-18). 

II. DETAILED APPEAL FOR A COURAGEOUS EFFORT IN 
PERPETUATING THE GOSPEL, AND THE TEMPER 
NEEDED FOR THE TASK (2:1-26). 

A. The Need for Faithfulness, even at the Cost of Suffering 
(2:1-13). 

B. The Spirit of the True Workman for God in the Church 
(2:14-26). 

HI, THE LAST DAYS WILL BE TESTING ONES, 
BUT TIMOTHY IS PREPARED FOR THEM (3:1-17). 

A. The Principle Features of the Days of Trial (3:1-9). 

B. Timothy's Divine Resources for Meeting Them (3:10-17). 

IV. FINAL SUMMARY OF THE CHARGE TO TIMOTHY 
(4:1-8) 

V. PERSONAL REQUESTS AND PAUL'S ASSURANCE OF 
ABIDING FAITH IN THE LORD (4:9-18). 
SALUTATIONS AND BENEDICTIONS (4:19-22). 

4. W. B. Taylor, Studies in the Epistles and Revelation, Standard 
Publishing Company, 1910. 

I. INTRODUCTION (1:1-5) 

A. Apostleship declared. 

1. An apostle to Christ, 

2. By divine approval, through the will of God, according 
to the promise in Christ Jesus, 

B. Personal greeting, 

C. Thanksgiving: for service, friendship, and faith. 

II, DUTY OF A MINISTER (1:6—2:13) 

A. Gifts to God. 

1. Charges to. 

2. Duty to the saved. 

B. According to grace: the grace of hearing, suffering, endur- 
ance, understanding, memory, salvation, and of the new life. 

189 



III. DUTY OF THE CHURCH (2:14—3:13) ' ; '" ; 

A. In the present crisis. 

B. In the coming apostasy, '■■■■'■■•'. 

IV. DUTY TO THE SCRIPTURES (3:14— 4:8) 

A. The preacher's duty toward. .-. :■■<•' 

B. The preacher's work in connection with the Scriptures. 

preach the Word. 

C. Enforced by Paul's experience. 

1 . His service. 

2. His reward. 

D. A crown for all who love. 

V. CONCLUSION (4:9-22) 

A. His associates. 

B. His enemies. 

C. Salutation. 

D. Final benediction: "The Lord be with thy spirit, grace be 

with thee." 
Read the letter one more time. This time work out your own 
outline of the letter. This is very important — please do it. 

Here is the outline we shall follow in our study of this epistle: 

INTRODUCTION 1:1-5 

1. Salutation 1:1,2 

2, Paul's gratitude 1:3-5 

PART ONE 
Exhortations 1 :6 — 2:26 

1. DO NOT BE ASHAMED 1:6-18 

a. Timothy 6-11 

b. Paul 12-14 

c. Onesiphorus 15-18 

2. BE STRONG IN THE SERVICE OF CHRIST 2: 1-26 

a. As a child 1,2 

b. As a soldier 3,4 

c. As an athlete 5 

d. As a farmer 6-13 

e. As a workman 14-19 

f. As a utensil 20-23 

g. As a bondservant 24-26 

PART TWO 
Warnings 3:1 — 4:5 

1. Recognize the coming apostasy 3:1-9 

190 



II TIMOTHY 1:1,2 

2. Withstand the apostasy 3:10-17 

3. Preach the Word 4:1-5 

PART THREE 
Testimony 4:6-18 

1, Assurance in the face of death 4:6-8 

2. Request for Timothy to come to Paul 4:9-15 
5, Praise for his Lord 4:16-18 

CONCLUSION 4:19-22 

1. Personal References 4:19-21 

2. Benediction 4:22 

INTRODUCTION 1:1-5 

SALUTATION 1:1,2 

Text 1:1,2 
1 Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus through the will of God, accord- 
ing to the promise of the life which is in Christ Jesus, 2 to Timothy, 
my beloved child: Grace, mercy, peace, from God the Father and 
Christ Jesus our Lord. 

Thought Questions 1:1,2 

1, Show how the will of God related to Paul's apostleship. 

2. Who made the promise of life? To whom? When? Why? 

3, In what sense was this "life" in Christ Jesus? 

4. Show two differences in the salutations of I and II Timothy. 

5, Is "beloved child" different from "genuine child"? Explain, 

6. Define each word: (1) grace; (2) mercy; (3) peace. 

Paraphrase 1:1,2 

1 Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, on account 
of publishing the promise of eternal life, which, being made to 
believers of all nations in the covenant with Abraham, is to be 
obtained, not by obeying Moses, but Christ Jesus, 

2 To Timothy, my beloved son in the faith: May gracious dis- 
positions, merciful deliverance, and inward peace, be yours, from 
God the Father of Jews and Gentiles, and from Christ Jesus our 
common Lord, 

Comment 1:1,2 
Vs. 1 . Perhaps the opening of this letter sounds a bit formal to our 
western understanding. Besides the difference in letter style, let 
us not forget that this epistle was to be read, like the first one, by 
many in the church at Ephesus, and perhaps in some of the other 
churches of Asia. This is a personal letter, but it contains in- 
spired, apostolic instruction. 

191 



1:1,5 II TIMOTHY 

In this salutation, Paul speaks of himself in the following 
terms: (1) an apostle of Jesus Christ; (2) called to the office by 
the will of God; (3) called into the office for the purpose of an- 
nouncing the promise of life in Christ Jesus. He next speaks of 
Timothy in the following terms: (1) beloved son; (2) he "in- 
vokes" on him the threefold blessings of grace, mercy, and peace 
from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 

Paul is in prison, about to be beheaded, and yet he says his 
calling and work were according to, and directed by, the will of 
God. Such complete commitment enabled him to ''rejoice always" 
(Phil. 4:4). As to the meaning and use of the term "apostle," 
we refer you to our comment on I Timothy 1:1. 

Jesus came to give life and life more abundantly (John 10:10). 
Paul felt his responsibility as an apostle was to tell about this 
Life. Without Christ we are existing, but not living. God promises 
life to all those who will accept it in His Son who is The Life 
(John 14:6)\ ; , ".;"• 

Vs. 2. The greeting here has but little variation from the one 
found in Paul's first letter, Here Timothy is addressed as "beloved 
child"; in the first letter, he is called "genuine child." There is a 
very good reason for this term of endearment; Paul was facing 
death- — as he recalled • those with whom he had labored, none 
were nearer or dearer to him than Timothy. Paul had the same 
heart-satisfaction as a father with an obedient, faithful son. Paul 
could not have thought more of Timothy if he had been of his 
own flesh and blood. Indeed, he was his child in The Faith. 

Fact Questions 1:7,2 

1. Explain how such a formal greeting appears in an informal 
letter. 

2. Was it the will of God that Paul suffer execution at the hand 
of Nero? Explain. 

3. What is "the life" which is in Christ Jesus? 

4. In what sense was Timothy "beloved" by Paul? 

5. What is "mercy," as here used by Paul? 
% PAUL'S GRATITUDE, 1:3-5 

Text 1:3-5 
3 1 thank God/ whom I serve from my forefathers in a pure con- 
science, how unceasing is my remembrance of thee in my suppli- 
cations, night and day 4 longing to see thee, remembering thy 
tears, that I may be filled with joy; 5 having been reminded of the 

192 



II TIMOTHY 1:3-5 

unfeigned faith that is in thee; which dwelt first in thy grandmother 
Lois, and thy mother Eunice; and, I am persuaded, in thee also, 

Thought Questions 1:3-5 

7, Who were the "forefathers" of vs. 3? 

8, Is Paul discussing his previous life while a persecutor of the 
church, when he speaks of a "pure conscience"? Be sure and 
consider this point carefully, 

9, For what was Paul thankful? 

10. What does Paul say was unceasing, his remembrance, or his 
prayers? 

11. What tears of Timothy were remembered by Paul? 

12. How would the presence of Timothy fill Paul with joy? 

13. How was Paul reminded of the faith of Timothy? What is 
"unfeigned faith"? 

14. Is Paul saying here that Lois and Eunice became Christians 
before Timothy? Explain, 

Paraphrase 1:3-5 

3 I give thanks to God (whom, according to the knowledge re- 
ceived from my forefathers, I serve with a pure conscience, when 
I preach to all the promise of life through Christ), that I have 
unceasing remembrance of thee in my prayers, evening and 
morning, as a faithful minister of Christ. 

4 Remembering thy tears, I greatly desire to see thee, that I may 
be filled with joy in conversing with thee, and in giving thee my 
dying charge and blessing, 

5 This desire is increased by my calling to remembrance also, 
the unfeigned faith in the gospel which is in thee since I instruct- 
ed thee, which dwelt first in thy grandmother, Lois, and in thy 
mother, Eunice, and I am persuaded that it dwelleth firmly fixed 
in thee also, through the instructions of thy pious parents, as well 
as through my care, 

Comment 1 :3-5 

Vs. 3. Students of Paul's letters will see a pattern established in 
the opening expression of a good many of his epistles. A greeting 
is given, followed by an expression of thanksgiving or praise. 
Such is the case here. But we must hasten to say that such a mode 
of expression was far more than just a custom, Every word of 
the thanksgiving is sincere and appropriate. 

Notice this brief outline of Paul's gratitude: (1) Paul thanks 
God for his unceasing remembrance of Timothy in prayer; (2) 

193 



1:3,4 II TIMOTHY 

He has a great desire to see Timothy — especially as he remembers 
his tears — if he could but see him, his. joy would be full; (3) 
Someone or something reminds Paul of the sincere faith of Tim- 
othy. Such faith was first in Lois, then Eunice, and is now in 
Timothy. ' 

The service of Paul to God was "from" his forefathers. Are we 
to understand by this expression that there was a constant suc- 
cession of servants in the family of Paul from Benjamin, the son 
of Jacob, to Saul of Tarsus? We think not. The word, "from," 
could be translated, "after the example of" his forefathers. It 
could be that he has reference to . some of his more . immediate 
ancestors^ such, as parents : and, grandparents. 

The word, 1 "service," used by Paul, is just as well translated 
"worship." The apostle is not discussing his previous service or 
worship, but rather, his present efforts as a Christian. Paul's 
parents prepared him with a sincere attitude toward his relation- 
ship to God, which is now reflected in his apostleship for Christ. 
Paul served God with a "clean conscience." What a bulwark of 
strength for service. No service can either be sustained or strong 
without a pure conscience. 

We are not unaware of the problem of understanding, present 
in the translation of vss. 3-5, but we do not feel any advantage 
is gained by discussing it here. We are satisfied with the Amer- 
ican Standard translation of the text. If any are interested in 
pursuing the subject further, Lenski, Hendriksen, or Hiebert 
would be good authorities to consult. 

Why is it that Paul thanks God that he can unceasingly pray 
both night and day for Timothy? It must have arisen out of the 
need Timothy had for such supplication. Paul and Timothy 
knew of the need; we do not, but it must have been a great source 
of comfort and encouragement to Timothy to know that his par- 
ticular needs were being held up night and day before the throne 
of grace by the Apostle Paul! 

Vs. 4. Please remember that vss. 3-5 are all contained in one sen- 
tence; read these verses again as one sentence. In Paul's prayers 
there arises not only the needs of Timothy, which frame the con- 
tent of his supplications, but also a strong desire to see him one 
more time before he finished the race. This intense desire is 
prompted by a recollection of the tears of Timothy on behalf of 
Paul. Just where and when, or why these tears were shed, we do 

194 



II TIMOTHY 1:4,5 

not know, Was it in Lystra when Timothy and others stood over 
the bruised and broken body of Paul? We know that God raised 
Paul up to continue his work, but it would not keep back the 
tears of those who loved him, Perhaps Paul's remembrance had 
to do with the tears shed at the parting of Paul and Timothy. The 
presence of Timothy with Paul would assure the Apostle that his 
trusted son was safe. No letter can ever take the place of speaking 
face to face. Paul was at peace with a pure conscience, but he did 
want the assurance that all was well with Timothy, 
Vs. 5 Something happened in Paul to remind him of the faith- 
fulness of Timothy, Did someone visit Paul to tell him of the 
early childhood of Timothy? Did something else remind him of 
the blessing Timothy had in Lois and Eunice? We do not know 
who or what it was, but the first half of this verse states that he 
was reminded. Does such a remembrance need outside stimuli? 

There was no pretense in the faith of Lois and Eunice, Trans- 
parent sincerity is such a blessing — to the possessor and to all 
who associate with him. The faith of Lois and Eunice, as well as 
Timothy, was first in the Old Testament Scriptures and the God 
there revealed. This same attitude was transferred to Jesus Christ 
when the good news was announced by Paul. 

The heart condition of these two women reminds us of the 
good and honest heart of Lydia. Wherever such conditions pre- 
vail, the seed of the kingdom grows to produce its glorious harvest. 

Fact Questions 1:3-5 

6, What style-pattern of writing is discovered in the opening 
section of Paul's letters? 

7, For what does Paul thank God? Why? 

8. In what sense was Paul's service to God "from" his fore- 
fathers? 

9. Was Paul's service to God always given from a pure con- 
science? Remember "the goad" of Acts 9:1-6. 

10. Did Paul have specific times for prayer? 

11. When were the tears shed that Paul remembered? 

12, What caused Paul to remember the unhypocritical faith of 
Timothy? 

13, What pre-disposition of heart prevailed with Lois and Eunice? 

PART ONE 
Exhortations I .-6— 2:26 

1. DO NOT BE ASHAMED 1:6-18 
a. Timothy 6-11 

195 



1:6-11 II TIMOTHY 

Text 7:6-7 7 

6 For which cause I put thee in remembrance that thou stir up the 
gift of God, which is in thee through the laying on of my hands. 

7 ! For God gave us not a spirit of fearfulness; but of power and 
love arid discipline. 8 Be not ashamed therefore of the testimony 
of our Lord, nor of me his prisoner: but suffer hardship with the 
gospel according to the power of God; 9 who saved us, and called 
us with a holy calling, hot according to our works, but according 
to his own purpose: and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus 
before times eternal, 10 but hath now been manifested by the ap- 
pearing of our Saviour Christ Jesus, who abolished death, and 
brought life and immortality to light through the gospel, 11 where- 
unto I was appointed a preacher, and an apostle, and a teacher. 

Thought Questions J.'6-n 

15., "What "cause" does Paul have in mind in vs. 6a? 

1.6, Had Timothy forgotten he. had 'a, gift from God?, Why the 

. use of the term, "remembrance"? 
17. What was "the gift of God" possessed by Timothy? 
18; What would Timothy need to do' -in order to "stir into a 
flame" the gift' of God? r 

19. When and where did Paulgive Timothy this gift? Is there 
a discrepancy when we compare I Tim. 4: 14 with II Tim. 
1:6? ., ^ ' ';■'/' '' ' . 

20. Was Timothy "fearful," as indicated, in vs.. 8? , 

21. In what realm of life is the power of God to be exercised? 
22; What is the meaning and application of the word, "disci- 
pline"? 

23. What is, "the testimony of our Lord"? 

24. In what regard would Timothy be tempted to be ashamed 
of Paul? 

25. Paul was a prisoner, but he felt he was not held first by Rome, 
but by whom? 

26. Paul, suffered hardship with the gospel according to the power 
of God. Specify at least two instances of such. 

27. In what sense are we to Understand the phrase, "who saved 
us"? Are we saved, or in the process of being saved? Explain. 

28. What is the "holy calling" by which we have been called? 

29. What "works" are before the mind of the apostle, as in vs. 9b? 

196 



II TIMOTHY 1:6-11 

30. There is some distinction between "purpose" and "grace"— r 
what is it? In whom do we have our purpose and grace? 

31. Explain in context the phrase, "before times eternal" (vs, 9b), 

32. What has now been manifested? How? 

33. In what sense did Christ abolish death? 

34. Give your own explanation as to just how Christ brought 
"life and immortality to light through the gospel," I thought 
we were, by, nature, immortal beings. 

35. To what was Paul appointed as "a preacher, and an apostle, 
and a teacher"? 

Paraphrase 1:6-11 

6 Because I believe thy faith to be unfeigned, I put thee in mind 
to stir up the spiritual gift of God which thou possessest through 
the imposition of my hands: Improve thy gift, by boldly exercis- 
ing it in preaching and defending the doctrines of the gospel 
against all false teachers. 

7 For God hath not infused into us a spirit of cowardice which 
shrinks at danger, but of courage, such as becometh those who 
possess the gifts of inspiration and miracles, and of benevolence, 
which disposes us to communicate the Gospel to all mankind, and 
of self-government, to behave with prudence on every occasion. 

8 Wherefore, be not thou, like many in this city, ashamed of 
testifying the things which concern our Lord Jesus, neither be 
thou ashamed of me who am a prisoner on his account: But do 
thou come and jointly suffer evil with me for the gospel which I 
preach to the Gentiles, according to the power of God bestowed 
on thee; 

9 Who hath resolved to save us, and for that purpose hath called 
us into his kingdom with an holy calling; a calling whose object 
is to make us holy; and hath thus called us, not on account of our 
works as meriting it, but in accomplishment of his own purpose 
and gift, which was given us through Christ Jesus in the cove- 
nant made with mankind at the fall, long before the times of the 
Mosaic dispensation. 

10 And this gift of salvation is now made manifest by the ap- 
pearing of our Saviour Jesus Christ in the flesh, who, through His 
own death and resurrection, hath indeed made death ineffectual, 
and hath made an immortal life after death, and the nature of 
that life, clear through the gospel, which assures us that we shall 
live forever in the body, after the resurrection. 

197 



1:6-8 II TIMOTHY 

11 For proclaiming which good news I am appointed an herald, 
and an apostle, and furnished with spiritual gifts to make me a 
successful teacher of the Gentiles. 

Comment 1:6-1 1 

Vs. 6. Paul says, in essence: "Because of your unhypocritical 
faith, you should be able to stir unto a flame the gift of God with- 
in, you." This gift was supernatural in nature. It was given by 
the instrumentality of Paul's hands. 

We believe Timothy was the possessor of two gifts: (1) The 
gift given by the hands of the elders, i.e., the office of the evan- 
gelist (Cf. I Tim. 4:14); (2) The gift of supernatural ability 
given by Paul, as stated in this verse. Both gifts could have been 
bestowed at the same time. In such a case, Paul would have been 
present at Timothy's ordination to grants along with the gift of 
the office of evangelist by the elders, the divine equipment for 
the office. 

The exercise of • such supernatural ability was not without the 
faith and surrender of the possessor. Peter and John healed a 
lame man by the power of God,, but it was not without the exer- 
cise of faith on their part (Cf. Acts 3:16), There were many 
factors present in Ephesus to quench the faith of Timothy. In the 
face of such difficulties, Timothy is to reassert his confidence in 
the power of God. Evidently there were conditions present that 
would cause Timothy to actually question the outcome. Paul's 
request was to. believe in God's power for every problem. 

Vs. 7. Verse seven is a description of the results of exercising the 
gift of God. When we are strengthened by His Spirit in the in- 
ward man, we are able to face all the changing circumstances of 
life without fear, full of power and love. Such inward assistance 
creates a mastery of self. 

Whereas we do not have the supernatural powers from the 
hands of the Apostle, yet the disposition just described as relating 
to Timothy and the Apostles does also apply to us. "Greater is He 
who is in us than he who is in the world." God has given to us 
the same attitude toward life. 

Vs. 8. A word concerning the mode of expression in the phrase, 
"stir up"; it needs to be said here, as the same thought relates to 
"be not ashamed." The words of Homer Kent are very helpful 
just here: "This present infinitive emphasizes the continual stir- 

198 



II TIMOTHY 1:8,9 

ring up into a flame which is necessary . . . There is no intima- 
tion here that Timothy has been failing, Rather, he is told to con- 
tinue doing what he has been doing , . ," (Ibid, p, 258), Once 
again, on the present phrase, "The mode of expression in the 
phrase, 'be not ashamed' (Aorist Subjunctive), offers clear evi- 
dence that Timothy was not at fault along this line" (Ibid, p, 
259), 

Timothy had not been ashamed, and he was encouraged not to 
start it, 

In July of 64 A.D,, Nero set Rome on fire! By October of the 
same year he had succeeded in transferring the blame to the 
Christians. A most terrible persecution began against all followers 
of The Way. Christianity became an illegal religion. Under such 
conditions, there would be some temptations to be quiet about the 
testimony of the Lord, or any relationship to one of the Apostles 
of this illegal faith. 

"The testimony of (or for) our Lord" has reference to the good 
news as outlined by Paul in I Cor, 15: 1-4. What a beautiful play 
on words and circumstances to say that he was not a prisoner of 
Nero, but rather, of Christ, Nero could not imprison Paul's spirit, 
but Jesus could and did, Paul had been apprehended by Christ 
and now was His willing prisoner, 

When the time and occasion comes — as it most assuredly will — 
take your share of the persecution for your preaching of the good 
tidings. You will not be able to stand up to such persecution by 
your own strength. You will be enabled by Him who is able. 
Indeed, "He is able to do far abundantly above anything that 
we ask or think according to the power that worketh in us." 

Vs. 9. Someone has called verses 9 through 11, Paul's "beautiful 
digression"; we feel this is very apt. Verse 8 ends with the word, 
"God"; thus introducing a description of God. Note please: 

I, He saved us and called us, 

1. This salvation and calling was not according to our works. 

2. This salvation and calling was according to His own pur- 
pose and grace. 

a. This purpose and grace was given us in Christ Jesus 

before times eternal. 

b. This purpose and grace hath now been manifested by 
the appearing of our Saviour, Christ Jesus. 

1) Christ Jesus abolished death. 

199 



1:9,10 II TIMOTHY 

2) Christ Jesus brought life and immortality to light 
through the Gospel. 

a) Unto the Gospel, Paul was appointed a preacher, 
and an apostle, and a teacher. ' 

Please notice the structure of these verses: We are saved and 
called, this is modified with two thoughts. The second of these 
thoughts is modified with two thoughts. The second of these 
thoughts is modified with two thoughts, etc. 

Who is saved , and called? We take this to refer to Timothy, 
Paul and all Christians. In what sense, "saved"? God has provided 
the salvation through His Son. .It is up 1 to man to appropriate 
what God has so graciously provided. In this context, it is look- 
ing back to the time when Paul, Timothy, and the saints in Eph- 
esus had appropriated such salvation. Is the "calling" subsequent 
to salvation? If so, then we would connect this with Paul's call 
to service on the road to Damascus; in Paul's case, his salvation 
and calling were almost simultaneous. 

The thought that we did not merit or earn such salvation and 
calling is typically Pauline. He emphasizes this point again and 
again (Cf. Eph. 2:8,9). 

It is glorious to know God has a purpose in His grace, and in- 
deed, grace in His purpose. 

God's whole purpose for man is to bring man to His Son. When 
once we are in Christ Jesus, we are complete' — -"He is our life." 
"In Him 1 we are full." "In Him are all the treasures of wisdom 
and knowledge hidden." God has no other purpose; to look else- 
where is vain. This has been God's purpose from eternity to 
eternity! 

Vs. 10. Something of the completeness of God's purpose in Christ 
can be seen in what Christ provides for man. Death is abolished! 
Life and immortality are brought to light! This is all accom- 
plished when the good news is preached and believed. 

The word "abolished," does not mean to make nonexistant, but 
rather, to render ineffective or impotent. By Christ's death and 
resurrection, He has removed the sting from death. Death be- 
comes but a gateway to life. Oh, glorious victory! Let us not 
imagine that life and immortality were created by Christ's death 
and resurrection. One cannot bring into the light that which did 
not already exist. 

200 



II TIMOTHY 1:641 

Christ brought life eternal and the incorruptable body out into 
the full view of man, This He did by His own resuxTection, 

Man's eternal life and immortal body are now visible to all, 
Before Christ came, eternal life and the incorruptible body were 
present, but they were hidden by the shadows of man's under- 
standing, Now they are distinctly seen and understood. 

This glorious knowledge is made known when we announce it 
through the good news, What a priceless privilege ■ — to be a 
preacher! 

Vs. 1 1 . Paul has but one task, and that is, to preach The Word, 
But in this task, or office, he thinks of himself in relation to his 
message and he says, "/ am a herald"- — one who announces, as a 
king's messenger, the king's message, He thinks of himself in re- 
lation to his preparation for the office and he says, "/ am one 
sent. I am doing this because Christ has commissioned me." 
Finally, he thinks of himself in relation to those with whom he 
must work and he says, "/ am a teacher. The persons with whom 
I labor do not know; they must be informed, and it is my blessed 
privilege to instruct them." 



Fact Questions 1:6-11 

14. What is "the cause" of vs, 6? 

15. Please explain just how the gift of God can be stirred up, 

16. What was the gift of God given to Timothy? 

17. Compare 1:6 with I Tim. 4:14 and explain, 

18. How is the word, "spirit," used in vs, 7? Explain this word 
in relationship to the "gift of God," 

19. Why would Timothy be tempted to be ashamed? 

20. How does the power of God enable us to suffer hardships? • 

21. Show the connection of vss. 9-11 with vss. 6-8. 

22. Who is the "us" of vs. 9? 

23. What is meant by "a holy calling"? 

24. What is God's purpose and grace? 

25. When and where did God manifest His purpose and grace? 

26. What is the meaning of the expression, "abolished death"? 

27. In what sense are we to understand that Christ brought life 
and immortality to light? 

28. Give your own exegesis of vs, 11, 

201 



1:12-14 II TIMOTHY 

b. Paul 12-14 

Text 1:12-14 
12 For which cause I suffer also these things: yet I am not ashamed; 
for I know him whom I have believed, and I am persuaded that 
he is able to guard that which I have committed unto him against 
that day. 13 Hold the pattern of sound words which thou hast 
heard from me, in faith and love which is in Christ Jesus. 14 That 
good thing which was committed unto thee, guard through the 
Holy Spirit which dwelleth in us. 

Thought Questions 1:12-14 

36. For what cause did Paul suffer? Specify some of his sufferings. 

37. There must have been a genuine danger, of being ashamed, 
or it would not have been mentioned so often. Please offer 
some particular possibilities for being ashamed. 

38. Because he knew Christ, Paul was not embarrassed or con- 
fused. Explain how such a knowledge relates to being 
ashamed or embarrassed. 

39. In what particular sense would you say Paul "knew" Christ? 

40. What was it Paul committed to Christ? 

41. What was it Christ committed to Paul? 

42. How will Christ guard the deposit? Please be specific and 
personal. 

43. What is "the day" against which the commitment is made? 

44. How is the word, "pattern," used in vs, 13? 

45. For whom, and against whom, was the pattern of sound 
words to be held? 

46. Is Paul asking Timothy to hold to the healthy words in the 
spirit of faith and love, or because of his faith and love? 

47. What was "the deposit", committed to Timothy? 

48. Explain in your own words, with your present knowledge, 
just how the Holy Spirit would aid in guarding the deposit. 

49. In what sense does the Holy Spirit dwell in us? : 

Paraphrase 1:12-14 

12 For publishing the promise of eternal life through Jesus Christ 
to the Gentiles, I suffer even such things as have now befallen 
me. Nevertheless, I am not ashamed either of my doctrine or of 
my sufferings. For I know in whom I have believed, that he is 
the Son of God; and I am persuaded He is able to guard the doc- 
trine of the Gospel which is committed in trust to me, against 
infidels and false teachers, till the end of the world. 

202 



II TIMOTHY 1:12-14 

13 The form of wholesome words in which thou hast heard from 
me the doctrines of the Gospel, hold fast with that fidelity to 
Christ, and that love to those who err, which become a minister 
of Christ, 

14 Also, the good deposit of the Gospel doctrine itself, guard by 
the assistance of the Holy Ghost, who dwelleth in us, 

Comment 1:12-14 

Vs. 12. "Because I am a preacher, apostle and teacher, I am suf- 
fering." Paul's sufferings are minimized by the use of the phrase, 
"these things," but Timothy knew well to what Paul alluded, In 
immediate context, they refer to all he is suffering in Rome. For 
a larger reference, we should read his account in II Cor, 11:23-28. 
The thought of Job's friends is back of all references to being 
ashamed, i.e., "if you are doing God's will, why are you suffer- 
ing?" Paul's answer is the same as Job's. It is found in a person, 
not in a dogma, I know Christ and Christ knows me; I am per- 
fectly willing to commit my case to Him, I do not understand 
or enjoy this chain, but I am not embarrassed or discouraged by 
it, My life is under the direction of my Lord, He is able to work 
something good out of every circumstance. 

There is no small discussion among commentators as to what 
is committed to whom. Has Paul committed something to God, 
or has God committed something to Paul? In either case, the em- 
phasis is upon Paul's dependence upon Christ. 

If Paul has committed something to God, what is it? His soul, 
his work, or what? Are not all of these true? 

If God has committed something to Paul (and we know from 
other references that He has), we know what it is — his Apostle- 
ship and the Gospel. 

We much prefer the thought that God is guarding that which 
He has committed to Paul. This interpretation fits the context. 
Paul is suffering now, but the work will yet be carried on. What 
Paul has kept will be passed on to others and to yet others. How 
good to know we have living proof of God's power to guard and 
keep, in the Gospel which we proclaim. When Paul is called upon 
to give an account of his stewardship, he will be able to show a 
grand profit for the owner, Will we be able to say as much? 

Vs. 13. What is the meaning of the word, "pattern," as here 
used? The word means "outline" or "sketch." Paul has given 
the outline; Timothy is to fill it in. Let us not minimize the 

203 



1:12-14 II TIMOTHY 

force of this expression. To go beyond the pattern would be to 
produce another Gospel, and surfer the condemnation of God 
(Cf. Gal. 1:7-9). Timothy knew what Paul taught, and what he 
did not teach, on the matters that pertained to salvation and edi- 
fication., Such teaching from the words of Paul was healthy and 
life-giving. Any deviation from such teaching was diseased 
and deadly. 

The attitude in holding the faith is almost as important as the 
thing held. However orthodox we might be, our orthodoxy will 
be odious to' : God and man if not held in faith and love. Please 
read again I ■ Corinthians, chapter thirteen, to keep the balance 
between sound doctrine and the essential element. This faith 
and love for man and God is held "in Christ Jesus"; i.e., it is the 
outworking of Christ in us. .-.'-■■■.■ 

Vs. 14. We have ho hesitancy in saying that the deposit Timothy 
is to guard is the Gospel committed to him. It is easy to detect 
the concern of Paul for the , continuance of the work after his 
death. How true this has been for every sincere preacher since 
his day. 

Paul had "kept the faith," so he wanted. Timothy to keep intact 
the sacred message committed unto him. Timothy was to see to 
it that no change by way of addition, substitution or subtraction, 
should occur. Such a task is too great for man by himself. Satan 
is too clever — evil is too near— temptation too strong. We must 
have supernatural ai'd. This we have through the Holy Spirit 
which indwells each Christian (Cf. Rom. 8:11). This is a sub- 
jective matter which almost defies explanation, Perhaps we are 
to claim the power without asking for an explanation of His 
method of operation. I am sure we are.. ... 

Fact Questions 1:12-14 

29. How did Paul minimize his sufferings? 

30. How does Paul's answer to the problem of suffering compare 
with the answer of Job? 

31. Why is the thought that God is guarding what He has com- 
mitted to Paul, preferred above the other view? 

32. In what sense did Paul deliver "a sketch" to Timothy? 

33. In what way is the attitude in holding the faith important? 

34. How can we detect Paul's concern for the continuance of 
the Gospel, even after his death? . 

35. In what particulars was Timothy to guard the Gospel? 

36. Explain how the Holy Spirit, helps us to guard the deposit. 

204 



II TIMOTHY 1:15-18 

c. Onesiphorus 15-18 

Text 1:15-18 
15 This thou knowest, that all that are in Asia turned away from 
me; of whom are Phygelus and Hermogenes. 16 The Lord grant 
mercy unto the house of Onesiphorus; for he oft refreshed me, and 
was not ashamed of my chain; 17 but, when he was in Rome, he 
sought me diligently, and found me, 18 (the Lord grant unto him 
to find mercy of the Lord in that day); and in how many things he 
ministered at Ephesus, thou knowest very well. 

Thought Questions 1:15-18 

50, Why would it be true that Timothy would know of conditions 
in Asia? 

51, Why did so many turn away from Paul? Why name two 
of them? 

52, Why mention "the house" of Onesiphorus? Why not just 
mention the man? 

53, Give your explanation as to just how Onesiphorus refreshed 
Paul, 

54, Why would it be difficult to find Paul? 

55, Is there a play on the word, "find," in vss, 17 and 18? 

56, Timothy knew very well what Onesiphorus did in Ephesus, 
but we do not. Try to imagine two or three of the things 
he did, 

Paraphrase 1:15-18 

15 To guard the good deposit among the Ephesians is the more 
necessary, because thou knowest this, that all the Judaizing teach- 
ers who are in Asia have turned me off, denying that I am an 
apostle; of whom are Phygellus and Hermogenes. 

16 May the Lord grant mercy to the family of Onesiphorus. For 
he continued his attachment to me, and often comforted me in 
my imprisonment, by his visits and friendly offices, and was not 
ashamed of me, though chained as a malefactor; 

17 But being come to Rome, he searched for me with great 
diligence among the different prisons in the city, and at last 
found me, 

18 For that good man himself I pray, may the Lord reward him 
for his kindness to me, and grant to him to find pardon from the 
Lord Jesus in the day of judgment. Besides, how many things 
he supplied to me while I abode in Ephesus, thou, being a witness 
thereof, knewest well. 

205 



1:15-17 II TIMOTHY 

Comment 1:75-18 

Vs. 15. In what manner had those in the district of Asia turned 
away from Paul? The answer perhaps can be found in noticing 
the way at least one turned toward Paul. Onesiphorus came to 
Rome to visit Paul. We cannot believe it was only for a visit. He 
came to testify in defense of the Apostle. When others in Asia 
were asked to appear in Rome on Paul's behalf, they turned away. 
Two prominent members are mentioned— Phygelus and Hermo- 
genes. It was common knowledge to Timothy and the saints of 
Ephesus, and indeed, throughout the seven churches of Asia, that 
Paul could find many. who talked of their love for him and the 
Gospel, but when it cost them money, time, and standing in the 
community, and even their own lives, they turned aside to serve 
themselves. Paul was not having an easy time. No wonder the 
thought of "being ashamed" reoccurs so often. 

Vs. 16. But there are encouraging and refreshing times. Against 
the dark, background stands the bright, form of Onesiphorus. The 
name of this one would immediately remind Timothy of where 
he lived and of the family left behind. It was not easy for One- 
siphorus to leave Ephesus and travel all the way to Rome; not 
when Rome was on fire with hatred against all Christians. Would 
the loved ones of Onesiphorus ever see him : again? If they didn't, 
they could find comfort in knowing his mission was accomplished. 
He did arrive in Rome; he did find Paul; he did live up to his 
name, Onesiphorus, which means "profit-bringer." 

Just how this one "oft refreshed" Paul, we cannot say. There 
are several possibilities: just his presence would help; news of 
the blessing of God upon the works begun by Paul; in bringing 
with him personal messages of concern from those who loved God; 
perhaps in some literature brought to the Apostle. It is good to 
know, that even under the most trying ... of conditions, one can 
be refreshed. 

The fact that Paul was a prisoner did not hinder Onesiphorus 
in his encouraging ministry. Pleast note that Onesiphorus did this 
often; he did not come to call on the prisoner in a perfunctory 
manner and leave having "done his duty." 

Vs. 17. When Onesiphorus arrived in Rome, it had been largely 
destroyed by fire. Christians were scattered 'and were living in 
constant fear of being arrested and taken to the Arena. When 

206 



II TIMOTHY 1:17,18 

he inquired concerning the whereabouts of Paul, he had the 
greatest difficulty in finding those who would identify themselves 
as friends of a condemned criminal, Such comments are only 
imaginative, We do not know why he had difficulty in finding 
Paul, The conditions described could very well have been present, 
Can we detect a note of suppressed joy in the little expression, 
"and found me"? We believe we can, 

Vs. 18. There is a beautiful play on words in this verse — what I 
found, may the house of Onesiphorus find. I was brought comfort 
and strength in my hour of need; may the household of this good 
man find such comfort and strength in the day of judgment. 

There is quite an effort made by some to show that Onesiphorus 
was dead, and that Paul was praying for the dead when he said, 
"The Lord grant unto him to find mercy of the Lord in that day," 
Someone must be desperate for Scriptural proofs for a presuppo- 
sition, to so misuse a text. Is it possible to desire God's blessing 
upon a man at the judgment before the man dies? Who would 
say that it isn't? 

Reference is made to the mention of Paul's commendation of 
the "house of Onesiphorus" with no reference to him. We simply 
ask, "Where was Onesiphorus when this letter was written?" If 
he was in Rome, and Paul was writing from Rome to Ephesus, 
how could Paul greet someone who wasn't there? Does this prove 
he was dead? How ridiculous! 

Timothy would appreciate Paul's approval of Onesiphorus, 
inasmuch as Timothy had observed the good works of this one 
in Ephesus. 

Fact Questions 1:15-18 

37. Why couldn't Onesiphorus find Paul? Give your own explan- 
ation. 

38. Where is the note of "suppressed joy"? 

39. Point out the play on words in vs. 18. 

40. How do some persons use vs. 18 as a proof text for praying 
for the dead? How do you answer such a charge? 

EXEGETICAL EXAMINATION OVER CHAPTER ONE 
OF II TIMOTHY 

1. Give the time and place, as well as purpose, of the letter. 

2. Give from memory your own outline of Chapter One. 

3. Discuss two things that Paul remembered about Timothy that 
were a blessed memory to Paul. 

207 



2:1,2 II TIMOTHY 

4. What is meant by "unfeigned faith"? How, is it obtained? 
How is it sustained? Who had it? 

5. Discuss two ways Timothy was to avoid being ashamed of 
the testimony of Christ. 

6. What was the "gift of God" within Timothy? How was it to 
be stirred up? 

7. Explain two reasons for Paul not being ashamed, 

8. Give your own exegesis of vs. 10. 

9. What good thing had Onesiphorus done for Paul? 
10. Give your own exegesis of vs. 12. 

2. BE STRONG IN THE SERVICE OF CHRIST 2:1-26 
a. As a child 1, % . 

Text 2:1,2 

1 Thou, therefore, my child, be strengthened in the grdce that is in 
Christ Jesus. 2 And the things which thou hast heard from me 
among many witnesses, the same commit thou to faithful men, 
who shall be able to teach others also. 

Thought Questions 2:1,2 

57. What is the connective in chapter one with what is stated 
here in chapter two? Notice the word, "therefore." 

58. Why use the word, "child," in this particular place? 

59. Is Paul asking Timothy to be strong, or to receive strength? 

60. Specify just how are we strengthened by the grace that is in 
JeSus Christ. 

61. Do we know some of the "things" Timothy heard from Paul? 
Name three. 

62. Give the meaning of the expression, "among many witnesses." 

63. Thinking of the circumstances under which this letter was 
received, who do you imagine were "the faithful men" of 
vs. 2? 

64. Is there some type of apostolic succession in vs. 2b? What 
is it? 

Paraphrase 2:1,2 

1 Because there has 1 been such a general defection among the 
teachers in Asia, my son, be strong in preaching the grace which 
is bestowed on mankind through Christ Jesus. 

2 And what things thou hast heard from me concerning Christ, 
confirmed by many witnesses who saw and conversed with Him 
both before and after His Resurrectidn, these commit in trust to 

208 



II TIMOTHY 2:1,2 

men of approved fidelity, who shall be fit, also, to teach them to 
others, that the knowledge of them may be continued in the 
world to the end, 

Comment 2:1,2 

Vs. 1 . Lenski cannot see a connecting thought in chapter one, 
Perhaps this is true, and we should eliminate the word, "there- 
fore." But others feel that the defection of those in Asia could be 
the connection for the exhortation here, If Phygelus and Her- 
mogenes had been strong in the grace of Christ Jesus, they would 
not have turned aside. Paul could be saying to Timothy, "Be not 
like them, but be strengthened by the grace that is . in Christ 
Jesus." 

The term of endearment, "child," comes from the heart of one 
about to lay down his life for the gospel. Timothy would not 
only heed the word of Paul, but would be touched by the love and 
concern Paul had for him, 

Just how did Paul imagine the grace that is in Christ Jesus 
would be a source of strength for Timothy? 

In Christ Jesus is the favor and approval of God, An aware- 
ness that we are "in Christ Jesus," and thus in the favor of God, 
would be a great source of strength to our sometimes fainting 
heart, 

Timothy is to receive strength from his keen consciousness of 
being "in Christ Jesus." 

Vs. 2. The second admonition to his child in the faith, is a most 
important and far-reaching one. Paul was a teacher and Timothy 
was his student. Paul's sermons and letters were heard and read 
for a much larger purpose than the fact that they were inspired 
and inspiring information. Timothy was listening and learning, 
so as to be able to teach others. Those taught by Timothy, in turn, 
were learning to teach others, and so has the inspired succession 
proceeded down the centuries. 

The witnesses here mentioned are best understood to refer to 
those persons who made up the audiences while Paul spoke. Tim- 
othy was in that audience, but so were many others. Paul was 
preaching the Gospel. Timothy is here instructed to commit the 
Gospel to able and faithful men who shall in turn commit it to 
others, This verse is the basis for preacher-training today. Every 
generation must receive from faithful men the faithful Word. 

209 



2:1-4 II TIMOTHY 

Fact Questions 2:7,2 

41. Is there a connecting thought in chapter one for what follows 
in chapter two? If so, what is it? If not, why not? 

42. What effect would the term, "child," have upon Timothy? 

43. Explain how the grace that is in Christ Jesus supplies strength 
to. us, 

44. What was it Timothy was to commit to others? Who were 
these "faithful men"? 

45. Who were "the many witnesses"? 

46. How does verse two become the basis for present day preach- 
er-training? 

47. Is the method of commitment described? 
b. As a Soldier 3, 4 ' 

Text 2:3,4 
3 Suffer hardship with me, as a good soldier of Christ Jesus. 4 No 
soldier on service entangleth himself in the affairs of this life; that 
he may please him who enrolled him as a soldier. 

Thought Questions 2:3,4 

65. Why inform Timothy that he was to take his place in suffer- 
ing persecution? Was Timothy reluctant to do so? 

66. In what way would the sufferings of Timothy be associated 
with those of Paul? 

67. Why use the figure of a soldier? Show two or three com- 
parisons. 

68. As a soldier of Christ Jesus, was Paul thinking of Christ as 
in this army? • What position? 

69. Why mention possible entangling alliances? 

70. When does the Christian soldier get his "furlough"? 

71. Specify some of the "affairs of this life" in which the soldier 
of Christ Jesus could become entangled. 

72. How shall we understand the expression, "enrolled him as 
a soldier"? 

73. Is Christ actually affected with our conduct of life on earth; 
i.e., does He, personally, respond to our good and bad deci- 
sions? Explain. 

Paraphrase 2:3,4 

3 Since thou must maintain the doctrine of Christ, and commit 
it in purity to others, do thou endure with constancy the evils 
attending that service as a good soldier of Jesus Christ, that the 
teachers whom thou appointest may imitate thee. 

210 



II TIMOTHY 2:3,4 

4 No soldier engages in any of the businesses of this life, that, 
being constantly ready for action, he may please Him who ha-th 
chosen him to be a soldier. The same rule ought a minister of the 
gospel to follow, that he may please Christ who hath called him, 



Comment 2:3,4 

Vs. 3. Timothy is not only Paul's child (or God's child), but he 
is also Christ's soldier. 

As a soldier of Christ, he must expect his share in the suffering 
that accompanies this service. No good soldier of Nero would 
leave the army or refuse the service because of hardships. Shall, 
we do less for Christ than the soldier does for the emperor? 

Are you a good soldier of Christ Jesus? Then expect to suffer — 
it came with your enlistment. 

Vs. 4. Continuing the metaphor, Paul reminds Timothy of the 
complete dedication required by army service. When there is a 
choice of activities, all that would hinder obedience to orders from 
the superior officer, must be eliminated. 

The expression, "on service," can also be translated , "warring." 
The preacher is in a holy war! He must give his part in the 
battle priority over all else. How very many perfectly legitimate 
"affairs of this life" have taken up the time, thought and energy 
(to say nothing of money) that should have been given in win- 
ning the battle for King Jesus! 

Someone immediately thinks of Paul's "making tents" as a 
hindering alliance with the affairs of this life. We do not know 
just how extensive such "tent making" was, or just what he did 
when working at such a task. But one thing we do know, it did 
not encumber him from warring the good warfare. Another 
thing we can know is that much "tent making" today does hinder 
and entangle God's soldier — how much time, thought, energy and 
talents can we devote to our captain when it has been spent else- 
where? Please do not forget that our captain is touched with the 
feeling of our infirmities, both for good and for evil (Heb. 4:12). 
He is pleased or hurt by our service. The use of the term "en- 
rolled," as here used, is of one who has mustered an army and is 
calling for volunteers; for those who will enlist, We have en- 
listed at the call of our Commander, Let's give Him a full mea- 
sure of service — He deserves it. 

211 



2:3-5 II- TIMOTHYf 

Fact Questions 2:3,4 

48. What is the meaning of the ' expression, "suffer hardships"? 

49. Read Heb. 13:23 and discuss its possible application to "suffer 
hardship^ with me." 

50. How is the complete dedication required of Christ's soldiers 
here indicated? 

51. What is the meaning and application of the expression "on 
service"? 

52. How can it be determined when we have become entangled 
in "the ; affairs of this life"? 

53. Didn't Paul make tents? Wasn't this an association with "the 
affairs of this life"? . , ' 

54. Can Vye.be sure that Jesus is pleased or hurt by pur service? 
How? 

c. As an athlete 5 

Text 2:5 
5 And if also a man contend in the games, he is not crowned, ex- 
cept he have contended lawfully. 

Thought Questions 2:5 

74.. Isn't there a rather abrupt' change from vs. ,'4 to vs. 5? Is 
there any connecting thought? 

75. What "games" does Paul have in mind? 

76. What is the purpose of such an analogy? 

77. What is the "crown of the contest"? 

78. Paul does not say the man will be "crowned" if he has won, 
but rather if -he has "contended lawfully." Why this em- 
phasis? '' 

Paraphrase 2:5 
5 And also, if one contend in the Grecian games, he is not 
crowned unless he contend according to the laws of the combat. 
As little. can thou,, expect to be rewarded, unless thou ' fulfill 1 thy 
ministry in, the manner prescribed by Christ. 

Comment 2:5 

Vs. 5. The element of reward is the point of emphasis in this 
illustration for Christian service. The connective is the reference 
to the rules. There are rules in the army and there are rules in 
athletics. The prize is given to those who keep the rules. This 
thought pre-supposes the contender would excel in the contest. 

212 



II TIMOTHY 2:4,5 

But even when excelling, rigid rules must be observed. How does 
this relate to the preacher? There are three qualities of character 
to be found in the man of God: (1) as a soldier, willingness to 
suffer; (2) as an athlete, willingness to discipline himself; (3) 
as a farmer, patience for the harvest, 

Absolute self-discipline is taught by the example of the Greek 
athlete, Instances have been produced where the athlete swore 
under oath that he had practiced ten months before the games 
(Lock). 

Please notice that there is only one participator in this contest, 
Each is contending by himself, against himself, and the estab- 
lished record, 

What are the rules for the contest of the faith? They are set 
up by the Lord Jesus. Our Lord "condemned sin in the flesh" 
(Romans 8:3); i.e,, He demonstrated perfect self-discipline, The 
weapons used by our Lord, in His self-control, are open to all of 
us, Prayer, meditation, and fasting are yet the greatest needs of 
the present day self-indulgent, instead of self-disciplined, minister, 

Fact Questions 2:5 

55. What is the point of emphasis in the illustration of vs. 5? 

56. Is there some connection between the illustration of the sol- 
dier and the athlete? If so, explain. 

57. Something more than excellence in contending is required 
before a crown is given. What is it? How does this relate 
to the preacher? 

58. What is meant by the expression that Jesus "condemned sin 
in the flesh"? (Rom. 8:3) 

59. What weapons shall we use in the battle of self-mastery? Are 
they adequate? How do we know?, 

d. As a farmer 6-13 

Text 2:6-73 
6 The husbandman that laboreth must be the first to partake of 
the fruits. 7 Consider what I say; for the Lord shall give thee under- 
standing in all things. 8 Remember Jesus Christ, risen from the 
dead, of the seed of David, according to my Gospel: 9 wherein I 
suffer hardship unto bonds, as a malefactor; but the word of God 
is not bound. 10 Therefore I endure all things for the elect's sake, 
that they may also obtain the salvation which is in Christ Jesus 
with eternal glory. 1 1 Faithful is the saying: For if we died with 
Him, we shall also live with Him: 12 if we endure, we shall also 

213 



2:6-13 II TIMOTHY 

reign with Him: if we shall deny Him, He also will deny us: 13 if 
we are faithless, He abideth faithful; for He cannot deny Himself. 

Thought Questions 2:6-13 

79. Who is the husbandman in this reference? 

80. Why is the word, "must," used in vs. 6? 

81. Are we to make a comparison here between the farmer who 
labors and the lazy farmer who does not? What is the em- 
phasis? 

82. What are "the fruits" of which the farmer partakes? 

83. In what sense does the farmer "partake" of the fruits? 

84. Why consider what Paul is saying, if the Lord will supply 
the understanding? 

85. Why insert this admonition at this place? . 

86. Why suggest just here that Timothy "remember Jesus 
Christ"? 

87. Jesus is not dead, but alive. Jesus is. of the royal line of 
David. How does this relate to the context? 

88. In what sense was the good news — "my gospel"; i.e., belong- 
ing to Paul? 

89. What is Paul's purpose in describing his persecutions and 
imprisonment? 

90. What is a "malefactor"? 

91. In ; what sense is "the Word of God not bound"? 

92. Show the immediate reason Paul could endure all things. 

93. In what sense was Paul's imprisonment for the "elect's sake"? 

94. If certain persons are "the elect," wouldn't they obtain the 
salvation which is in Christ Jesus without Paul's efforts? 

95. Show how the two above thoughts relate, 

96. What is the "eternal glory" mentioned here? 

97. Why use the expression, "Faithful is the saying"? 

98. When did "we die with Him"? 

99. "We shall also live with Him"— is this referring to heaven? 
Explain. 

100; When shall we reign with Him? 

101. Name three ways in which we can "deny Him." When, and 
where, and how, will He deny us? 

102. Is there some difference in being faithless, and denying Him? 
Explain, 

103. In what respects; does Christ remain, irrevocably faithful? 

104. Christ .cannot deny. Himself. Does this rise from inability 
to do so? Explain. ' 

214 



II TIMOTHY 2; 6-13 

Paraphrase 2:6-13 

6 It becometh the husbandman to labour his field before he par- 
takes of the fruits of it, How much more oughtest thou to labour 
in the ministry before thou art rewarded? 

7 Consider what I say concerning the necessity of devoting thy- 
self wholly to the ministry, and of enduring evil, and may the 
Lord Jesus give thee a just discernment in all religious matters, 

8 Often recollect and preach, that Jesus Christ really descended 
from David, was raised from the dead, and thereby demonstrated 
to be the true Messiah, according to the Gospel which I preach, 

9 For which Gospel I suffer evil even to bonds, as a malefactor, 
But though my enemies may bind me, they cannot bind the 
Word of God. It will spread itself in spite of all opposition. 

10 For this cause I patiently bear all things on account of the 
Gentiles elected to be the people of God, that they also may ob- 
tain the salvation from sin and death, which is procured by Christ 
Jesus, and which will be accompanied with eternal glory. 

11 Suffering for Christ is not so great a misfortune as the world 
imagines: For this affirmation is true, that if we die with Christ, 
as martyrs for religion, we shall also live with him eternally. 

12 If, like Christ, we suffer persecution patiently, we shall also 
reign with Him: But if, when brought before kings and councils, 
we from fear deny our relation to Him, He will, at the judgment, 
deny that He knows us. 

13 Though we be unfaithful in denying Him, He abideth faithful 
to all His promises and threatenings. He cannot act contrary to 
His own essential perfections. 

Comment 2:6-13 

Vs. 6. Continuing the thought of reward, Paul uses the illustra- 
tion of the farmer. Is the emphasis upon the effort, or work, of 
the farmer, or upon the reward he receives from this labor? There 
is a good deal of discussion among CQmmentators as to which 
thought should receive the emphasis. It is comparatively easy 
to say, with the soldier, the point is endurance. In the case of 
the athlete, it is discipline, or compliance with the rules for the 
crown. It would seem that both thoughts of hard labor and re- 
ward are here used with the farmer, as self-control and reward 
are used with the athlete. 

215 



2; 6*9: II' TIMOTHY 

The faithful minister will work . as , hard as a hard-working 
farmer. When he does, he has the assurance that he will be, the 
first to share, in the benefits of his labor. What are these benefits? 
The preacher who does not first preach his sermon to himself js 
not worthy of the name. "Thou that teachest another, teachest 
thou not thyself?" The preacher should become the first '■ Convert 
to every sermon. Thus he is first to partake of the 'benefit of 
his labors. 

In another sense, the preacher is to "live of the Gospel" which 
he preaches. As he sows spiritual things, he can expect a return 
in material things. This same thought is emphasized several 
times by Paul elsewhere, . 

Vs. 7. Since Paul has compressed three figures of speech into so 
few words, he feels a word of warning is necessary lest Timothy 
read the words without a grasp" of their full meaning. Ponder, 
meditate, think upon what I have written, It is written to you, 
about you; consider it very carefully. Remember also, that the 
Lord has promised wisdom and grace adequate for our under- 
standing. There would be no mistakes as to points of emphasis 
with Timothy, 

Vs. 8. Verses eight through thirteen are a summary of the prin- 
ciple stated in the previous verses; i.e., we must endure before 
we can reap, or that hardship precedes victory. Two illustrations 
are given: Jesus Christ, and Paul. Finally, the subject is conclud- 
ed with the "faithful saying"; which restates the same principle 
of, "no cross, no crown." 

.. Timothy is urged to "remember Jesus Christ." But to what 
purpose? Reading this in its context we would answer, "Because 
Jesus Christ well illustrates the point, 'He is our grand example.' " 
"He is risen from the dead . . ." but only after He had suffered 
at the hands of sinners and was crucified. 

Paul adds two modifying thoughts: first, that our Lord was of 
the royal line of David— thus adding insult to injury by crucify- 
ing the, heir to the throne of David. Second, that the death, burial, 
and resurrection of Christ was the heart of the message he 
preached. 

Vs. 9. Because of the good news I preach, I am suffering the 
present persecution. Knowing of Paul's reluctance to say any- 
thing about his sufferings, we can imagine the "hardships" in 
the Roman prison were indeed severe. Paul was held in chains. as 

216 



II TIMOTHY 2; 941 

a common criminal. But God brings victory out of defeat: the 
very thing for which I am imprisoned is not in prison, T am here 
for preaching The Word, but it is not bound! The Word of God 
is with Timothy and with all others; it is spread over the wide 
Roman Empire ! Wherever Paul or other inspired men had spoken 
or written, the Word of God was living and working, 

Vs. 10. Because the Word of God is not bound and will accom- 
plish its glorious purpose in the elect, Paul was ready to bear up 
under whatever hardships came his way. 

Paul felt his remaining steadfast even in prison, was necessary 
for "the elect's sake"; i.e., he wanted to present the best possible 
example so as not to discourage a single one. If he could, in 
any way, help the least or the last of "the elect" to obtain what he 
was confident awaited him, he would suffer anything Nero want- 
ed to bring upon him. 

On the other hand, this sentence, "Therefore I endure all 
things for the elect's sake, that they also may obtain the salva- 
tion which is in Christ Jesus with eternal glory," could look back- 
ward instead of forward, Paul could have reference to what he 
had suffered, as well as what he is suffering. He could mean 
that he stood up under the sufferings described in II Cor. 11:1 6-33 
and Rom, 8:35-39 because he knew his labor was not vain in 
the Lord. 

The use of the word, "elect," reminds us of the need to under- 
stand the teaching of the New Testament on election. It is not 
our purpose to develop it here, but suffice it to say, no Bible stu- 
dent worthy of the name' will fail to search the Scriptures dili- 
gently on this important subject. 

It should be pointed out that salvation is "in Christ Jesus'," and 
that there is no salvation outside of Christ. How does one come 
"into Christ Jesus"? Read Gal. 3:27 for an inspired answer from 
Paul. 

The "eternal glory" of our salvation is here anticipated, and is 
certain of the fulfillment. Something of the power of the age to 
come should be reflected in the lives of those who will share it. 

Vss. 11-13, Here is the fifth and last "faithful saying." We like 
the thought of Hendriksen that this is probably a part of an 
"early Christian hymn, a cross-bearer's or martyr's hymn." He 
says, with good effect: "Now the word 'for' indicates that in the 
hymn, something preceded." The probability is that the unquoted 

217 



2:11-13 II TIMOTHY 

line which preceded, was something like; "We shall remain faith- 
ful to our Lord even to death," or "We have resigned ourselves 
to reproach and suffering and even to death for Christ's sake." 
(Ibid pp. 254,255) 

The quoted lines are: 

"For if we died with Him, we shall also live with Him: 
if we endure, we shall also reign with Him: 
if we shall deny Him, He also will deny us: 
if we are faithless, He abideth faithful; 
for He cannot deny Himself." 

Please do not miss the point of quoting this hymn (if indeed it 
is). This is a conclusion to the thought that without a cross there 
is no crown; without a thorn there is no throne. We shall take 
up a discussion of each phrase as it appears: 

// we died with Him When did this take place? We died 
when Christ died. Please read Rom. 6:8 and II Cor. 5:14 for a 
confirmation of this. Remember that this is applicable to all Chris- 
tians. It was written to Timothy ' and the saints in Ephesus to 
offer them strength and challenge, but it is just as applicable to 
us. Paul said of himself, "I have been crucified with Christ, and 
it is no longer I that live, but Christ liveth in me." (Gal. 2:20) 

(We have read the discussions which link this phrase, "If we 
died with Him" with a martyr's death, but we much prefer the 
above interpretation and can see no conflict with the context. ) 

When Christ died, we died. This identification of ourselves 
with Christ is a powerful motive for holy living. Such a motive 
was needed in this day of intense persecution. 

We shall also live with Him This is the joyous advantage in 
dying with Him. We are as truly identified with His Resurrection 
as we are with His death. We have been raised together with 
Christ in this life, and j it is but a foretaste of the life to come. If 
we do not live like Christ here, how can we hope to live with 
Him for eternity? If we do not live like Him, we cannot live with 
Him. The blessed thought is, He deigns to live with us and in us 
through the Holy Spirit (Rom. 8:9). 

if we endure, we shall also reign with Him "Endurance" is 
more than begrudgingly bearing difficulties. "Endurance" is re- 
maining steadfast amid all manner of trials. "Endurance" is a 
positive quality, not a negative one. Please associate this endur- 

218 



II TIMOTHY 2; 1143 

ance with Christ; we are to endure or suffer with Him, "They 
who suffered with David in his humiliation were preferred with 
him in his exaltation; so it will be with the Son of David" 
(Henry). 

Reigning with Christ is more than an offer of the hope of 
heaven. It is true right here and right now: "if we endure, we 
shall reign with Him," If we are willing to bear the reproaches 
and accusations found in fellowship with Jesus, we can also share 
in the triumph of overcoming evil with good, One day, all the 
daily trials and difficulties will be past, and we shall reign with 
Him forever in the new heaven and new earth, 

if we shall deny Him.;, He also will deny us These words seem 
almost a quotation of Matt, 10:33 or Mark 8:38. Indeed, some 
commentators feel they are. 

What is meant by denying Christ, and how could it be done? 
Commentators have read "final denial," "fatal denial," "hypo- 
critical faith," etc., into these simple words, "deny Him." Did 
Peter deny Him? Did Jesus deny Peter? When we reject Him, 
we are rejected by Him. We are well aware that the final judg- 
ment day is inferred by the text, but please remember, that judg- 
ment day arrives every day for thousands of persons in the form 
of a visit from Death. 

Every time we please ourselves instead of Jesus, we have denied 
Him. To remain in this state and die in such a state is to be for- 
ever denied by Him. When we are ashamed of Him or His Word 
in this wicked and adulterous generation, we have denied Him. 
Who is to say that such a person never owned Him in the first 
place? 

if we are faithless, He abideth faithful, for He cannot deny 
Himself. This is a conclusion to all that has been said in vss. 
11-13. This is not intended to be a discouragement, but an en- 
couragement. If we fail, God remains faithful, We can always 
return to the solid rock; we have forever a norm of truth that 
does not change. If we turn aside, it is only because we choose 
to do so; it is not that God wants us to, or that there is some ad- 
vantage in it. 

Like the disillusioned prodigal, we can be sure there is a warm 
house, a loving father, and a cleansing bath awaiting our return 
from the pig-pen of the world. 

219 



2:6-13 II TIMOTHY 

God's faithfulness is a part 1 of His very being: a part of His 
essence. He is essentially and eternally consistent. It is His nature 
to be so. Therefore, He cannot deny Himself, To deny His faith- 
fulness is to deny His existence. 

Fact Questions 2:6-13 

60. Which is to. be emphasized in vs. 6: the work of the farmer 
or the reward'of the farmer? 
,'■61.' What are the "fruits" of which the minister is, the? first to 
■ partake? 

62. Give your own exegesis of vs. 7. > 

63. Verses 8 through 13 are a unit; explain of what and why. 

64. Why "remember Jesus Christ"? Please answer' in the context. 

65. Why mention that Jesus was of the seed of David? 

66. Why mention "according to my Gospel"? 

67. We know PauLwas very . reluctant to say anything about 
■ his suffering. How does this thought relate to vs. 9a? 

68. In what sense was the Word of God not bound? Show how 
God brought victory out of defeat. 

69. Paul endured all things "for the elect's sake";, explain how 
his sufferings related to "the elect." 

70. Show how vs. 10 could. look either backward. or forward. in 
thought. 

71. Who are the elect? Who does the electing? How? 

72. Do we presently have salvation in Christ Jesus? ' 

73. Which Verses contain "the faithful saying"? 

74. If the faithful saying was part of an early hymm what was 
the thought of the part not quoted? ...■■•, 

75. What is the purpose in giving this faithful saying? 

76. When and where and how did we die with Christ? Are we 
. presently dead? ,■,.-. 

77. In what sense are we to live with Christ? 

78. Please define "endurance." 

79. Show how we are presently, reigning with Christ and how 
we will do so in the future. 

80. What type of a denial is to be understood from vs. 12b? Is 
this a final; fatal denial? 

81. If we deny Him, is it proof positive that we never knew 
Him at all? Do you agree? Explain. 

82. Show how vs. 13 is a conclusion to vss. 6-12. 

83. God's eternal faithfulness is a great source of encouragement. 
Discuss. 

220 



II TIMOTHY 1:14-19 

e, As a workman 14-19 

Text 2:14-19 

14 Of these things put them in remembrance, charging them in the 
sight of the Lord, that they strive not about words, to no profit, to 
the subverting of them that hear, 15 Give diligence to present thy- 
self approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be 
ashamed, handling aright the word of truth. 16 But shun profane 
babblings: for they will proceed further in ungodliness, 17 and 
their word will eat as doth a gangrene: of whom is Hymenaeus 
and Philetus; 18 men who concerning the truth have erred, saying 
that the resurrection is past already, and overthrow the faith of 
some. 19 Howbeit the firm foundation of God standeth, having 
this seal, the Lord knoweth them that are His: and, let every one 
that nameth the name of the Lord depart from unrighteousness. 

Thought Questions 2:14-19 

105. Of what "things" is Timothy to put them in remembrance? 
Did they already know? When and how did they learn? 

106. What is meant by the word, "charging," as in vs. 14? 

107. Please try to imagine the circumstances in which Timothy 
would carry out the instructions of vs. 14. Who is to receive 
this charge? Are those involved in the word-battles to be 
aware of "the sight of God"? 

108. Who would be subverted? Why? 

109. Does vs. 15 have anything to do with Bible Study? 

110. How would Timothy know when he was "approved unto 
God"? 

111. Timothy was to consider himself "a workman"; what were 
his tools? What was his job? 

112. What could cause embarrassment to God's workman? 

113. There are three possible readings for vs. 15b: (1) handling 
aright the Word of Truth; (2) a straight course in the Word 
of Truth; (3) rightly dividing the Word of Truth. Which 
do you prefer? Please, please make an effort to choose — it is 
important. 

114. What is the meaning of the word, "profane," as used in 16a? 

115. How could Timothy shun "profane babblings" without shun- 
ning the teachers of it? Explain. 

116. Why could Paul be so sure that such vain talk would pro- 
gress if not ignored? 

221 



2:14-19 II TIMOTHY 

117. In what way is false teaching like a cancer? 

118. Why mention Hymenaeus and Philetus? Read I Timothy 
1:20. Had Paul failed in his efforts to help Hymenaeus? 

119. Is there anyone today who follows the teachings of the two 
mentioned in vs. 17? Be specific. 

120. What resurrection is meant in vs. 18? Is not our baptism a 
resurrection? Cf. Rom. 6:1-4 and Col. 3:1-3. Explain. 

121. Show how vs. 19 offers an answer to the false teachers, and 
a hope for the ultimate Victory of truth. 

122. What is the "firm foundation"? 

123. Explain the use of "the seal" as here used. 

Paraphrase 2:74-79 

14 Put the Ephesians in mind of these great motives, earnestly 
testifying to them in the presence of Christ, and as they shall 
answer to him, not to fight about words (see I Tim. 6:4), as the 
Judaizers do, to no manner of use, but to the subverting of the 
faith and morals of the hearers. 

15 Strive to behave so as at last thou may est present thyself to 
God an approved unashamed workman, who hath rightly dis- 
tributed the doctrine of the Gospel to all, according to their need. 

16 But irreligious empty declamations resist, for they who use 
such discourses will increase to more ungodliness; they will pro- 
ceed to deny the most essential articles of the Christian faith; 

1 7 And their doctrine will eat, will destroy the souls of men, as 
a gangrene destroys the body. Of this sort of ungodly talkers are 
Hymenaeus and Philetus. 

18 Who from the true Christian doctrine have wandered, affirm- 
ing that the resurrection hath already happened; and by this im- 
pious babbling have overturned the faith of some concerning the 
resurrection of the body, and a future life in the body. 

19 These false teachers, by denying the doctrine of the apostles, 
make themselves greater than the apostles. Nevertheless, the 
apostles being the foundation of God's Church (Eph. 2:20), stand 
firm in that honourable place, having this inscription as a con- 
firmation of their authority, The Lord will make known them 
who are his: And, Let every one who nameth the name of Christ 
as his Lord, depart from wicked teachers, lest with them he be 
destroyed. 

222 



II TIMOTHY 2:14,15 

Comment 2:14-19 

Vs, 14. Paul turns from a discussion of Timothy, to discuss those 
with whom Timothy is working, The great eternal truths of the 
Gospel, stated in verses 8-13, are to be implanted in the minds 
and hearts of the saints at Ephesus and surrounding area, Particu- 
larly should such truths be appreciated by the elders of the sev- 
eral churches, 

Such persons had heard from Paul the same truths he has 
written to Timothy; therefore, he is but to "put them in remem- 
brance." It is so easy to forget, How involved some people become 
in discussions about some fine point of the law, The "word bat- 
tles" here being held were not about the law of God, but related 
to the "endless genealogies, the myths and fables of the traditions 
of the Jewish fathers," 

When Timothy came upon a group of Christians gathered 
around two or three or more of the church leaders, listening to a 
heated discussion about some point of Jewish tradition, he was to 
stop such a meeting. He was to rebuke the leaders for starting 
such an argument, He was to remind them that such arguments 
carried no profit even if they came to a perfect agreement, and 
as it stood it'was upsetting the faith of some of the newer con- 
verts. Some of the new converts would say, "If the church leaders 
cannot come to an agreement, who are we to hope to attain a 
knowledge of God's will?" 

We have imagined a situation which we feel is close to the 
reality of Paul's day. 

The word, "subverting," comes from the word from which we 
have "catastrophe." Such a situation as just described is indeed 
a catastrophe. 

Vs. 15. "Timothy must be a workman, not a quibbler." The 
word, "study," in the King James version, has been very mislead- 
ing to a number of people. To use this as a proof text for Bible 
Study is to miss the point of Paul's words. The expression, "give 
diligence," is much better; the thought relates to Timothy's atti- 
tude, not his practice. We hasten to add that if Timothy was to 
present himself approved unto God, a workman who needed not 
to be ashamed, handling aright the Word of truth; he doubtless 
meditated upon the word in order to so present himself, but the 
opening expression, "give diligence," relates to his attitude in 
approaching the Word of truth, 

223 



2:15-17 II TIMOTHY 

We shall all one day* be: arraigned before the judgment seat of 
Christ to give an account. It will be then that we shall want the 
approval of the one before whom v^e stand. The thought of such 
an examination is back of the phrase, "approved of God." Tim- 
othy was to conduct, himself in, his teaching and preaching, in 
such a manner that- on the great day. of evaluation he would haye 
nothing for which he should be ashamed. What a goal for every 
man of God! 

. In, order to do this he must make a straight-forward use of. the 
Word, of Truth. We take this to be the meaning of the expression,; 
"handle aright the word of truth." In contrast to the empty 
chatter of the word, "battles," Timothy is to offer a splid discus- 
sion of the revealed; facts of the Gospel, ....... 

A good deal of controversy has arisen over' the meaning of 
"handle aright";, some feel it retains the root meaning of "cutting 
straight." The meaning and application are the same if the root 
meaning is retained, or is not retained. : Timothy will be ap- 
proved of God when he makes the right use of the Word of truth. 

Vs. 16, What shall be done with those teachers who persist in 
discussing the profitless points of. Jewish tradition?. Shun them; 
ignore them; when they approach you, with a question,, or, at- 
tempt an audience with you,, turn away. from. them.. Be gentle 
and kind about it, but be positive and firm. It is not that Timothy 
or Paul were not interested in the concerns of others, for they 
were, but when divine truth was the issue, everyone except such 
persons as here described, knew God had revealed Hi's Word 
through His inspired apostles and prophets, and anything else was 
"profane," or empty. Such action is an imperative, for such teach- 
ings have within them the germ of Satan. 

Do not allow their presence. To do so is to ask for an over- 
throw of the cause of Christ. Error has a terrifying ' potency for 
progress. Stop it before it starts! . 

The basic error of such teachers, as here mentioned, is that they 
felt the traditions of men were of equal value with the Word of 
God. Our Lord has something to say about such persons; read 
Matt. 15:7-9. . . ■ 

Vs. \t: Somehow, in their study and argument concerning pro- 
fane questions, these false teachers came to believe that the resur- 
rection was already past. If this Word was allowed to be taught, 

224 



II TIMOTHY 2:17-19 

it would grow like gangrene. This term is medical in background; 
it means, literally, "to find pasture." The spread of false teaching 
in the body of Christ is like the spread of gangrene in the physical 
body, and just as destructive, 

Two examples of such false teachers are Hymenaeus and Phi- 
letus. We have heard of Hymenaeus before, in I Timothy 1:20; 
we cannot be positive that this is the same man, but it does ap- 
pear more than likely, Of Philetus we know nothing, 



Vs, 18, Evidently such men were equating the final resurrection 
with our new birth, A misapplication of Romans 6:1-4, or Colos- 
sians 3:13, would produce such a thought. Think of what impli- 
cations are contained in this false word: (1) It would deny 
Christ's physical resurrection; (2) It would deny the possibility 
of the second coming; (3) The hope of the resurrection for be- 
lievers would be gone; (4) All hope of meeting our dead loved 
ones is taken away; (5) We could not share in the Father's house 
of many mansions, No wonder such a teaching would overthrow 
the faith of the new ones in Christ in the city of Ephesus! 



Vs. 19. What is "the firm foundation of God"? Is it the Gospel 
or the Church? If we are going to carry the figure of a workman 
in the house of God (the church), we would refer it to the church. 
Timothy is not to. become discouraged in the face of apostacy, 
for the Lord's Church will stand though all Hell oppose it! Why 
refer to the Church as a foundation? In a basic sense, all mem- 
bers of Christ's Church are built upon the apostles and prophets 
(i.e., their teaching and preaching), Christ Jesus Himself being 
the chief cornerstone. 

In another figure we can say we are builded in and upon one 
another. We believe Paul is saying here that a remnant or foun- 
dation will always be in the world. A solid core will always re- 
main. There shall be two distinguishing marks of this foundation. 
One mark relating to God, "the Lord knoweth them that are His," 
i.e., God does have His people in every age. When there are 
apostates and when there are not. The second mark relates to 
man, "Let every one that nameth the name of the Lord depart 
from unrighteousness." In every age there have been those who 
loved the beauty of holiness and departed from the "spirit of the 
present age," Timothy could look about him in Ephesus and 

225 



2:14-19 II TIMOTHY 

read this inscription in the conduct of a good number. When the 
fruit of the Spirit is present in the conduct of men, it is reason- 
able evidence that they belong to Christ (Cf. Rom. 8:9). To see 
the one, is to believe the other. 

Fact Questions 2:14-19 

84. What change is noted in these verses as compared with 
vss. 8-13? - 

85. What was the subject matter of the word-battles? 

86. What was to be done when Timothy knew of such word- 
battles? Why was he to do this? 

87. What is the meaning and import of the word, "subverting"? 

88. Why not use vs. 15a as a proof text for Bible study? What 
does it mean? 

89. How does the thought of the day of judgment relate to 
vs. 15b? 

90. Give your explanation of the expression, "handle aright the 
word of truth." 

91. What' shall be done with those teachers who persist in dis- 
cussing the profitless points of Jewish traditions? 

92. Was it not very narrow and unkind to "shun" certain per- 
sons? Explain. 

93. Explain the meaning and application of the. word, "gan- 
grene." 

94. Who were Hymenaeus and Philetus? 

95. What argument was probably used to show that the resur- 
rection was already past? 

96. How would such teaching spread? Didn't the saints at Eph- 
esus have a knowledge of the truth? 

97. What is the firm foundation of God? 

98. Explain how the Church could be a foundation. 

99. Discuss the twofold seal upon the foundation. 

100. How did such information, as in vs. 19, encourage Timothy? 

f. As a utensil 20-23 

Text 2:20-23 
20 Now in a great house there are not only vessels of gold and 
of silver, but also of wood and of earth; and some unto honor, 
and some unto dishonor. 21 If a man, therefore, purge himself 
from these, he shall be a vessel unto honor, sanctified, meet for 
the master's use, prepared unto every good work. 22 But flee youth- 
ful lusts, and follow after righteousness, faith, love, peace, with 

226 



II TIMOTHY 2:20-23 

them that call on the Lord out of a pure heart. 23 But foolish and 
ignorant questionings refuse, knowing that they gender strifes. 

Thought Questions 2:20-23 

124, To what does the expression, "great house," refer? 

125, Who or what are the "vessels"? 

126, The composition of the vessels is determined by someone 
other than the vessel. Are we to understand that we are 
predestinated to be either gold, silver, wood, or earth? 

127, If the great house is the Church, how could there be dis- 
honorable vessels in it? 

128, From what should a man purge himself? 

129, Is Paul saying in vs. 21 that a silver and gold vessel should 
clean itself up for better use? Or is he saying a wooden or 
clap vessel can change its nature and become gold or silver? 
Or is there yet another possibility? Please think carefully 
on this, 

130, Discuss the meaning and use of the term, "sanctified," as in 
vs. 21. Do the same with the word, "meet." 

131, Specify some of the "youthful lusts." Why are some desires 
particularly associated with youth? Is this a hard-and-fast 
rule? 

132, Read I Timothy 6; 11 and compare it with II Timothy 2:22. 
Show what II Timothy 2:22 adds to I Timothy 6:11. 

133, How does the possession of a "pure heart" relate to the 
context? 

134, Are the "foolish and ignorant questionings" of vs. 23 the 
same as those mentioned in 2; 16? If so, why mention them 
again? 

Paraphrase 2:20-23 

20 Think it not strange that God permits wicked teachers to be 
in His Church. In a great house there are not only vessels of gold 
and of silver, but also of wood and of earthenware, and some of 
these vessels are destined to an honourable, and some to a dis- 
honourable use, 

21 If then, a teacher will cleanse himself well from these things, 
namely, from false doctrine, corrupt affections, and sinful ac- 
tions, he will be a vessel appointed to an honourable use in the 
Church, consecrated, and very profitable for God's use, Who is 
the master of the house or church, being prepared for every good 
work, 

227 



2:20-23 II TIMOTHY 

22:Fle,e ; , therefore, those youthful lusts which young. men placed 
over others are prone to 1 indulge, and which render them unfit 
for the master's use: But pursue righteousness, fidelity, love, and 
peace, especially with them, who worship the Lord from a pure 
heart. 

23 Moreover, foolish and untaught questions (Titus 3:9), reject, 
knowing that they beget fightings. 



Comment 2:20-23 

Vs. 20. We take the reference to vessels in "the great house" to 
be church members, in the same sense that the wheat and tares 
of Jesus' parable were in theChurch; and in the same sense that 
the good and bad fish of the parable of the net were in the church. 

This is particularly a. discission of conditions existing ' in the 
churches in Ephesus and the province of Asia; however, what was 
true then is true now.. Ill the great present day House of God 
there are indeed ayariety of vessels. Some are valuable and' profit- 
able in the Lord's service (perhaps we, should say, a few are), 
but many are as wood and earth in their value and service to 
our Lord. 



Vs. 21. From what is a man to purge himself? Before we> answer 
this question, please attempt to understand the figure here' used. 
There are two types of vessels: one honorable — represented by 
those of silver and gold; the other dishonorable- — represented by 
those of wood and earth. All Christians are in one class or the 
other. We are either honorable or dishonorable; we are : either 
silver and gold or wood and earth. In the church at Ephesus 
were Hymenaeus and Philetus and their followers, as well as 
Timothy and certain faithful men.' Timothy and those who were 
faithful to Christ were riot to be contaminated by certain filthy 
members; they must purge' themselves, or wash themselves, of 
them. In so doing they will become vessels unto honor: Set apart 
for the Master's use. On the other hand, if any one of the dis- 
honorable Vessels chose to follow in the way of truth instead of 
error, they could, and -would become vessels of honor. By their 
own choice 'they set themselves aside as useable in the Lord's 
House. We realize how abrupt. is the Change in the figure and 
also how the analogy is ; pressed beyond logic, but we honestly 
feel this is the meaning of the inspired writer. 

228 



II TIMOTHY 2:22,23 

Vs. 22, In order to be of honorable use in the great House of 
God, Paul admonishes Timothy to run away from youthful de- 
sires, Just what are those desires and why are they called "youth- 
ful"? We must not confine them to the lust of the flesh or sins 
of sex, although we should not exclude such. Mark once again 
that Paul does not say to fight and oppose such desires; to do 
such is not to win by overcoming them, but to lose by being over- 
come by them, The victor's crown belongs to the one who runs 
away, This is psychologically sound, for when we turn to run 
away, we transfer our attention and interest and thus break the 
hold of our previous interest. However, mark well that we are 
to have something from which to run. Pride, anger and prejudice 
are as much a part of youthful lusts as passion, 

Paul has given almost the same advice to Timothy in his first 
letter. Read I Timothy 6:11. We discussed those virtues at length 
in the first letter. "Peace" is the only additional virtue here speci- 
fied. Perhaps it is included because of the need for this quality in 
face of the strife certain persons were attempting to bring into 
the church, 

There are others in this pursuit after holiness of character. 
They are those who call upon the Lord out of a pure heart. What 
a beautifully descriptive phrase. This is that profitable, valuable, 
pure company: those in whose hearts insincerity has no place. 

Vs. 23. Such advice as given in vs. 23 must have been very much 
needed, for it was given twice before. Cf. I Tim. 1:4 and 4:7; 
also II Tim. 2:16. Do not dignify such foolish and ignorant ques- 
tions with your attention. Avoid them in any way you can that 
will not bring reproach upon the cause of Christ. Titus was given 
the same admonition. Cf. Titus 3:9. "Such questionings, while 
having no useful end, tend to mere empty controversy, arousing 
the worst passions and breeding bitter enmities." (Harvey) 

Fact Questions 2:20-23 

101. In what sense are the vessels in the great house church 
members? 

102. There are only two kinds of vessels in God's House. What 
are they? 

103. Vs. 20 has a real application to the present church; show 

how. 

104. From what is a man to purge himself? When he does, what 
will this do for him? 

229 



2:24-26 II TIMOTHY 

105. Is it possible for a wood or clay vessel to become one of silver 
or gold? How? 

106. Why flee youthful lusts? Why not stand up and fight them 
like a man? 

107. What is meant by "calling on the Lord out of a pure heart"? 

108. Why refuse to answer some questions? 
g. As a bondservant 24-26 

Text 2:24-26 

24 And the Lord's servant must npt strive, but be gentle toward 
all, apt to teach, forbearing, 25 in meekness correcting them that 
oppose themselves; if per-adventure God may give them repentance 
unto the knowledge of the truth, 26 and they may recover them- 
selves out of the snare of the devil, having been taken captive by 
him unto his will. 

Thought Questions 2:24-26 

135. Define in your own words the word, "strive," in vs. 24. 
Didn't Jude say we should "contend"? See Jude 3. 

136. How could the Lord's servant be gentle and, at the same 
time, shun, turn away, reprove, rebuke, and gag the mouths 
of some? 

137. How is the word, "apt," used in vs. 24? 

138. Give a hypothetical situation where the Lord's servant could 
be "forbearing," 

139. Please notice that the forbearing is to be "in meekness." 
Define this word in this context; or is this the use and mean- 
ing of the phrase? 

140. In what sense do certain persons oppose themselves? 

141. What part does God have in producing repentance? 

142. How does the knowledge of the truth relate to repentance? 
What is repentance? 

143. Paul says some people are live captives of Satan, but they 
can escape. How? 

144. What is "the snare of the devil"? 

145. Whose "will" is concerned in vs. 26b? 

Paraphrase 2:24-26 

24 And the servant of the Lord must not fight, but be gentle 
toward all men, fit to teach (see I Tim. 3:2), patiently bearing 
evil: 

230 



II TIMOTHY 2:24-26 

25 In meekness instructing those who set themselves in opposi- 
tion; if, by any means, God will give them repentance to the 
acknowledgment of truth, 

26 And being caught alive by him out of the snare of the devil, 
they may awake to do the will of God, 

Comment 2:24-26 

Vs, 24. Christ's bondservant must not become embroiled in strife 
over words, In contrast, he should have the following four quali- 
ties : ( 1 ) Gentle toward all. He must be possessed of that heavenly 
judgment or wisdom, which is "first pure, then gentle, easy to bs 
entreated" (Jas, 3:17). This does not mean weak or flabby. He 
is approachable and reasonable with all who come to him, (2) Apt 
to teach, i.e., having the ability and desire to do so. Instruction 
is a great part of his work for Christ. If he does not have a sin- 
cere, eager desire to communicate the message, he will not do 
much for Christ. (3) Forbearing. "Let your forbearance be known 
unto all men, the Lord is at hand" (Phil. 4:5). Unless we are 
aware of the presence of the Lord, we will not be very forbear- 
ing, especially to those who oppose us. This is such a needed 
quality; it indicates unselfishness and understanding. The forbear- 
ance of God is intended to lead man to repentance (Rom. 2:3,4), 
ans so should this quality enable us to assist God in this accom- 
plishment. 

Vs. 25. (4) "in meekness correcting them that oppose them- 
selves." A man in sin is actually fighting himself. He is opposing 
all that is for his own best interests. But to cause him to see this 
is no easy task. It requires that quality of strength under control, 
defined as "meekness." It is such a comfort and strength to know 
that the man in sin or error is not himself; he is not living and 
enjoying life like God wants him to, and like he wants to himself. 
The man of God must be able to approach such a one with the 
truth that will give the errorist a vision of reality; this requires 
meekness. 

The hesitancy in the expression, "if peradventure God may 
give them repentance unto the knowledge of the truth," reminds 
us immediately of Simon, the sorcerer, who was also taken cap- 
tive by Satan (Acts 8:18-24). There is never any hesitancy on 
the part of God, for He is always ready to forgive us. But we are 
not always willing to admit our captivity. The truth comes from 

231 



2;'24t26 II TIMOTHY 

God: through His servant. If we want to change our minds about 
our belief and conduct, then we shall have been given from God 
the gracious gift of repentance. Somehow,' error and sin becomes 
a part of: man, and to change requires the power of God. ..".- 

Vs. 26. God has provided the prescription, but you must fill it 
and take the medicine. It is possible (and surely desirable) to 
recover ourselves from the captivity of Satan. Timothy was going 
to have a joyful experience of helping some to do this very thing. 
The recovery is effected by a "return to soberness,,'? or by "com- 
ing to your, senses." When we can convince ourselves and others 
that sin, and error do not make sense; that they do not match 
reality, we are on the road put. It is sad to be in bondage to 
Satan, but it is worse not. to know it. , Paul was discussing certain 
church members who had been "captured alive" by the Enemy. 
Satan does not want, nor does he have, any dead captives. We 
follow Satan to become his slaves. The deep sense of tragedy and 
futility, which has characterized man for ages, is but an indica- 
tion that he has been working a long time in the slave camp of 
the devil. Man's freedom to choose is in choosing who will be 
his master. 

We understand the little phrase, "having been taken captive by 
him unto his will," poses a. problem as to whom the last pronoun, 
"he," refers. Is, this the devil or God? We believe the easiest 
solution is to refer it to Satan; the context seems to support this 
understanding. 

Fact Questions 2:24-26 

109. Name, and explain briefly, the four qualities to be found in 
the Lord's servant. '■'■.■■ 

110. Explain how a man in sin is actually fighting himself. 

111. Why use the word, "peradventure," in vs. 25? 

112. What is the "snare of the devil"? : ' 

1 131 In a sense, the errOrists here described were drunk. Explain. 

114. What does the sense of tragedy in life indicate? 

115. Whose will is indicated in vs. 26b? 

EXEGETICAL EXAMINATION OVER CHAPTER TWO . 
OF II TIMOTHY 

1. Discuss two characteristics of a child to be found in the min- 
ister and in the Christian. Discuss two qualities of a "good 
, soldier of Christ Jesus." 
2 Is there, in 2:2, the basis for "preacher training"? Discuss. 

232 



II TIMOTHY 3:1-9 

3. Point out the meaning of contending lawfully. 

4. Give your interpretation of the "priority of reward" given 
to the farmer, 

5. What is the point of Paul's summary as in vss, 9-13? 

6. Discuss when, where, how, and why "we died with Him," 

7. God's workman has responsibilities' — name and explain two 
of them, 

8. Why did Paul discuss the different kinds of utensils? i.e,, 
gold, silver, wood, earthenware. 

9. Discuss briefly two things we must "flee." 

10. What is the responsibility of the minister as a bond servant? 
Please be specific. 

PART TWO 
Warnings 3:1-4:5 

1. RECOGNIZE THE COMING APOSTASY 3:1-9 

Text 3:1-9 

1 But know this, that in the last days grievous times shall come, 

2 For men shall be lovers of self, lovers of money, boastful, 
haughty, railers, disobedient to parents, unthankful, unholy, 

3 without natural affection, implacable, slanderers, without self- 
control, fierce, no lovers of good, 4 traitors, headstrong, puffed up, 
lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God; 5 holding a form of 
godliness, but having denied the power thereof: from these also 
turn away. 6 For of these are they that creep into houses, and take 
captive silly women laden with sins, led away by divers lusts, 
7 ever learning, and never able to come to the knowledge of the 
truth. 8 And even as Jannes and Jambres withstood Moses, so do 
these also withstand the truth; men corrupted in mind, reprobate 
concerning the faith. 9 But they shall proceed no further: for their 
folly shall be evident unto all men, as theirs also came to be. 

Thought Questions 3:1-9 

146. Why did Paul want Timothy to know about the grievous 
times? 

147. To what period of time does the expression, "last days," 
refer? 

148. What is meant by grievous times? 

149. Have such times already occurred, or are we to look for them 
in the future? 

150 Give two or three specific instances of self-love. 
151. How could one identify a money-lover? 

233 



3:1-9 II TIMOTHY 

152. What is the difference in being boastful and in being 
haughty? 

153. What is a "railer"? Against whom? 

1 54. Has there ever been a time when children were, not dis- 
obedient to their parents? Why associate this with a par- 
ticular time? 

155. Is there any connection in this list of sins? Such as a con- 
nection between unthankful and unholy, etc. 

156. How could anyone become "without natural affections"? 

157. Define "implacable." .. . 

158. Is the description here related to church members? If so, 
in what manner? 

159. What is meant by the word, "good," in the expression, "no 

lovers of good"? 

160. How would you define "headstrong"? 

161. How would the expression, "puffed up," differ from boastful 
or haughty? 

162. In this catalog of sins, which would you feel is the most 
serious in our present-day society? 

163. Why hold any form of godliness if such sins are to be in- 
dulged? 

164. From vs. 5b we learn there was another group besides this 
one from which Timothy was to. turn, away; nanie them. 

165. Who are the "silly women" of vs. 6? How or why described 
as "silly"? 

166. Are these apostates entering households, or physical build- 
ings? 

167. Of what sin do you surmise these women were guilty? 

168. Why would such women be interested in learning? What 
were they being taught? ' .■■■•■• 

169. Who were Jannes and Jambres? Is the emphasis upon who 
they were or what they did? What did they do? 

1 70. Some menhave a cancer of the mind. How did such develop? 
What is the meaning of the term, "reprobate"? 

171. These men will not get far in their evil efforts. Why not? 

172. To whom does this phrase refer, "as theirs also came to be"? 

Paraphrase 3:1-9 

1 Besides what I formerly told thee concerning ..the, apostasy 
(Eph. 4:1), this also know, that in the latter days, through the 
extreme wickedness both of the teachers and of the people, times 

234 



II TIMOTHY 3:1-9 

dangerous to live in will come; 

2 For men will be selfish, covetous of money, boasters of their 
being in favour with God, and proud on that account, blasphemers 
of God, by the injurious representation which they give of him, 
disobedient to parents, ungrateful to benefactors, unholy, 

3 Without natural affection, avowed covenant-breakers, slander- 
ers of those who oppose their corruptions, immoderately addicted 
to veneral pleasures, fierce against their opposers, without any 
love to good men who maintain the truth, 

4 Betrayers of trust, headstrong in whatever they undertake, 
swollen with pride, so that they will hearken to no advice, lovers 
of sensual pleasures more than lovers of God. 

5 These wicked teachers, in order to deceive their disciples the 
more effectually, will have an appearance of godliness, by their 
care in performing the external duties of religion, but they will 
be utterly void of real piety. Now, from these turn away. 

6 Of these teachers indeed they are, who go into houses, and, 
having the appearance of godliness, take the direction of the con- 
sciences and purses of ignorant women, who, being laden with 
sins, and led away by divers lusts, gladly embrace doctrine which 
reconcile the practice of sin with the hope of salvation. 

7 These are devoted to the false teachers, on pretence of always 
learning; but they are never able to come to the knowledge of 
truth, because their teachers industriously hide it from them. 

8 Now, in the manner that Jannes and Jambres resisted Moses, 
so by false miracles these teachers also, contrary to their con- 
science, will resist the truth; being men wholly corrupted in 
mind, and utterly incapable of discerning the true faith of the 
Gospel. 

9 However, after deluding mankind for a while, they shall not 
proceed further: For their imposture shall be made very plain to 
all; as the imposture of Pharaoh's magicians also was to the 
Israelites, and even to the Egyptians themselves. 

Comment 3:1-9 

Vs. I. Paul was a true prophet. His predictions began to be ful- 
filled in the day of Timothy. Indeed, such conditions as described 
by Paul have been fulfilled a great number of times in these last 
days. The last days refers to the entire time from the giving of 
the New Covenant to the Second Coming of Christ. We shall be 
content to define, in order, the men here described: 

235 



3:2,3 II TIMOTHY 

Vs. 2. (1) lovers of self — This is the parent stem to the tree of 
evil. How many foul sins are an outgrowth of. this* attitude? This 
is the man with ego at the center of his life. (2) Lovers of money 
— This is a natural outgrowth of self-love. ■ We cannot pamper 
self without money. The sin and the sadness of money -love has 
been pointed out before in I Timothy 6:10. (3) Boastful-^A loud- 
mouth braggard. About what does such a one. boast? This is but 
a cover-up for the emptiness of his life. (4) Haughty — -One who 
looks down on another. When one cannot obtain recognition by 
good work, his vain fancy will cause him to assume it: the lack 
of the genuine position and power will make him angry and frus- 
trated. This is expressed in haughtiness. (5) Railers— We could 
call such persons blasphemers: those who speak against God and 
man. T;he ones who need the censure of both man and God are 
the first to offer censure to others. (6) Disobedient to parents— 
This is no light matter, for it indicates a deeper lack; a lack of 
respect or reverence for the person of God as well as the Law of 
the Lord. (7) Unthankful — When man feels he is sufficient unto 
himself, he sees no need to thank anyone but himself. How very 
nearsighted is such a view. (8) Unholy — When a man has ho 
norm or standard from God as to conduct, nothing is sacred. 



Vs. 3. (9) Without natural affection-^-This refers to the love 
parents have for their children, and children for their parents. 
It is called "natural" in the sense that even animals possess such 
an affection. Such wicked perverts are worse than brutes in their 
disobedience. Romans 1:23-31 is a commentary on this condi- 
tion. (10) Implacable — Or a truce breaker. Such persons will not 
keep their word or be responsible for any agreement with others. 
(11) Slanderers— This usually refers to the destruction of the 
reputation of another by circulating lies!' It is always done to 
the advantage of the one who slanders. (12) Without self-control 
— How ironical that the ones who want freedom and self-expres- 
sion are unable to control themselves. Hiebert has so wisely said, 
"Man's freedom is his freedom to chose his master." (13) Fierce 
— This is the savage attitude toward all who oppose the selfish; 
animals hold this same attitude toward all who oppose them. (14) 
No lovers of good— Some translations indicate this means "no 
lovers of goodness," but we choose the thought of a generic appli- 
cation to all virtue. Such men as here described have no time or 
place in their life for virtue. 

236 



II TIMOTHY 3:4-6 

Vs. 4. (15) Traitors — If betrayal of others is to their advantage, 
they do not hesitate to betray them, (16) Headstrong — Such per- 
sons plunge ahead regardless of the advice of others, or the appar- 
ent consequences, They are like a bull in the arena who rushes 
to his death. (17) Puffed up— King James version translates this 
"highminded," because it has reference to an exalted opinion of 
self. Such persons are blinded by the smoke or fog conceit pro- 
duces. (18) Lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God — This 
phrase could summarize the basic attitude of those who serve 
themselves instead of God; who worship themselves instead of 
God. Those who love themselves worship at the shrine of sen- 
suality. Whatever can tantalize one of the senses is held up as 
the object of love. The presence of an all-wise and powerful God 
is an embarrassment to them, 

Vs. 5. (19) Holding a form of godliness, but having denied the 
power thereof; — After the record of the wicked life of such per- 
sons, it comes as somewhat of a shock that they would profess 
any religion at all, However, from what is here stated, we could 
even imagine some of these men as members of the churches to 
which Timothy ministered. All that is left of the Christianity of 
such men is the outward form; they are dead while they live, 
There is no power to overcome for they are servants of sin. The 
form of godliness is only maintained because of its advantage to 
them. What a tragic picture: the walking dead! It is no wonder 
Paul instructs Timothy to withdraw fellowship from such persons. 
This presupposes every effort has been made to restore such ones. 
It is to no avail; they are reprobate in heart and mind. 

Vs. 6. Here is the reason for withdrawal of fellowship. Such per- 
sons are not content to corrupt themselves alone. They ingratiate 
themselves into the families of some of the church members. In 
such families they can find certain females who are open prey to 
their wiles. Such women are called "silly women"; the expres- 
sion means "little or diminutive women." This has reference to 
their character or spiritual standing, Such evil men offer lessons 
in religion; silly women are their students. Such women were 
themselves "laden with sins" before these teachers appeared. 
Their conscience tormented them with guilt; thus were they 
heaped upon, or burdened down, with sin. Will they turn to the 
one who said, "Come unto me all ye that labor and are heavy 
laden"? No, no, they enjoy their sin; hence they continue to fol- 

237 



3:7-9 II TIMOTHY 

low after the desires of the mind and body; such desires are 
aroused by Satan's offers through his servants. 

Vs. 7. Such a tragic battle is the one waged in the heart of these 
women. On the one hand is some desire to know the truth, and 
on the other, the stronger desire to follow after the flesh. Such 
persons do not want a norm of truth, and for this reason they are 
ready to listen to false teachers. Their desire to know keeps them 
ever learning from the Wrong source; hence they never come to 
a knowledge of truth. 

Vs. 8. Now a consideration of the teachers themselves. Paul com- 
pares them with the two magicians of Pharaoh who opposed 
Moses when he came to Egypt to deliver Israel. The names of 
these men are not given in Exodus. They were mentioned often 
in Jewish traditions and were well-known by Paul and Timothy, 
as well as the rest of the Jewish nation. Paul makes use of the 
common traditional knowledge of their names for his own good 
purpose. Exodus tells of their efforts to oppose the truth of God 
through Moses. The incident in the court of Pharaoh is doubtless 
before the mind of Paul when he wrote. Such men were not in- 
terested in whether Moses was from God or not; they were there 
to defend their master. Such dupes are described as "corrupt in 
mind." The very means by which truth is perceived as distinct 
from error, has been corrupted or infected with disease. They are 
also described as "reprobate" or "counterfeit" concerning the 
Faith. Their teaching and work, when compared with the truth, 
are found wanting. Since they are compared with the court magi- 
cians, it could have been they were using magical powers in the 
false teaching. No wonder they had such an interested audience. 

Vs. 9. These false teachers of the latter times will get no further 
than Jannes and Jambres did in the long ago. The miracles and 
teaching of Moses proved so far superior to these teachers that 
they soon began to look foolish to all. This is a most encouraging 
word: error and evil will' be stopped. Even though Simon the 
sorcerer of the city of Samaria (Acts 8:9-13) practiced his evil 
art for a long time, there came a day when his folly was made 
known even to himself. When was that day? In the day when 
the truth of God, as preached by Philip, was placed squarely 
along ( side false practice and preaching. Timothy can be encour- 
aged that error will be rejected as he preaches the truth, but he 
must preach the truth or there never will be such a victory. 

238 



II TIMOTHY 3:147 

Fact Questions 3:1-9 

116. Why can we say Paul was a true prophet? 

117. To what period of time does the phrase, "the last days," 
refer? 

118. Define and apply in your own words ten of the nineteen 
characteristics of the evil men of the last days, 

119. Verse six presents the reason for turning away from these 
men, What is it? 

120. In what sense are we to understand the phrase, "silly 
women"? 

121. Why would there be in such women an interest in learning? 

122. Who were Jannes and Jambres? 

123. In what way do these false teachers compare with Jannes 
and Jambres? 

124. Timothy is assured of victory in spite of opposition, How? 

2. WITHSTAND THE APOSTASY 3:10-17 

Text 3:10-17 
10 But thou didst follow my teaching, conduct, purpose, faith, long- 
suffering, love, patience, 1 1 persecutions, sufferings; what things 
befell me at Antioch, at Iconium, at Lystra; what persecutions I 
endured: and out of them all, the Lord delivered me. 12 Yea, and 
all that would live godly in Christ Jesus shall suffer persecution. 
13 But evil men and imposters shall wax worse and worse, deceiv- 
ing and being deceived. 14 But abide thou in the things which thou 
hast learned and hast been assured of, knowing of whom thou 
hast learned them; 15 and that from a babe thou hast known the 
sacred writings which are able to make thee wise unto salvation 
through faith which is in Christ Jesus. 16 Every Scripture inspired 
of God is also profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, 
for instruction, which is in righteousness: 17 that the man of God 
may be complete, furnished completely unto every good work. 

Thought Questions 3:70-17 

173. Verses 10 and 11 are given as a contrast to something. What 
is it? 

174. In what sense had Timothy followed Paul? 

175. What is the difference between "conduct" and "purpose"? 

176. Show the distinction between "longsuffering" and "patience." 

177. Give two examples from the life of Paul to illustrate two of 
the qualities here mentioned. 

239 



3:10-17 II TIMOTHY 

178. Why does Paul refer to the persecutions and trials at An- 
tioch, Iconium, and Lystra? 

179. What general principle is shown from those specific ex- 
amples? 

180. If we are not suffering persecutions, is it an indication that 
we are not living a. godly life? 

181. Specify just how the Lord delivered Paul from some of his 
persecutions. Sometimes he was not delivered. Why? 

182. Why give the promise of vs. 13? 

183. What is meant by the use of the term, "abide," as in vs. 14? 

184. .Timothy was to trust what he had learned because of those 
from whom he had been taught. Explain. 

185. In what way could the Old Testament Scriptures makeThhi 
othy "wise unto salvation"? 

186. Is Paul saying that every Scripture is inspired of God; or 
that only those which are inspired are profitable? 

187. Define in your own words: "reproof," "correction," "instruc- 
tion," and show how the Scriptures fulfill these purposes. 

188. If the Scriptures will furnish us unto every good work, why 
use uninspired literature ? 

Paraphrase 3:70-77 

10 But what I have done for detecting and opposing deceivers 
thou knowest, who hast fully known my doctrine, manner of life, 
purpose in preaching, fortitude in danger, meekness under provo- 
cation, love to mankind, patience under sufferings. 

11 Persecutions and sufferings, such as befell me in Antioch 
(Acts 14:50), in Iconium, (Acts 14:2,5,6), in Lystra, where I was 
stoned and left as dead (Acts J4: 19,20): Such persecutions I en- 
dured; but out of them all the Lord Jesus delivered me, 

12 I do not complain of my sufferings, as if I was the only per- 
secuted servant of Christ. All, indeed, who wish to live godly in 
the Christian Church, shall be persecuted in this age. 

13 Now the wicked teachers and sorcerers, of whom I speak, who 
by false miracles seduce the people, will for a while wax worse 
and worse, deceiving others, and being deceived themselves, till 
they are stopped. . 

14 But, instead of acting like, these, wicked teachers, continue 
thou in the belief of the things which thou hast learned, and with 
which thou has been instructed, knowing from whom thou hast 
learned them — even from me, an inspired apostle; 

240 



II TIMOTHY 3:1047 

15 And that from thy childhood thou hast known the sacred 
Scriptures, which having foretold the doctrine, miracles, death, 
resurrection, and ascension of the Christ, exactly as they have 
come to pass, are able to make thee wise to salvation, by confirm- 
ing thee in the faith which hath Christ Jesus for its object. 

16 I am calumniated as contradicting Moses and the prophets, 
but I believe, that the whole sacred Scripture is divinely inspired, 
and is profitable for teaching the doctrines of the Gospel, for con- 
futing those who err therefrom, for correcting those who sin, for 
instructing all in righteousness; 

17 That the Christian minister, by the light derived from the 
Jewish revelation, may be perfect in the knowledge of the things 
he is appointed to teach, and thoroughly fitted for discharging 
every part of the good work he is engaged in. 



Comment 3:10-17 

Vs. 10. In contrast to the evil workers, is God's faithful servant 
Timothy. Paul, in this section, wishes to offer encouragement in 
the face of very difficult times; this is accomplished for Timothy 
by a reference to Timothy's conversion. Paul says, in effect: 
"You are not like these false teachers, for you have followed not 
in error, but in truth. Such truth was heard and observed 
through my teaching, conduct, purpose, faith, longsuffering, love, 
patience." We shall discuss each of the qualities in order, as they 
relate to Paul in his association with Timothy: (1) teaching — 
The message of Paul was accepted by Timothy for what it was 
in truth — the Word of God. Timothy followed it in the sense 
that he made it a part of his life. The teachings of Paul, like 
those of the Old Testament Scriptures, were to Timothy God's 
light on his pathway of life. They not only gave him direction 
in life, but illumination on the way. (2) conduct — This refers to 
manner of life, or general demeanor. What was Paul's manner 
of life? He said, "For me, to live is Christ" (Phil. 1:21). The 
same dedication to the will of God, the same surrender of all the 
powers of body and mind as found in our Lord, were also found 
in Paul, Timothy was attracted by, and to, such a conduct. Paul 
is now saying, "Stay with it!" (3) purpose — Paul's Master's pas- 
sion was to preach the Gospel. To this purpose, Christ had called 
and commissioned him, and to this vision he was never disobedi- 
ent. What greater purpose could Timothy have? (4) faith — The 

241 



3:10,11 II TIMOTHY 

faith here mentioned could be equated with "faithfulness," but it 
probably refers to Paul's belief or trust in God's revelation. This 
confidence, if held by Timothy, would fortify him against error 
and sin. (5) longsuffering — Paul indeed suffered long at the 
hands of Gentiles, as well as his own nation. If Timothy is so to 
suffer, he will know how to conduct himself. (6) love — Paul's 
love was the kind he described in I Corinthians, the 13th chapter. 
The selfless devotion of the apostle stands out on every page of 
the record of his life. (7) patience — This word could also be 
translated, "steadfastness." Without the power to endure, other 
qualities lose their fruit before it is ripe. "In due season we shall 
reap, if we faint not," seemed to be the hallmark of Paul's work. 



Vs. 11. (8) persecutions — The particular opposition was that 
which was endured on the first missionary journey in the home 
town of Timothy. Timothy knew of the efforts of the evil one 
to defeat Paul's work. The details of such efforts are not known 
to us, but they were to Timothy. A reading of Acts, chapters 13 
and 14, will help in our understanding. (9) sufferings— Was 
Timothy present at any of the five beatings of the Jews? Did 
Timothy hear from the lips of the apostle the particular details 
of the perils in rivers, or perils among robbers? What were the 
perils in the city, as contrasted with the perils in the wilderness? 

The things which befell Paul in Lystra and Iconium, as well 
as in Antioch, were of particular knowledge to Timothy. What 
tender scenes of Paul's devotion were in the memory of this be- 
loved child in the faith? Was Timothy one of those who stood 
around to see Paul stoned? "The fearful scene in Lystra, when 
Paul was stoned and left for dead, the young disciple had prob- 
ably himself witnessed" (Harvey). 

This recital of suffering is all given for a purpose: Timothy 
was about to face similar difficulty. When he called to heart and 
mind the sufferings of his beloved father in the faith, most espe- 
cially his suffering in the early days of Timothy's Christian life, 
he would be strengthened to also "rejoice in tribulation, knowing 
that tribulation, worketh steadfastness" (Rom. 5:3). 

In what sense could Paul say, "and out of them all, the Lord 
delivered me"? He was not delivered from beatings, for he was 
beaten; he was not delivered from jail, for he was thrown into 
jail. Paul is not saying, "God will deliver us from suffering," but 

242 



II TIMOTHY 3:12-14 

he is saying, He will give us the strength to endure it, We are 
not delivered from such suffering, but out of them. He has never 
forsaken His own, 

Vs. 12, Out of Paul's personal experience comes this general prin- 
ciple. The Christian is at war with the spirit of this present age. 
We can expect opposition if we are aggressively living for Christ, 
We cannot hope to live a holy life, except by vital union with 
Christ Jesus. But as we can be certain of the strength received 
by fellowship with Christ, so we can expect the hatred, mis- 
understanding, and persecution of the world. If we continue in 
a comfortable life with little or no opposition, we should re-evalu- 
ate our efforts to live for Him, • If we have , so adapted ourselves 
to the spirit of this present age of materialism and sensuality 
that we suffer no opposition, then we are no better than Lot in 
Sodom; indeed, we are worse! 

Vs. 13. As the godly increase in their efforts to live for Christ, 
so do evil men increase in their efforts to live for Satan. The 
"evil men and imposters" could quite as literally be called "evil 
men and sorcerers, or magicians." Sin is never static. This verse 
describes the effects of sin and error in the heart of the sinner 
or errorist. Such men make great and rapid progress in the direc- 
tion of evil; they "advance in the direction of the worse." This 
is the natural tendency of evil. It has within it the power of 
Satanic life. It will grow from bad to worse if given any encour- 
agement. But sinners have within themselves their own punish- 
ment. "Living in an element of deceit, they come to be them- 
selves deceived. Deception always involves self-deception" (De- 
Wette) . "This is the inexorable law of our moral being: he who 
perverts the truth, in the very act destroys his own power to see 
the truth, and opens his soul to the influx of error" (Harvey). 

Vs. 14. The only safeguard against error is to be actively en- 
gaged in the promotion of the truth. Timothy need have no fear 
of being deceived while he "abides" in the teaching of the re- 
vealed truth. Timothy did more than to mentally assent to the 
truthfulness of Paul's message; he learned in such a manner as 
to be able to teach others; but not only so, he was fully persuaded 
within. Timothy obtained conviction from his learning. Until 
one is ready to commit his life to the teachings, he does not have 
the conviction necessary to labor as he should. Such conviction 
possessed Timothy; he was "fully assured." 

243 



3:14-16 II TIMOTHY 

The source of such conviction is ultimately the Sacred Oracles,- 
but they are communicated through persons. There is disagree- 
ment as to what person, or persons, are meant in vs. 14b.. Some 
would relate the expression "of whom thou hast learned them" 
to Paul, but "others refer it to Timothy's mother and grandmother. 
It does seem like the latter opinion fits the context better. 

Vs. 15. Here is the true source of Timothy's steadfastness. How 
young was Timothy when he began his study of the "Sacred 
Writings"? The Word, "a babe" refers to the earliest years of 
childhood^ "The' Jewish children we're taught the Scriptures by 
memorizing them as soon as they could speak. Rabbi Judah says:. 
'The boy of five years of age ought to apply to the' study of the 
Sacred Scriptures' " (Harvey). Timothy learned his ABC's from 
the Old' Testament. This was not without instruction as to their 
meaning and application to life. Reasons for accepting the Sa- 
cred Writings for what they claim to be, are abundant within 
the writings themselves. Timothy first believed the writings were 
from God, and then he fourid within them the blessed boon of 
salvation through the promised Messiah. When Paul came to 
Lystra to point out the fulfillment of all promises in Jesus of 
Nazareth, Timothy found salvation — the end of the law. 

Vs. 16. Here is the objective fact drawn from Timothy's experi- 
ence. Here is a principle for all men of all time and circumstance. 

Which translation shall, we accept? Should this verse read: 
(1). "Every Scripture inspired of God is also profitable," or (2) 
"Every Scripture, is inspired of God and profitable." We like the 
expression of Lenski on this question: "The one is just as correct 
as the other, as far as the Greek is concerned; and the meaning 
is exactly the same save for the insignificant shifting of the cap- 
ula." (Ibid. p. 810.) 

What does Paul say of the Scripture? (The Old Testament 
Scriptures, in particular.) He says five specific things: (1) It is 
inspired, or "God breathed." (2) It is profitable for teaching: 
(3) It is profitable for reproof or rebuke of sin. (4) It is profit- 
able for correction of sin and error. (5) It is profitable for in- 
struction or discipline in righteousness. We shall give, in order, 
a brief discussion of each of these five points. 

(1) Every Scripture is "God breathed." The expression, "Scrip- 
ture," is used more than fifty times in the New Testament, in 
either the singular or plural form, to refer to the Old Testament 

244 



II TIMOTHY 3:16,17 

as received and used by the Jews in the days of the Apostles, 
How shall we understand the use of the word, every"? We refer 
it to every portion of the Scripture as being inspired. 

(2) It is profitable for teaching, The important element in 
teaching, is content, The Scriptures provide "God breathed" in- 
formation to the teacher. He has the joy and awesome privilege 
of enlightening the mind and heart concerning what God has 
spoken, 

(3) It is profitable for reproof. Once the Scriptures are ac- 
cepted as God's Word, then we can be corrected thereby. All 
that is wrong can be removed. A conscience is developed and 
conviction stirred. 

(4) It is profitable for correction. This is not repetitious of the 
preceding. Reproof refers to conscience and conviction; correction 
refers to information and alteration. The Scriptures furnish the 
divine norm, or standard, whereby we can measure our lives 
and teaching. 

(5) It is profitable for instruction, The word, "instruction," is 
also translated "discipline." "For 'training,' Scripture trains, or 
educates, by guiding and inspiring the soul in holiness and right 
living. It is the manual of spiritual education" (Harvey). 

Vs. 17. After considering the accomplishments of the inspired 
Scriptures, this verse seems a rather inevitable conclusion. 

The Scriptures accomplish two glorious ends: (1) They equip 
the Christian in every area of life, What are the words of men 
when compared to the heaven-sent Word of God? When the 
teacher has taught himself in all the four areas specified in vs. 16, 
he is indeed complete. The Scriptures provide the means for 
creating "the whole man." Psychologically and philosophically, 
the Scriptures give a coherence to life nothing else can provide. 

(2) Once the man of God is one, or is a whole man, then he 
can use what has made him whole to accomplish this same whole- 
ness in others. 

Fact Questions 3:10-77 

125. When, where, and how did Timothy follow Paul, as indi- 
cated in vs. 10? 

126. Of the nine particulars in vss, 9 and 10, define four of them. 

127. What was the purpose in the record of Paul's suffering, as 
given here? 

245 



3:10-17 II TIMOTHY 

128. In what sense had God delivered Paul from his persecutions? 

129. Some people in our day are worse off than Lot in Sodom. 
Who are they? 

130. Explain the expression that "sinners have within themselves 
their own punishment." 

131. What is the only safeguard against error? 

132. Timothy did something more than to merely assent to the 
truth. What was it? 

133. What were the immediate and ultimate sources of Timothy's 
conviction? 

134. How young Was Timothy when he began to learn of the 
Old Testament? Wasn't this too young? Many say the Old 
Testament is too difficult to understand. 

135. In what sense did the Old Testament make Timothy wise 
unto salvation? 

136. Explain in your own words the fourfold profitableness of 
the inspired Word. 

137. Do you believe a secular education equips one for living, in 
a way the Scriptures do not? Explain and discuss. 

EXEGETICAL EXAMINATION OVER CHAPTER THREE 
of II TIMOTHY 

1. Give your own outline of this chapter. 

2. Define and apply ten of the nineteen characteristics of the 
evil men. 

3. Why did Paul describe in such elaborate detail, the sins of 
the last days? 

4. What was the purpose of mentioning Jannes and Jambres? 

5. In what manner had Timothy followed Paul? (Cf. vs. 10a.) 

6. In what sense had God delivered Paul? 

7. Give your own exegesis of vs. 12. 

8. In what sense had the Old Testament made Timothy "wise 
unto salvation"? 

9. Define "inspiration," as it relates to the Scriptures. 

10. Are we to believe the Scriptures furnish us completely only 
as they relate to our religious life? Discuss. 

3. PREACH THE WORD 4:1-5 

Text 4:1-5 
1 I charge thee in the sight of God, and of Christ Jesus, who shall 
judge the living and the dead, and by His appearing and His 
kingdom: 2 preach the Word; be urgent in season, out of season; 

246 



II TIMOTHY 4:1-5 

reprove, rebuke, exhort, with all longsuffering and teaching. 3 For 
the time will come when they will not endure the sound doctrine; 
but, having itching ears, will heap to themselves teachers after 
their own lusts; 4 and will turn away their ears from the truth, and 
turn aside unto fables. 5 But be thou sober in all things, suffer 
hardship, do the work of an evangelist, fulfill thy ministry. 

Thought Questions 4:1-5 

189. Is Paul delivering a charge or giving a testimony? 

190, Is Paul calling God and Christ Jesus to witness for his 
charge? Explain, 

191, What is the purpose, of vss.1-5? 

192, When and where will Christ judge the living and the dead? 

193, Why testify in the presence of the Second Coming of Christ? 
Please show the purpose as it relates to the context. 

194, What "kingdom" is meant in vs. 1? 

195, The word, "preach," is also translated "herald." Explain 
the implication of this for the preacher. 

196, What is meant by the term, "word," in vs. 2a? 

197. Define in your own words the term, "urgent." 

198, When is it "in season" for preaching, and when is it "out 
of season" for preaching? 

199, Define the three words, "reprove, rebuke, and exhort." 

200. Does Paul give here a divine formula for the development 
of a sermon? Please look carefully. 

201. Two attitudes of the preacher are described. What are they? 

202. I thought listeners were to do something more than "endure" 
the sound doctrine. How is the word, "endure," here used? 

203, Who has the "itching ears"? Discuss. 

204. What is meant by saying, "heap to themselves," teachers? 

205. Why do some turn their ears away from the truth? What 
particular "fables" would be of interest to these persons? 

206. Discuss the meaning of the word, "sober," as in vs. 5a. 
What "things" are included? 

207. Specify three things you believe would be included in the 
work of the evangelist. 

208. How would Timothy know he had fulfilled his ministry? 

Paraphrase 4:1-5 

1 I have fully instructed thee in thy duty, and thou art well 
acquainted with the Jewish Scriptures, in which the Gospel is 
both explained and confirmed; I charge thee, therefore, in the 

247 



4:1-5 II TIMOTHY 

presence of God, and of the Lord Jesus Christ, who will judge 
the living and the dead at His second appearing, when His king- 
dom shall be displayed in all its glory. 

2 Preach the Gospel doctrine in purity; be constant and earnest 
in preaching it, whether it be seasonable or unseasonable to thy- 
self; confute false teachers, rebuke sinners, exhort all under thy 
care, with the greatest patience when teaching them. 

3 Thou oughtest to be very faithful and diligent in these duties 
now; for there will be a time when the people will not endure 
wholesome teaching, but having itching ears, which must be 
tickled, they will, by the motions of their own peculiar lusts, 
multiply to themselves teachers, who, to gain their favour, will 
sooth them in their vices. 

4 And thus indeed they will turn away their ears from the 
true doctrine of the Gospel, and, by their teachers, they will be 
turned aside to believe fables, concerning miracles wrought in 
support of the greatest errors. 

5 But watch thou at all times, and withstand the beginnings of 
these corruptions; patiently bear the ill treatment which the 
enemies of the Gospel will give thee; do the work of an evange- 
list diligently; fully perform the duties of thy ministry: 

Comment 4:7-5 

Vs. 1. This is Paul's final farewell word to his beloved child, 
Timothy. This whole section (vss. 1-5) is surcharged with emo- 
tion. Here is Paul's personal testimony, as well as a charge to 
Timothy. What he said of himself, he says to his son. 

Paul practiced living constantly in the presence of God and 
Christ Jesus, but never was he more aware of his divine observers 
and participators than when preaching the Word. This is an 
awesome responsibility. This same Jesus will be our judge on 
that day when we shall all be manifested before Him. Those 
who are living when He comes will be judged; those who have 
died, will be called forth from the world of the unseen to also 
appear before Him. 

The "kingdom," here mentioned, probably is best identified 
with the eternal kingdom where all Christians will reign with 
Him. 

Vs. 2. "Herald forth the whole council of God." The preacher, 
or herald, has a message from the King of kings. He dare not 
change it or withhold it. He must tell it if all men refuse it. 

248 



II TIMOTHY 4:2,3 



Timothy, and all who follow after, are to be keenly conscious 
that they have a message bigger and more important than them- 
selves, that must be heard, The attitude of the preacher toward 
his message and work is described in the words, "be urgent"; it 
means, "to be on hand," We might say, "Be right on the spot" 
(Lenski) , This absorbing interest in what is being said and done, 
will give the preacher the enthusiasm necessary to communicate 
the feeling of the truth, instead of just words. 

There is no season when the Word is not to be preached, There 
are times when it does not seem at all convenient; there are times 
when men will mock it, ignore it, oppose it, There are other 
times when men will welcome the herald and his good news. 
Above and beyond all outward circumstances, the preacher has 
a message that must be told. 

Please mark carefully the divine elements in preaching. They 
are: ( 1 ) Reprove or bring to the proof — we might say, convince. 
Offer evidence and reason for your subject. (2) Rebuke or chide 
— convict. This is the application of the truth to life. (3) Exhort 
or call to action. Stir the motives of the listeners to act upon, or 
decide upon, what has been spoken. 

The overmastering attitude in all preaching is to be one of long- 
suffering and instruction. 



Vs. 3. There is a very good reason for this steadfast attitude in 
preaching. A time is coming when such a message and preacher 
will be needed. This is another prophecy of apostasy very much 
like I Tim. 4:1 and II Tim. 3:1. Timothy is to prepare himself 
and the leaders of the churches against such a day. The world 
has not changed, but some persons in the church will. There 
will come a time when healthy teaching will be shunned in pref- 
erence to the diseased doctrine of false prophets. Such false 
teachers will be invited by the elders of certain churches (even 
in Ephesus), to spread their doctrine among them. Such false 
elders, with their false preachers, have "itching ears"; i.e., they 
are eagerly restless to hear something that will satisfy their 
fancy. This itch is hard to scratch, for even those who have it 
know not for sure what they want. As a result, they must try 
one preacher after another. If gathered together they would 
make quite a "heap." Thus does Paul Prophetically as well as 
sarcastically, describe the coming apostasy. 

249 



4:4,5 II TIMOTHY 

Vs.. 4. Such persons will aggressively oppose the truth. Because 
of their own lusts and refusal to obey the truth, they have chosen 
to obey falsehood. For whatever reason, they have made their 
choice; they will not hear the truth; they want to hear fables. 
We have read much in these three letters concerning fables; it 
is probably with such fables that he is also concerned here. It 
is difficult to say why some prefer fables to truth, but we can 
know the reason relates to one of the following three: (1) lust 
of the eye, (2) lust of the flesh, (3) pride of life. (I John 2:15.) 

Vs. 5. In contrast to those who have been intoxicated with false 
doctrine — "be thou sober in all things." The reference is to the 
alert attitude Timothy was to sustain. By being vigilant, he could 
detect such error before it influenced too many. In all his work, 
Timothy was to be alert. If, in the discharge of his duties of 
preaching and teaching, Timothy was faced with perils of various 
sorts, he was not to be surprised, but rather expect them and 
overcome them, through his faith. 

Paul wishes Timothy to carry out every phase of the office of 
evangelist. It would indeed be difficult to do the work of an 
evangelist if one was not an evangelist himself. Timothy was 
neither a pastor nor a bishop; he was an evangelist. We refer 
you to our text on THE CHURCH IN THE BIBLE for a rather 
thorough study of the office and of the work of an evangelist. 

"Fulfill thy ministry" has been translated, "make full proof of 
thy ministry." It means to fill up every part of it: to leave no 
area undeveloped. This would be no easy task in the face of the 
conditions described. 

Fact Questions 4:7-5 

138. What indications of the emotion Paul felt when he wrote 
4:1-5 are noticed in the text? 

139. What is meant by saying that Paul lived constantly in the 
presence of God? 

140. Show how the preacher is like a herald. 

141. When is it "out of season" for preaching? Explain the 
meaning of the word, "urgent." 

142. Discuss the meaning and application of "reprove, rebuke, 
and exhort" in preaching. 

143. Who has "itching ears"? Why? What is to be done about it? 

144. Explain: "heap to themselves teachers." 

145. Why do some persons prefer fables to the truth? 

146. Give your own exegesis of vs. 5. 

250 



II TIMOTHY 4:6.8 

PART THREE 
Testimony 4:6-18 

1, ASSURANCE IN THE FACE OF DEATH 4:6-8 

Text 4:6-8 
6 For I am already being offered, and the time of my departure is 
come. 7 I have fought the good fight, I have finished the course, I 
have kept the faith: 8 henceforth there is laid up for me the crown 
of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, shall give to 
me at that day; and not to me only, but also to all them that have 
loved His appearing. 

Thought Questions 4:6-8 

209. What figure of speech is Paul using in vs. 6a? Does Paul 
say that he is a sacrifice for Christ? 

210. How could Paul be so certain of a soon departure from this 
life? 

211. Who was Paul fighting in the "good fight"? 

212. Are we all running in a race? Who will win? 

213. Why didn't Paul say he had kept his faith, instead of the 
faith? 

214. If Paul had not kept the faith or finished the race, would 
he have received the "crown of righteousness"? 

215. Are there various crowns for Christians? i.e., "crown of life," 
"crown of righteousness," etc? Explain. 

216. Why use the expression, "the righteous judge"? 

217. Give the meaning of the phrase, "His appearing," Is this 
His first or second appearing? 

Paraphrase 4:6-8 

6 For the church is soon to lose the benefit of my ministry; I 
am already poured out on the sacrifice of the faith of the Gen- 
tiles, and the time of my departure hath come. 

7 I have combated the good combat of faith (I Tim. 6: 12), I have 
finished the race of an apostle, I have preserved the faith uncor- 
rupted, for which I have combated. 

8 All fears of death vanish when I think of the glorious reward 
which awaits me. Henceforth there is laid aside for me a crown, 
not of olive leaves, but of righteousness, which, with all its hon- 
ours and privileges, the Lord Jesus, the righteous judge, will de- 

251 



4:6-8 II TIMOTHY 

liver to me at the last day; and not to me only, but to all them 
also, who, like me, conscious that they have served Him faith- 
fully, long for His appearing to judge the world. 

Comment 4:6-8 

Vs. 6. Paul now turns to say a word for himself. He had pre- 
viously directed his words to Timothy and his responsibilities. 
The apostle does not say he is the sacrifice given "on behalf of 
Christ — as well he might have said it. He rather prefers to be 
considered only as the drink offering to be poured out in connec- 
tion with the sacrifice (Num. 15:5; 28:7). Paul's blood was about 
to be poured out in his martyr's death. What Paul here says of 
his death, he could say of his whole life; it was poured out in the 
service and worship to Christ. Paul views death as a voyage: the 
ship is about to be loosed from its moorings; the grand trip into 
the presence of God and of Christ Jesus is about to be made; fare- 
wells are in order; the time of sailing is just at hand. This is not 
a voyage into oblivion, but an adventure into a very far better 
world. What an example to Timothy and all who follow. 

Vs. 7. The apostle is glad to rest on his record. Paul does not 
say he has won every battle, but that he has remained in the 
fight until the end. Paul does not say he has taken first place in 
the race, but that he has finished the course; nor does he say that 
he was the champion of the faith, but rather, that he kept it. In 
all of this, he presents an example all can follow. We knowthis 
is the grand old veteran's record. We know of his trials and tri- 
umphs, but it is his steadfastness that is rewarded. All of us 
cannot do what Paul did, but all of us are expected to fight, finish 
and keep. Paul offered his example to Timothy and to all men 
of all time. 

Vs. 8. Perhaps, to some, it is a moot question, but we wonder 
what happens to those soldiers who do not stay in the battle: 
those runners who drop out of the race, and to those believers 
who fall away from the faith. If the figure is to hold, we have no 
crown to offer for those who fail to finish. We prefer to fear, 
along with the apostle, lest having preached unto others, we 
should be a castaway. On the merit of Christ, and our sincerity in 
service, let us claim, with Paul, the crown of righteousness. The 
righteous judge has it for all who have loved His appearing more 
than the appearance of this world. We have it on the word of 
Paul that it is so. 

252 



II TIMOTHY 4:6-15 

Fact Questions 4:6-8 

147. What is the general content of vss, 6-8? 

148. Paul does not say he offers himself as the sacrifice in the 
service of Christ. What does he say of his offering? 

149. How does Paul view death? Is this your concept? 

150. How does Paul's record become a grand example for all 
Christians? 

151. Are we given heaven because we are faithful? Discuss. 
2, REQUEST FOR TIMOTHY TO COME BACK 

TO PAUL 4:9-15 

Text 4:9-15 
9 Give diligence to come short!/ unto me: 10 for Demas forsook 
me, having loved this present world, and went to Thessalonica; 
Crescens to Galatia, Titus to Dalmatia. 1 1 Only Luke is with me. 
Take Mark, and bring him with thee; for he is useful to me for 
ministering. 12 But Tychicus I sent to Ephesus. 13 The cloak that I 
left at Troas with Carpus, bring when thou comest, and the books, 
especially the parchments. 14 Alexander the coppersmith did me 
much evil: the Lord will render to him according to his works: 15 
of whom do thou also beware; for he greatly withstood our words. 

Thought Questions 4:9-15 

218. Why the urgency in the request to come to Paul? 

219. Where was Paul when Demas forsook him? Demas loved 
"this present world." What was the basic fault? 

220. Is there any significance in the place where Demas went 
upon forsaking Paul? If so, what? 

221. Was there any blame in Crescens going to Galatia. or Titus 
to Dalmatia? 

222. Paul's attitude toward Mark has changed since we last 
heard of him. Explain, 

223. Why send Tychicus to Ephesus? 

224. If Paul was so near death, why request the cloak, books and 
parchments? 

225. Do we know anything of the Alexander mentioned in 4:14? 
What is meant by saying, "The Lord will render to him 
according to his works"? Is this vindictive? Explain. 

226. Why would Alexander the coppersmith be a problem to 
Timothy? 

253 



4:9-15 II TIMOTHY 

Paraphrase 4:9-15 

9 As I have a great desire to see thee, make haste to come to me 
soon. 

1 For Demas, in particular, having loved the present world more 
than was fit, hath forsaken me, and is gone to Thessalonica, ex- 
pecting to be in more safety there than at Rome; Crescens is 
gone into Galatia, and Titus into Dalmatia. 

11 Only Luke is with me. His attachment to me, and his zeal 
for the cause of Christ, are the more remarkable, that all my other 
assistants have left me. In thy way call on Mark, and bring 
him with thee, for he will be very useful to me in the ministry 
of the Gospel. 

12 But when Tychicus comes to thee, do not think he hath be- 
haved like Demas: I have sent him to Ephesus to supply thy 
place. 

13 The bag which I left at Troas with Carpus, in my way from 
Ephesus after parting with thee, bring when thou comest, and 
the books contained in that bag, but especially the parchments. 

14 Alexander the coppersmith hath done me many ill offices 
here. In particular, he hath stirred up both the unbelieving Jews 
and Gentiles in Rome against me. The Lord reward him accord- 
ing to his works. 

15 Of that wicked person be thou also aware, wherever thou 
happenest to meet with him, for he hath greatly contradicted the 
things which I advanced in my first answer. 

Comment 4:9-15 

Vs. 9. It would appear that Paul is lonely. He longs for the 
companionship of one who knew him better than any other; one 
who shared with him the same concern for the advance of the 
kingdom. If Timothy did not hurry, it would be too late. There 
were yet many little matters of personal interest to discuss in the 
midst of disappointments and desertions and even death; he 
longed to see one whom he could trust. 

Vs. 10. Col. 4:14; Phil. 1:24 indicates Demas was once a trusted 
co-laborer. Paul might well have said, "Demas has left me in the 
lurch." Some love "His appearing"; others love "this present 
world." The love for this present age is not centered on any one 
thing. It is the desire for the world's false security and pleasure 
that produces men like Demas. Why did Demas go to Thes- 

254 



II TIMOTHY 4:10-13 

salonica? Did he go there because he wished to carry on a 
trade? Because it was his home? It is useless to ask. The point 
is, that he went to the world to satisfy the desires of his heart; 
this was the wrong direction, regardless of where he went geo- 
graphically, 

We know nothing of the man here called Crescens or what he 
did in Galatia, Why Paul sent Titus to Dalmatia we do not know 

Vs. 1 1 , By saying, "only Luke is with me," we are not to under- 
stand that Paul is all alone, for vs. 21 indicates there were a num- 
ber of other friends with him. Luke was the only fellow-worker 
of those several who labored with Paul, who yet remained in 
Rome. We need not remind the reader that this is the Luke who 
wrote the Third Gospel and also the Book of Acts. 

John Mark has redeemed himself in the eyes of Paul, In an 
earlier reference, he was with Paul in Rome (Cf. Col. 4:10), 
There was a time when Paul would have said the exact opposite 
of what he said here of John Mark (Cf. Acts 15:38,39). 

The faith of Barnabas in John Mark paid off. Whether Paul 
wanted Mark as a personal helper, or as one to minister the 
Word, is not at all clear from the context; either one could be 
true. 

Vs. 12. Perhaps this is a reference to the coming of the replace- 
ment for Timothy. Tychicus was a busy man. He was sent to 
Ephesus and Colossia to bear the three letters of Ephesians, Colos- 
sians, and Philemon (Cf. Eph. 6:21; Col. 4:7). He could have 
been sent to Crete to replace Titus (Titus 3:12). He was with 
Paul on his third missionary journey (Acts 20:5). 

Vs. 13. Paul is intent on a visit from Timothy. The detailed in- 
structions in these verses (9-15), all relate to Timothy's prepara- 
tion for the visit. Mark is to accompany Timothy; he is also to 
bring something besides John Mark. There is some disagreement 
among commentators as to whether Paul is requesting a cloak, or 
a portfolio for holding books. We prefer the thought of a cloak, 
Vs, 21 speaks of the winter when a warm cloak would be most 
welcome, Are we to believe that even in his last hours Paul 
wanted to read, and hence, the reference to bringing the books 
and parchments? We like Lenski's suggestion that these were 
copies of the Old Testament books which Paul wanted to use in 
his defense. These were personal copies which he had used over 
the years. He wanted to prove that his religion was but a fulfill- 

255 



4:14,15 II TIMOTHY 

ment of the Jewish religion and offered no threat to the Roman 
government. This is only a matter of opinion, but it seems to be 
a good one. 

Vs. 14. Why mention Alexander the coppersmith at this particu- 
lar time? It was either because Alexander was on his way to 
Ephesus and would give Timothy trouble when he arrived, or 
that Timothy would meet him in Rome and would need prepara- 
tion and warning. It is useless speculation to try to relate this 
Alexander with any other mentioned in the New Testament who 
wore the same name. A coppersmith is one who works in metals, 
not necessarily only in copper or brass, but in all metals, Just 
where and when or how Alexander did Paul much evil, is not 
known; it is usually made to relate to Paul's defense before the 
court. Paul is prophetic, instead of vindictive, when he says, "the 
Lord will render to him according to his works." 

Vs. 15. It is a problem as to when or where Timothy would meet 
Alexander. It is also a problem as to what "words" are meant. 
Did Alexander oppose the words of the Gospel, or did he oppose 
Paul's testimony at the Roman Court? 

Fact Questions 4:9-15 

152. Why did Paul want Timothy to visit him in Rome? 

153. What is wrong with love for this present world? 

154. Why did Demas go to Thessalonica? 

155. How are we to understand the expression, "only Luke is 
with me"? 

156. Paul changed his mind about John Mark. Explain. 

157. Why mention Tychicus (vs. 12)? 

158. Why request the books and parchments? 

159. Alexander the coppersmith showed Paul much evil. When 
and where? 

160. Why warn Timothy concerning Alexander? 

3. PRAISE FOR HIS LORD 4:16-18 

Text 4:16-18 
16 At my first defence no one took my part, but all forsook me: 
may it not be laid to their account. 17 But the Lord stood by me, 
and strengthened me; that through me the message might be fully 
proclaimed, and that all the Gentiles might hear: and I was deliv- 
ered out of the mouth of the lion. 18 The Lord will deliver me from 

256 



II TIMOTHY 4:16-18 

every evil work, and will save me unto His heavenly kingdom: to 
whom be the glory for ever and ever. Amen. 

Thought Questions 5:16-18 

227. What is meant by the phrase, "my first defense"? 

228. Is Paul saying that his Christian friends would not testify 
on his behalf before the Boman Court? If not, what is 
meant? 

229. If certain persons forsook Paul in his hour of need, it would 
be laid to their account. Why then the expression in vs. 16b? 

230. What proclamation of the Gospel is meant in vs, 17? What 
Gentiles? 

231. Who is "lion" in vs. 17b? Is this literal or figurative? 

232. Paul had certain expectations of deliverance from "every 
evil work," and yet he was beheaded. How can we reconcile 
the two thoughts? 

233. What is the "heavenly kingdom" of vs. 18b? 

Paraphrase 4:16-18 

16 At my first answer, my fellow-laborers were so terrified that 
no one of them appeared with me in the court, but all forsook 
me. I pray God not to lay it to their charge! 

17 However, though men forsook me when brought to my trials, 
the Lord Jesus, according to His promise, Luke 21:15, stood by 
me and strengthened me, that on such an occasion, and before 
such personages, through me the preaching concerning Christ 
might be fully declared, and that all the Gentiles might hear that 
it was so declared; and I escaped with such difficulty, that I can- 
not describe it better than by saying, I was delivered out of the 
mouth of the lion. 

18 And the Lord Jesus will deliver me from every evil work, so 
that I shall do nothing for the preservation of my life inconsistent 
with my former preaching; and He will preserve me to His 
Heavenly Kingdom. To whom I gratefully ascribe the glory of 
faithfulness, goodness, and power, for ever and ever. Amen. 

Comment 4:16-18 

Vs. 16. The "first defense" doubtless refers to the trial of Paul 
before the Roman Court. 

257 



4:16,17 II TIMOTHY 

Yss. 16 and 1 7. Because of its descriptive qualities we quote from 
THE LIFE AND EPISTLES OF PAUL (pp. 832^834) : 

"We see from - this statement, that it was dangerous even to 
appear in public as the friend, or adviser of the Apostle. No ad- 
vocate would venture to plead his cause, no procurator to aid 
him in arranging the evidence, no patronus (such as he. might 
have found, perhaps, in the powerful Aemilian house) to appear 
as his supporter, and to deprecate, according to ancient usage, the 
severity of the sentence. But he had a more powerful intercessor, 
and a wiser advocate, who could never leave, him nor forsake 
him. The Lord Jesus was always near him, but now was felt 
almost visibly ; present in the hour of his need. 

"From the above description we can realize, in some measure, 
the external features of his last trial. He evidently intimates that 
he spoke before a crowded audience, so that 'all the Gentiles 
might hear'; and this corresponds with the supposition, which 
historically, we should be led to make, that he was tried in one 
of those great basilicas which stood in the Forum. Two of the 
most celebrated of these edifices were called the Pauline Basilicas, 
from the well-known Lucius Aemilius Paulus, who had built one 
of them, and restored the other. It is not improbable that the 
greatest man who ever bore the Pauline name was tried in one 
of these. From specimens which still exist, as wellas from the 
descriptions of Vituvius, we have an accurate knowledge of the 
character of these halls of justice. They were rectangular build- 
ings, consisting of a central nave and two aisles, separated from 
the nave by rows of columns. At one end of the nave was the 
tribune, in the center of which was placed the magistrate's curule 
chair of ivory, elevated on a platform called the tribunal. Here 
also, sat the Council of Assessors, who advised the Prefect upon 
the law, though they had no voice in the judgment. On the 
sides of the tribune were seats for distinguished persons, as well 
as for parties engaged in the proceedings. Fronting the presiding 
magistrate stood the prisoner, with his accusers and his advocates. 
The public was admitted into the remainder of the nave and 
aisles (which was railed, off from the portion devoted to the judi- 
cial proceedings); and there were also galleries along the whole 
length of the aisles, one for men, the other for women. The aisles 
were roofed over; as was the tribune. The nave was originally 

258 



II TIMOTHY 4:17-21 

left open to the sky. The basilicas were buildings of great size, 
so that a vast multitude of spectators was always present at any 
trial which excited public interest, 

"Before such an audience it was, that Paul was now called to 
speak in his defense. His earthly friends had deserted him, but 
his Heavenly Friend stood by him, He was strengthened by the 
power of Christ's Spirit, and pleaded the cause not of himself 
only, but of the Gospel, He spoke of Jesus, of His death and His 
resurrection, so that all the Heathen multitude might hear." 

Vs. 18. The Lord had delivered Paul at his first defense, and 
although he fully expected to be executed, he believed the Lord 
would give him the victory. "Not injury done to him by others, 
it is plain he did not expect deliverance from this, but sin done 
by himself, such as that of denying Christ" (Harvey). Such 
strengthening from the Lord will be extended all the way from 
earth to glory, God's grace will be sufficient until he reaches the 
Heavenly Kingdom. The hope of this deliverance produces a 
doxology. It might be well to note that this doxology is directed 
toward Christ, which is an indication of His divinity, 

Fact Questions 4:16-18 

161. What is meant by "no one took my part"? 

162. Explain how Paul received strength from the Lord, Please 
do more than to repeat the words of the text. 

163. In what sense was the message fully proclaimed by Paul? 

164. What does Paul mean by saying he was delivered out of the 
mouth of the lion? 

165. From what evil work did Paul expect to be delivered? 

166. What is significant about the doxology? 

CONCLUSION 4:19-22 

1. PERSONAL REFERENCES 4:19-21 

Text 4:19-21 
19 Salute Prisca and Aquila, and the house of Onesiphorus. 20 
Erastus remained at Corinth: but Trophimus I left at Miletus sick. 
21 Give diligence to come before winter, Eubulus saluteth thee, 
and Pudens, and Linus, and Claudia, and all the brethren. 

Thought Questions 4:19-21 

234. Read Acts 18:2; Rom. 16:3; I Cor. 16-19 for further refer- 
ences to Prisca and Aquila. Where were they when they 

259 



4:19-21 II TIMOTHY 

■>• . received this greeting? Is there any significance in using 
the woman's name before the man's? 

235. Why "the house of Onesiphorus"? Why not salute the man? 

236. Is this the same Erastus as mentioned in Acts 19:22 and 
Rom. 16:23? Explain. : 

237. Acts 20:4 and 21:9 tells us ! more about Trophimus. Why 
not heal this good friend? 

238. Why the urgency of reaching Paul before winter? 

Paraphrase 4:19-21 

19 In my name wish health to Prisca, and her husband,, Aquila, 
and to the family of Onesiphorus. 

20 Erastus, who accompanied me in my way to Crete, abode in 
Corinth. But Trophimus I left at Miletus sick, when I departed 
from Crete. 

21 Make haste to come to me before winter; sailing being then 
dangerous. Eubulus wisheth thee health. So do Pudens, and 
Linus, and Claudia, and all the brethren with whom I have any 
intercourse. 

Comment 4:79-27 

Vs. 19. Prisca and Aquila have been in Ephesus before; indeed, 
they were among those who began the work there. This reference 
to them indicates, then, continuing loyalty and good work. We 
have already made reference to the house of Onesiphorus. We 
could conclude that Onesiphorus was with Paul, and this greeting 
was sent to his family in his absence, 

Vs. 20. It is hardly possible that the Erastus here mentioned is 
the same as the man who was the treasurer of the city of Cor- 
inth, i.e., unless he resigned his job, for the Erastus here men- 
tioned seems to have been a traveling companion, to Paul. Lenski 
does not feel that the two references (Acts 19:22 and Rom. 16:23) 
are concerning the same many and therefore identifies this one 
with the one in Acts 19:22. 

Why leave a faithful worker for Christ sick, if it were possible 
to heal. him? Evidently, healing was for a purpose other than the 
physical comfort of the afflicted. Even an apostle could not exer- 
cise this power at his own will. Miracles were for a sign (John 
20:30,31) and where such a purpose was not.present, neither was 
the healing. Shall we ask for a further confirmation of His Word 
today? 

260 



II TIMOTHY 4:21,22 



Vs, 21, The seas were open to travel until September or October, 
If Timothy delayed his coming until winter, it would be too late, 
Did Paul's beloved disciple arrive in time? We do not know; we 
should like to believe that he did. 

Of the persons mentioned in vs. 21b we know nothing, It is 
vain to speculate, It is enough to know they were faithful Chris- 
tians who were not afraid of the terrors of the arena, 

Fact Questions 4:22 

167, What does the greeting sent to Prisca and Aquila indicate 
as to their loyalty and work? Why mention Prisca first? 

168, Where was Onesiphorus when this greeting was sent to his 
house? 

169, Who was the Erastus here mentioned? 

170, Why leave a faithful worker sick? 

171, If Timothy did not come before winter, he need not come 
at all. Give two reasons. 

2. BENEDICTION 4:22 

Text 4:22 
22 The Lord be with thy spirit. Grace be with you. 

Thought Questions 4:22 

239. In what sense did Paul believe the Lord could be with the 
spirit of Timothy? 

240. If the Lord was with the spirit of Timothy, what would be 
the result? 

241. The word, "y° u >" in vs. 22b is in the plural form. What 
significance is this? 

Paraphrase 4:22 

22 May the Lord Jesus Christ be with thy spirit, to strengthen 
thee in all difficulties and dangers, as He hath strengthened me, 
(vs. 17). Grace be with you in Ephesus who maintain the truth. 
Amen. 

Comment 4:22 
Vs. 22. Here are the last words of the great Apostle. If Timothy 
could be constantly aware of Christ's approval or disapproval of 
his words and works, then Paul's prayer for him would be ans- 
wered. If Christ is with our inward man, all is well. 

The desire for all of heaven's favor upon not only Timothy, 
but all the saints in the Ephesian church, is a fitting conclusion 
to an unselfish Christ-centered life. 

261 



4:22 II TIMOTHY 

Foci Questions 4:22 

172. How could Paul's prayer for Timothy be answered? 

EXEGETICAL EXAMINATION OVER CHAPTER FOUR 
OF II TIMOTHY 

1. Give your own outline of this chapter. 

2. What is the content of "the word" to be preached? What is 
the manner to use in preaching? 

3. What causes some folk to have itching ears? 

4. What is the "work of an evangelist"? Be specific. 

5. What was the purpose of vss. 6-8? 

6. What is the meaning of "his appearing"? 

7. If Paul was about to die, why did he give instructions con- 
cerning his cloak, etc.? 

8. What was the first defense of Paul? 

9. Give your own exegesis of vs. 17. 

10. Are we to have the same confidence in the delivering power 
of God as expressed by Paul in vs. 18? Specify. 

EXAMINATION OVER PAUL'S SECOND EPISTLE 
TO TIMOTHY 

1. Produce the outline of the letter. 

2. Give the place, time, tone, and purpose of this letter. 

3. Paul expressed his gratitude in vss. 1:3-5. Specify that for 
which he was thankful. 

4. Discuss two things that would keep Timothy from being 
ashamed. 

5. Write a short paragraph on the commendable attributes of 
Onesiphorus. 

6. How shall we "grow strong in the grace which is in Christ 
Jesus"? 

7. What is meant by entangling ourselves in the affairs of this 
life? 

8. What is the priority of reward received by the farmer? 

9. Explain this sentence: "On account of this I endure all things 
on account of the elect, in order that they may obtain salva- 
tion." 

10. Identify Hymenaeus and Philetus. 

11. We have said the "solid foundation of God" is the church. 
Explain. 

262 



12. How do we become and remain a utensil of honor? 

13. Explain three characteristics of the apostates of the last days, 

14. Who are the "silly women" of the second chapter? 

15. Discuss three ways Paul became an example to Timothy, 

16. In what way is the Scripture a safeguard against apostacy? 

17. What was the content of the charge Paul gave to Timothy? 

18. What did Paul mean when he said: "do an evangelist's work"? 

19. Upon what basis did Paul looh forward confidently to the 
crown of righteousness? 

20. Identify the following: Lemas, Crescens, Tychicus, Carpus, 
Alexander, Erastus, Trophimus, 



Special Studies 

by . 
H. E. Phillips 
From his book Scriptural Elders and Deacons 

Used by permission. 

NO ELDER THEORIES 

PROOFS OFFERED FOR THE "NO ELDER" THEORY 

A— There Is No Such OFFICE In The Church As ELDERS, It is 
argued that there is no such thing in the church as an "office." That the 
expression "office of a bishop" in I Timothy 3:1 is from "episcopee" 
which means twice "visitation" and twice "oversight," but not at any 
time as "official" authority. It is further argued that this is a WORK 
and not an authority: "If any man desire the office of a bishop, he 
desireth a good WORK." 

It is further contended that the word "office" in respect to a 
deacon in I Timothy 3:10, 13, is from the Greek "diakoneo" and is 
found 36 times in the New Testament, 24 times translated "to minister," 
and 10 times "to serve." Only twice is the word translated "office" and 
that is in this chapter. The reason given for this translation here is that 
the translators of the King James Version were mostly from the Episcopal 
Church, and the idea of "office" was prominent in their minds. 

The word "office" in I Timothy 3:1 is from "Episcopee" and is 
defined in Abbott-Smith's Greek-Lexicon as: "Office, charge, esp. office 
of an episcopos." Thayer's Greek-English Lexicon gives a similar 
meaning. 

But some contend that we cannot take these lexicographers for they 
do not always give the true meaning. Webster gives the meaning of 
"baptism" as: "Sprinkling, pouring or immersion," therefore, if we take 
one we must take the other. 

This is not true because it is the work of a lexicographer to define 
words in their current usage — as they are understood at the time of their 
use. Thayer defines words, not as what they now mean, but what they 
meant when spoken. Webster defines words as they are understood gen- 
erally today, and that is what he did in the case of "baptism." 

But it is admitted in the above that twice the word in I Timothy 
3:1 means "oversight"; and that twice in I Timothy 3:10, 13 

264 



the word means "work." Is it to be understood that anything that is a 
work is not of authority? Christ was and is in authority — supreme au- 
thority in the church — but he also had work to do. All men in authority, 
whatever degree it may be, must work in executing that authority, It is 
true that the "office of a bishop" is a "good work," But it is also 
admitted in the above argument that the word means "oversight." What 
is oversight? It means to oversee, to look over, to superintend. Does one 
appointed to look over the affairs of another have any authority at all? 
Authority always carries the idea of responsibility, and responsibility 
carries the idea of authority. If one Christian is in any way responsible 
for another Christian, to that extent he has authority and must exercise 
it in order to fulfill his responsibility, 

The word "office" in I Timothy 3:10, 13 means to serve. But since 
this is a special sense of service, and office is the word to designate 
that service, the office of a deacon is simply the work of a deacon, But 
the fact that it is a work does not imply that there is no office. All Chris- 
tians have an "office" to perform, which means a "work." In Romans 
12:4, 5: "For as we have many members in one body, and all members 
have not the same offfice: so we, being many, are one body in Christ, 
and every one members one of another." All members of the body of 
Christ have an "office" — WORK to perform. All these officers are not 
the same — some have authority over others — but each has authority to 
do the work assigned him. 

It is contended from I Peter 5:2: "Feed the flock of God which is 
among you, taking the oversight thereof, not by constraint, but willingly; 
not for filthy lucre, but of a ready mind," — that the older members are 
to take the oversight, not in an official capacity but just to do the work, 

In the first place, if the older members were to take the "oversight" 
or superintendency of the other members, it implies that much authority. 
You just can't get around the idea of authority in the oversight, In the 
second place, Peter is not talking about the older members, but those 
who are the elders- — Peter himself was such an elder — to take the over- 
sight, It is a perversion of the passage to say "older members," This 
would include women as well as men, which would put them in the 
"oversight," 

It is also argued that in Hebrews 13:17: "Obey them that have the 
rule over you, and submit yourselves," — does not imply an office, and 
then they refer to the marginal note of the Revised Version which says: 
"Obey them that are your guides or leaders," But if one is a guide or 
leader, is he not performing an assigned work? If so, the work is the 
"office" and the one who does the work is an "officer." And since he 
is to rule or guide, he has authority to do that. He is an officer in the 
office that rules. 

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B.— There Is No Authority ■ Of One Man Over Another In, The 
. Church. It is. argued that one member of the church does not exercise 
any. authority over another member, else some would be submitting to 
man rather than to Christ. 

This cannot be true for wives are, taught to submit to their 'husbands 
in everything (Eph. 5:23, 24). If both are Christians, we have one 
Christian submitting to another by the authority of Christ. Again, in 
Ephesians 6:1 children are to obey their parents in the Lord. If both 
child and parents are Christians, we have one Christian submitting— 
obeying— to others. These passages destroy the above argument of no 
man over another in the church. 

If we submit to men called "elders," we will have to do away with 
the authority, of Christ, it is said. But to reject the authority of the elder- 
ship as Christ has appointed would do away with the authority of Christ. 
Any man to whom Christ has delegated authority must be recognized as 
such or. we reject the authority of Christ, 

But some say, "Christ said no one. would exercise authority over 
another — Matthew 20:25, 26. There will be none in the church ? to 
exercise authority over any other." 

Let us examine this passage and the conclusion drawn in this argu- 
ment.. When: James and John with their mother came to Jesus they came 
"worshipping him." They did not regard him as a mere man or as a 
servant on this occasion, even though Jesus, is pictured in some places 
as a servant. They regarded him as a King; not only that', but as THE 
KING; To say that a King is not an official is to totally ignore the 
meaning of the word. Then the request made by this mother for her 
two sons was that they might "sit, one on thy right hand, and one on 
thy left hand, in thy kingdom." It is clearly evident that she was. speak- 
ing of . their ' authority IN HIS KINGDOM. The right hand and left 
hand indicates supreme authority next to Jesus. When Christ sat. at the 
right hand of God, it meant that he was given authority next to God. 
Tnese recognized the authority of Christ, thus his official capacity as 
King. The parallel passage is found in Mark 10:35-45, and in verse 40: 
"But to sit on my right hand and on my left hand is, not .mine to give; 
but it shall be given to them for whom it is prepared." The mother is 
simply asking Jesus to disregard the other apostles and place her sons 
. above them in authority. 

Jesus answered: "Ye know not what ye ask." They did not under- 
stand the nature of his kingdom, Certainly they knew what they were 
asking for, but they did not understand that the kingdom of Christ 
was to be a spiritual kingdom without earthly authority. They did not 
understand that the greatness in his kingdom depended upon service 
rather than ruling authority. He asked them if they were able to endure 

266 



his suffering — "drink this cup," and they answered ignorantly that they 
were. Mark adds, "to be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized 
with," meaning his suffering, 

Now when the other ten heard that James and John had made this 
request they were angry. Their anger did not stem from the fact that 
James and John had asked for a favor, but that they had asked for 
authority over them, It was a known fact that the apostles of Christ 
were continually arguing about who was to be the greater, which they 
conceived to be the one in authority over the rest, Jesus then proceeded 
to show them that his kingdom was not like that of the Gentiles, which 
denoted all other than the Jews. Greatness in his kingdom did not de- 
pend upon official rank, but upon service, and Jesus cites himself as an 
example of service, He did not imply that he was not a king, an official 
in the kingdom, 

In verse 17 he was talking to the twelve and not to all men. What 
he said to them included them only, The passage does not teach that 
there are no authorities in the kingdom of Christ. That is to completely 
miss the point of Christ's statement, He did not teach, by referring to the 
kingdoms of the Gentiles, that there would be no authority of officials 
in his kingdom; he said: "and they that are GREAT exercise authority 
upon them. But it shall not be so among you; but whosoever will be 
great among you, let him be your minister" (verses 26, 27). "And it 
shall not be so among you" refers to "greatness" rather than authority. 
The great of the Gentiles were those in authority, while the great in the 
kingdom of Christ were the ministers. 

Since he was talking to and about the twelve apostles, he did not 
intend that they should exercise authority over each other. He said, "It 
shall not be so AMONG YOU." It is true that the apostles themselves 
were officials in the" kingdom as "witnesses," "judges," and "rulers." But 
the apostles had no authority, one over the other, but all had equal 
authority under Christ. 

C — There is no need for elders to rule over the church as we have 
the Bible today. It is contended that all Christians have the Bible today 
as a perfect guide and do not have need for men called "elders" to rule 
over them. If all obey the Bible, they obey Christ. If elders must follow 
the Bible in their rule, why cannot all follow the Bible? If this is true, 
they say, we have no need for elders today. 

One cannot possibly follow the Bible without obeying the com- 
mands of Christ, one ol which is to submit to the elders in each con- 
gregation. Christ has commanded it. Hebrews 13:17: "Obey them that 
have the rule over you, and submit yourselves." And I Timothy 5:17: 
"Let the elders that rule well be counted worthy of double honor." 

267 



But if elders are not needed because we have the Bible today, 
neither do we need preachers and teachers today. Just let each one follow 
the Bible. But we know that to follow the Bible we must have preachers 
and teachers of truth because the Bible requires it. It is absurd to say we 
do not need a thing because we have the Bible' when the Bible itself 
demands that thing. One is not following the Bible when he denies that 
the church today needs elders to oversee the local work. 

D — We cannot have elders today because we have no inspired men: 
spiritually gifted, men. It seems that because some were inspired or had 
spiritual . gifts to some measure, that elders today must have the same 
gifts, else we cannot have. elders in the church. We do not deny that 
some elders in New Testament days were spiritually gifted: men, but it 
is equally certain that there were some who were not. 

It is argued that Acts 8:14-18 is an example of Peter and John 
going to Samaria after the church had been established there to give 
spiritual gifts, including inspiration, to make elders. When this inspira- 
tion ceased the elders ceased. 

This is not the case, as will be seen by carefully reading this entire 
chapter. Elders are not one time mentioned as being made in Samaria, 
especially at this time. How could one imagine that Peter and John made 
elders by giving them the power of inspiration, when neither "elder" 
nor "inspiration" is mentioned in the .chapter? The spiritual abilities 
given at Samaria were to enable the church to continue in its growth and 
edification, because the New Testament had not then been completed 
and they had no guide as we have today. The New Testament now does 
exactly what those spiritual abilities did then. 

It is also argued that we know all elders were inspired because God 
ordered the early church to hear and obey them and submit to them. 
The Holy Spirit would not have told those people to obey the elders 
and then leave them exposed to error. Hence, elders Were inspired,, and 
when inspiration ceased, the elders as such ceased. 

In the first place, where did God ever say: "hear and obey inspired 
men"? He said to hear Christ (Matt. 17:5; Acts 3:22). Christ is the 
only one to be heard in religious matters, but he speaks to us through 
his apostles and prophets. 

In the second place, inspiration did hot do one thing more for the 
men in the early church than the written word of God will do now. 
The difference in the spiritual gift of inspiration to preach and teach 
then and now is in the method of receiving the message rather than in 
delivering the message. Preachers are the same, the message is the same, 
but the method of receiving it is different. Then it came by direct in- 
spiration, but now it comes through the written word of God. Elders 
are the same today as then, The Spiritual gifts gave them the ability to 

268 



do the work assigned them just as the word of God gives them the 
knowledge now, 

In the third place, some elders received instructions from Paul, 
Why would Paul teach them their duties and tell them their responsi- 
bilities if they were inspired to know those things? In Acts 20:27, 28 
Paul said, "For I have not shunned to declare unto you all the counsel 
of God. Take heed therefore unto yourselves, and to all the flock, over 
the which the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers, to feed the church 
of God, which he hath purchased with his own blood." Paul had de- 
clared to them the counsel of God and then told them their duty. Why 
this if they were all inspired ? 

In the fourth place, inspiration provided that the one who possessed 
it could not en in teaching, but then some elders did err in teaching, 
for Paul said, "For I know this, that after my departing shall grevious 
wolves enter in among you, not sparing the flock. Also of your own 
selves (elders) shall men arise, speaking perverse things, to draw away 
disciples after them" (Acts 20:29, 30). This proves that all elders did 
not have the spiritual gift of inspiration, But if some were inspired, it 
does not prove that elders were done away when inspiration ceased any 
more than it proves that preachers were done away with inspiration, 
for some preachers had the gift of inspiration. 

In the fifth place, Hebrews 13:7 says that some have the rule. From 
I Timothy 5:17 we learn that the elders are to rule. Those who had the 
rule were not all inspired so far as the record shows. The general date 
of the Hebrew letter is about 63 A.D. In chapter 5:12, we learn that 
some had been in the church long enough to be teachers. Does that 
mean that they had been in the church long enough to be inspired ? 
Some were teachers by living in the church long enough to learn the 
truth so as to teach it. In Titus 1:9, speaking of the elders, Paul says 
"Holding fast the faithful word as he hath been taught." Does this 
sound like inspiration? 

In the sixth place, Paul did not mention inspiration as a qualification 
for the eldership in I Timothy 3 or Titus 1, If it had been essential it 
would have been mentioned along with the other qualifications. 

It is argued that I Cor. 12:1-13 and Eph. 4:11-13 show that spirit- 
ual gifts included elders or pastors and that they were done away with 
the spiritual gifts when the perfect way was revealed (I Cor. 13:8-10). 
It is further argued that I Cor. 12:28 proves that the elders were done 
away by the term "governments," which passed away with other spiritual 
gifts. The following syllogism is given to prove it: 

1. Elders, by implication, are included with the spiritually gifted 

men of I Cor. 12 and Eph. 4. 

2, The spiritually gifted men ceased with the close of spiritual gifts. 

269 



3. Therefore, there are. no elders or church officers today. 

First, I Cor. 12:1-13 and Eph. 4:11-13 do not show that spiritual 
gifts included elders or pastors. Gifts were not the men as such in Ephe- 
sians 4:11, for verse 8 says, "Wherefore he saith, When he ascended up 
on high, he led captivity captive, and gave gifts unto men." These men as 
spiritually endowed workers were given to the church. Many things are 
gifts, but the word itself does not tell what is given. Christ is a "gift" 
(John 3:16), but it does not mean a spiritual gift of the Holy Spirit. 
These men, were "gifts" but they had "spiritual gifts," or abilities. Men 
as men were not given to the church as "gifts". but men with ■ spiritual 
gifts (elders included) were given. 

Second, the- passage tells how long the "spiritually gifted" men were 
to be in the church: "till we all come in the unity of the faith, and of 
the knowledge .of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the. measure 
of the stature of the fulness of Christ" (Eph. 4:13). Now that we have 
the unity of the faith and the full, knowledge of the Son of God which 
is revealed in the New Testament, .we do not need spiritual- gifts in men, 
But the spiritual gifts have ceased, not the men. The unity of the faith 
and the. full knowledge of the Son of God supply these men now with 
the same that spiritual gifts supplied then. 

Third, if elders are done away with spiritual gifts in these passages, 
evangelists and teachers are. also done away, Even some Christians had 
spiritual gifts, such as. the four, daughters of Philip (Acts 2.1:9), but 
Christians . did not cease when the spiritually gifted Christians ceased. 
The spiritual gifts just gave away to the complete word of. God when it 
was revealed. But if .it be admitted that preachers, teachers , and Chris- 
tians remain today, though not spiritually gifted, it must be admitted by 
the same rule that elders remain today in the same way. 

The syllogism in the argument is not true because the conclusion is 
riot in agreement with the premises. It should be: ' 

1. Elders, by implication, are included with the spiritually gifted 
men of I Corinthians 12 and Ephesians 4. , 

2. The spiritually gifted men ceased with the close of spiritual' gifts. 

3. Therefore, there are no' spiritually gifted elders or church officers 
today. But it does not follow that there are no elders of any kind today. 

E—We cannot have elders today because no , one can qualify. It is 
argued that the qualifications listed for a bishop are too perfect for man 
to reach, and, therefore, we cannot have elders today. 

If this reasoning be true, it follows that no. man could have ever 
been an elder, even in the early church, because no man is. perfect. But 
we know the early church did have elders. We. further know that these 
elders were not perfect, for those in Ephesus to whom Paul talked in 

270 



Acts 20 needed building up (Acts 20; 32), and Paul prophesied that 
some of them would lead disciples away after them (Acts 20:30). 

The standard for a Christian is perfect, If we follow the same rea- 
soning as above, we must conclude that no one can be a Christian today 
because no one can be perfect, Every standard of God is perfect, An 
elder must measure relatively high in every qualification given in the 
word of God, but he must continue to grow, 

F — We have no elders today because we do not know how to ap- 
point them, It is argued that since the Bible does not specify HOW to 
appoint the elders, we cannot have them in the church today. 

But the Bible does not tell us HOW to serve the Lord's Supper, or 
how many songs to sing in worship, or the order in which we should 
worship on the Lord's Day. Are we to conclude that we are not to have 
the Lord's Supper, sing songs of praise to God or worship on the Lord's 
Day just because God did not tell us just the procedure of doing these 
things? These are left to human judgment in full harmony with all 
Bible principles governing such matters, The same is true of appointing 
elders. 

G — We can have no elders today because we have no one to ap- 
point them, Three reasons are given why we do not have men who can 
appoint elders today, and, consequently, can have no elders, 

1. In the New Testament times inspired men did the appointing 
and now we do not have inspired men, and therefore, can have no 
appointing. 

2. There are three qualifications of elders that no man can know 
unless he is guided by the Holy Spirit: (1) Blameless (2) Holy (3) 
Just. One must be able to read the heart to know this, and only the Holy 
Spirit could guide men to select elders, Timothy and Titus received this 
power of inspiration from Paul and could appoint elders; today we 
cannot. 

3. No one can lay hands on men today and give them the spiritual 
gifts they need to be elders. 

Let us now examine each of these in order. 

1, There is no indication anywhere in the Bible that inspired men 
were to do the appointing. Just because Timothy and Titus did the ap- 
pointing of some of the elders, and Paul and Barnabas also did some 
appointing, it does not follow that only inspired men must do the 
appointing. These men preached also, but it does not follow that only 
inspired men can preach, It can not be proved that either Timothy or 
Titus was inspired, Paul told Timothy to teach what he had learned from 
him (2 Tim, 2:2); and from the Holy Scriptures (2 Tim, 3:14, 15); 
and Paul told him to study to be approved (2 Tim, 2:15); and to read 

271 



(I Tim. 4:13). They may have had some spiritual gifts, but it had no 
bearing on the appointment of elders. 

2. Blameless, holy and just are qualities that can' be known in every 
man. Jesus said a good tree brings forth good fruit, and by that we 
may know the tree.. "By. their fruit ye shall know them" Matt. 7:20). 
How does one tell the difference between a child of God and a child of 
the devil? Paul knew Peter was wrong by his actions (Gal, 2:11). 

But these are not the only qualities of man that come in the same 
class. Any condition of the heart cannot be known by another except by 
his actions or words. What about faith and repentance?; How can a 
preacher know one has really believed and repented of his sins before he 
baptizes him? Must the preacher be inspired by the Holy Spirit to know 
this? No. He determines the condition of the heart by his words and 
actions. Just so one can tell when a man is blameless, holy and just. 

3. It has already been shown that elders do not need spiritual gifts 
today to do their work. They can use the word of God now. But the 
Bible teaches that some besides the apostles "laid hands" on men to 
appoint them elders, and none but the apostles could transmit the 
spiritual gifts (Acts 8:18). Timothy and Titus were not apostles and 
could not give any measure of spiritual gifts by the "laying on of 'their 
hands." 

But besides all this, the "laying on of hands" did not always signify 
the giving of spiritual-gifts. This act. was for a number of things. The 
expression in the Bible may refer to unpleasant things also. Notice: 

(1) Acts 4:3 — The Sadducees "laid hands on" the apostles to put 
them in prison. 

(2) Acts. 5:18 — Again the Sadducees "laid hands on" the apostles 
and put them in prison. 

(3) Acts, 6:6— Apostles "laid hands" on those selected, by the 
multitude and appointed them to the work. Stephen was "full of the 
Holy Ghost." The multitude selected and the apostles "appointed," 
verse 3. 

(4) Acts 8:17, 18— The apostles, Peter and John, "laid their 
hands" on some in Samaria to "give the Holy Ghost" — spiritual gifts. 

(5) Acts 13:3 — The church at Antioch "appointed" two whom the 
Holy Spirit had selected, to do a certain work, No spiritual gifts are 
indicated. 

(6) Acts 28:8^— Paul "laid his hands" on the father of Publius to 
heal him. No spiritual gift given, but a means of miraculous healing. 

(7) I Tim. 4:14 — The presbytery "laid hands on Timothy" with 
respect to Some gift of prophecy regarding his work. 

(8) 2 Tim. 1:6— Paul "laid hands" on Timothy to convey a gift 
of God — probably some spiritual gift. 

(9) I Tim. 5:22— Paul told Timothy not to "lay hands" suddenly 
on any man. This refers to appointing. 

272 



We glean from these few passages that the "laying on of hands" 
sometimes meant "to arrest or take hold of"; sometimes "to appoint or 
designate"; sometimes "to transmit a spiritual gift of one kind or an- 
other"; and sometimes "as a means of miraculous healing." Spiritual 
gifts are not essential today to elders in performing their duties, as the 
word of God is sufficient, hence we have no need for men who "give 
spiritual gifts by laying on of hands." 

H — We do not have elders today he cause there is some work that 
no elder cm do today. It is argued, that since there is some work that 
no man can do today, that was done by the elders of the early church, 
there can be no elders today, Following is a list of some of those things 
they say no man can do today. 

(1) James 5:14, 15 teaches us to call for the elders of the church 
when one is sick, and they will come and anoint with oil in the name 
of the Lord and pray for the sick and he will be healed. This was 
miraculous healing and cannot be done by so called elders today. 

Let us notice this passage, The healing of James 5:14 was really 
by the power of God, The oil poured on by the elders does not neces- 
sarily mean a miracle, Oil was used for several things in the Bible; 

a. Appointing one to a charge (I Sam. 16:12, 13). 

b. For medicine (Luke 10:34). 

c. For food (Ex, 29:2), 

d. For a cosmetic (Ps, 104:15). 

e. For a light (Ex. 27:20), 

Not one time is oil used to perform a miracle. Miracles were used 
to confirm the word, but when the word was fully confirmed and 
completely revealed the miracles ceased, but the preaching of that word 
did not cease. Since this passage says the oil was poured on sick people, 
it is more reasonable to believe that it was used for medicine. The 
elders are called to administer whatever aid they can to the sick, while 
at the same time praying for them. The writer here says the "effectual 
fervent prayer of a righteous man availeth much," and then uses Elias 
praying for the rain as an example (verse 17, 18). We read that the 
reference of Elias was not a miracle but by natural process: a cloud 
coming from over the ocean (I Kings 48:44, 45). So neither the oil 
nor the prayer would suggest that they were to perform a miracle. But 
if those elders did perform a miracle, would it follow that all elders 
are to perform miracles ? Some preachers performed miracles at that time, 
but preachers are not to pass away because no preacher can perform 
miracles today. 

(2) It is argued that no elder today can "lay hands on" another to 
give, him spiritual gifts, and that was one work of elders in New 
Testament times, The presbytery (eldership) gave such a gift to Timothy 
(I Tim, 4:14), 

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It has already been shown that "laying on of hands" did not always 
mean the. conveying of spiritual gifts. In fact it never referred, to that 
except in the case of an apostle, and then it may mean something else 
as determined by the context. The "laying on of hands" in I Tim. 4:14 
means the same as in Acts 13:3— appointing to some work-. No elder as 
such ever laid his hands on any man to transmit to him a spiritual gift, 

(3) It is argued that an elder can not feed the flock of God. No 
man is qualified today to feed anyone that the word of God does not 
better feed. The church can feed itself by studying the word. What can 
an elder feed that any other member of the church can not feed? 

To feed the flock is to put the word before them and see that 
they learn it. Things that elders can do that others can not do in this 
realm is, a matter of authority/Many can do certain things but do not 
have the authority or right to do it.- The Bible calls those who are 
Christians "children" (1 John 2:1; Eph. 5:8; Rom. 8:17; Eph. '5:1). 
Elders are the older, stronger children who have been commissioned by 
the, Saviour to feed, the others the word of God. One might make arrests 
for violation of a law IF he had the authority of the higher powers, 
Christ, who is head of the church, gave authority for the . local church to 
the eldership. They can exercise that authority when others in the church 
can not, because of the authority given them. by Christ through his word. 

(4) It is also argued that one thing an elder can not do today is 
to rule and take oversight. Only the apostles and inspired men could do 
that, and as we have no apostles or inspired men alive today we have 
no one to rule and take oversight. - 

Again this is a matter of authority. If the Bible teaches that the 
congregation is to submit to those; who are in the oversight, can one be 
submissive to Christ and not be submissive .to the elders ? Can a wife 
obey Christ without obeying his authority to submit to her husband? 
We have the writings of the apostles and inspired men today as a guide, 
but someone must see that it is obeyed and followed exactly as it should 
be. Who is to do this? Even the church in Jerusalem, where the aposties 
were, had elders, If they needed elders there, do we not need them 
today with the writings of the apostles? 

As to the matter of authority, I can not walk out on the, street and 
arrest a man for a . traffic violation, but a policeman can because he 
has the authority to-do it.- If I were, to become a policeman I would have 
the authority to- do : some things in that line that I can not now dp. 
Others may be physically able to do some things — even all things — an 
elder can do, but he does not have the authority from Christ to do them. 
That is the difference. It is not to be understood that in all points I am 
making the elders policemen in the church. I am simply comparing the 
right to do things by authority over others. 

274 



I — The Holy Spirit made elders in Bphesus, and since the Holy 
Spirit does not make elders now, we do not have elders today, The Holy 
Spirit did make elders then, and He makes them now- The Holy Spirit 
makes elders just as He makes Christians. He gives the standard of 
qualifications, and when one complies with them he becomes a Christian, 
The same is true of the elders. When one complies with all the require- 
ments to become an elder that have been given by the Holy Spirit, he 
is an elder made by the Holy Spirit. That' is the very reason the list of 
qualifications is recorded in I Timothy and Titus. 

J— Some Churches did not have elders, so we all need not have 
them today, This is based upon the assumption that at least the Bible 
does not teach that all churches had elders. For instance, the church at 
Corinth, the elders are not mentioned, But after the days of the apostles, 
Clement of Rome wrote an epistle to the Corinthians and at the close he 
mentions the elders, Paul appointed elders in every city where he 
preached (Acts 14:23), and it follows that he practiced the same thing 
at Corinth, 

There is not a single argument made against the appointment of 
qualified elders in every church that will stand the test of God's word. 
"Beloved, believe not every spirit . . ," (I John 4:1), 



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THE RELATIONSHIP— APOSTLES, ELDERS, PREACHERS 

I. THE RELATIONSHIP 

A relationship exists: between the apostles and elders, and between 
elders and predchers. This relationship must be respected, yet not trans- 
gressed. "For as' we have many members in one body, arid all members 
have not the same office: so we, being many, are one body in Christ, 
and, every one members one of another" (Rom, 12:4, 5),. 

Since all these members are in the one Body, the church of our Lord, 
and all the. members have not the same work to do, but all are under the 
same Head— Christ, there must be a close relationship between all three 
classes considered here as public workers in the church: the apostles, 
eiders and preachers. This does not necessarily mean that their work 
Overlaps; but there is a ■ connection and relationship in their work that 
makes for the unity of the Faith. 

It must; be understood in the study of this relationship' that the 
terms: Apostle, Elder, and Preacher do not mean the same thing and do 
not refer to the same work. They are very distinct, one from the other. 
However, the same man may be an apostle, elder and preacher all at the 
same time. Peter is an example. He was an apostle (Matt. 10:2); an 
elder (I Peter 1:1; 5-2); and a preacher (Acts 2 — the first gospel ser- 
mon). This does not mean that because Peter did or said a certain thing 
that any preacher may do the same thing, for Peter may have been acting 
or speaking as an apostle or an elder rather than as a preacher. It must 
be determined in what capacity he was speaking or acting to know 
whether it applies to certain men today. There is quite a difference in the 
scope of authority and the nature of the work of these three classes of 
men in the church. 

II. APOSTLES AND ELDERS 

When Christ delegated authority to a certain one, that one may 
exercise that authority, but another cannot assume it without violating 
God's plan, The apostles were granted an authority in the church that 
no other can take. (Matt. 16:19; 18:18). 

A. The difference in authority of apostles and elders. 

The authority of the apostles was universal in scope. Their rule and 
authority extended over all congregations equally. Their writings today 
are the authority of Christ in all churches of Christ. Paul said that he had 
the care of all the churches. (2 Cor. 11:28). When he exercised such 
authority it was only as an apostle and never as an elder or a preacher. 

276 



The authority of the elders is local in scope, never extending beyond 
the bounds that define a local church. There is never an exception to 
this rule in the New Testament, The elders have no rule over any person 
beyond the scope of their local authority in the church where they serve. 
When Peter acted in authority over different congregations, he did so 
as an apostle and not as an elder. 

B. The difference in the qualifications of apostles and elders. 

The work of the apostles was -REVEALING AND CREATIVE as 
well as SUPERVISORY. The very nature of their work in revealing and 
creating suggested that there could be no successor to the apostles. The 
church has been established and the full will of God has been revealed, 
so there is no need for a further work of apostles. While, on the other 
hand, the elder's work is only SUPERVISORY and by nature requires 
succession to the office as long as the church exists, 

The qualifications for the work of an apostle make it impossible to 
have apostles in the church today in the sense that we have elders. Notice 
some of the qualifications for this work: 

1. An apostle must have been with Christ from the beginning of 
his ministry. (John 15:26, 27). Paul was the exception to this, but spoke 
of himself as "one born out of due time" (I Cor. 15-8). Today no 
one lives who has been with Christ from the beginning of his ministry, 
nor has one witnessed his resurrection as "one born out of due time." 
Hence, no one can qualify to be an apostle today. 

2. An apostle must have been a witness of the resurrection of 
Christ (Matt. 26:32; 28:7; Acts 1:8; 2:32)... No one can be an eye 
witness to the resurrection of Christ today, therefore, there can be no 
living qualified apostles today in the church. 

3. An apostle must have been chosen personally by Christ for this 
work (Acts 1:2; Matt. 10:1-5). Christ does not personally select such 
men today, so there are no living apostles in the church now. This was 
so even in the case of Matthias (Acts 1:24). 

The qualifications for elders are found in I Timothy 3 and Titus 1. 
Any good, experienced Christian father and husband can develop these 
qualifications today. There is not a single one that any good Christian 
man should not have, with the exception of experience, age and family 
relations. 

C. The specific duties of an apostle are different from the duties 
of elders. 

The work of the apostles was: 

1. To be ambassadors of Christ (2 Cor. 5:20). They were his 

277 



personal- representatives here on earth after he ascended to the Father. 
The elders are not personal representatives of Chirst today any more than 
any other Christian. The 'work ■ of an ambassador is to speak for and 
represent a king or ruler in a foreign .country. This is exactly the work 
the apostles did, hut neither the elders, nor anyone else, has such duties 
today. Neither did the elders in New Testament times have such work 
to do. 

2. The apostles were. to reveal the will of Christ to all men, This 
has been done and completed. (Jude 3, 17; Gal. 1:8, 9). They were 
guided without error by the Holy Spirit to speak the full truth of Christ 
on all matters. (John 14:26; 16:13; Luke 24:49; Acts 2:1-4). The will 
of Christ is now complete and needs no addition. (2 Pet. 1-3; 2 Tim. 
3:16, 17). Therefore, the active work of the apostles is no more'. How- 
ever, their writings are the sole authority in all matters of faith in the 
church today. The elders are not empowered to reveal the will of Christ 
in addition to what has been revealed by the apostles. The work of the 
elders is to see that the revealed will of Christ is kept by. the "flock 
which is among" them. 

3. The apostles are to be judges of God's people. (Matt, 19:28). 
There is a sense in which the apostles will "judge" while Christ is 
on the throne of his glory. This "judging" is the "binding" and "loos- 
ing" of Matt. 16:19. Notice when this judging is to be: "In the re- 
generation"— when men are regenerated or born again. That certainly 
means now. Also it is to be when Christ sits on the throne of his glory. 
He is now sitting on that throne. (Acts 2:30, 31). The Israel refers to the 
people of God today, in the church. We have no fleshly Israel now so 
far as Christianity is concerned (Gal. 3:28, 29), but all Christians are 
spiritual Israel (Rom. 2:28; 9:6; GaL 6:15). The word twelve 
signifies all because the whole of fleshly Israel consisted of twelve tribes. 
The apostles are "judging" through their writings today while Christ 
rules with all authority upon his throne. 

But the elders, have no such authority. They have no authority to 
"bind" or "loose" in matters of faith. That has already been completed 
in the work of the apostles. 

D. The relationship between apostles and elders,, 

It has been shown that their work and scope of authority are in 
separate fields, but there is a close connection between their duties arid 
the fields of their work. In the New Testament times when matters of 
importance to the church arose, both the apostles and elders assembled 
and considered the matter. (Acts 15:1-6 — the matter of circumcision 
and the law of Moses). This matter was settled by the Holy Spirit and 
riot by the authority of the elders. But the elders as well as the apostles 
saw that the matter was kept in accord with revelation. Both are under 



278 



the authority of Christ; and both are working for the salvation of the 
world and the glory of God, 

III, ELDERS AND PREACHERS 

As in the case of apostles and elders and their relationship, there 
is a relationship between elders and preachers that must be observed 
strictly if both are to do their work properly and scripturally. The work 
of elders and preachers is different; although one might be both an 
elder and a preacher at the same time, He can do things as a preacher 
that he cannot do as an elder, or do things as an elder that he cannot do 
as a preacher. For instance, he may preach for several congregations 
but he cannot exercise the authority of an overseer in any congregation, 
Or he may exercise the oversight as an elder in a certain congregation but 
he can not exercise the oversight of several congregations at the same 
time. 

A. Preachers sometimes try to dominate elders. 

Preachers often ignore the eldership, Young preachers sometimes try 
to do their work without elders, thinking that they can better carry out 
their ideas and plans without the restraint of the eldership to check 
them, Many think they know more than the elders, and the sad part is 
that they sometimes do, but this does not authorize preachers to usurp 
control of the oversight. No doubt one of the reasons for inefficient 
elders today is the zeal of young, ambitious preachers who have not 
learned the standard of God's organization for the church. 

In the Apostolic Times of May, 1951, on page 123, brother Rue 
Porter made this observation: "Among the problems confronting the 
church today, none seems to be more constantly coming up than certain 
questions relating to the eldership, That is, no doubt, due to the fact 
that new congregations are constantly gathered together and we have a 
great number of young and enthusiastic preachers who seem not to 
have realized as yet that the eldership as pictured in the New Testament 
is the picture of a perfect standard toward which every man chosen for 
that work should aim and strive. . . . 

"Most of the men who have been made elders get little encourage- 
ment for the efforts they make, They are looked upon by some preachers 
and many members as a sort of necessary useless sort of men, Some of 
us will accept the advice of a man who was never chosen by any one 
to oversee, rather than follow the counsel of a properly selected and 
appointed eldership." 

To this I say, Amen. One might as well ignore some expression of 
worship that God has ordained in the church as to ignore this arrange- 
ment in the organization of the church. 

279 



B. Many: preachers act as sole judges of who is and- who is not 
qualified to be elders in a certain place, disregarding the Bible qualifica- 
tions. 

We can all go to the Bible and determine who is and who is not 
a qualified elder. But when preachers say, "That is not necessary to be 
an elder," when speaking of some qualification, "I'll just appoint him 
anyway," that is going too far. Sometimes a preacher refuses to appoint, 
or allow to be appointed (as if he were the only judge), a qualified 
man to the eldership by giving some point of qualification that the 
Bible does not give. For instance, to demand that "apt to teach" means 
that the elder must be a seasoned, polished, public teacher or preacher. 
That is giving a meaning to this qualification that the Bible does not give. 

Again in the Apostolic Times, May, 1951, page 123, brother Rue 
Porter says: "One congregation chose and appointed a man with others 
to serve them as elder, and a young preacher came along and decided 
that the congregation— most of whose members had been Christians and 
students longer than he, just didn't know enough to select men for the 
eldership, and so proceeded to attempt the 'unseating' of the elder to 
whom he objected ! Of course the eldership and congregation were pretty 
prompt in teaching him a lesson he needed very much to learn. ... 

"It seems easy for inexperienced preachers to decide that they know 
just exactly what elders must be in order to be elders, but for some 
unknown reason seem unable to catch a glimpse of what a perfect 
preacher should be !" 

C. Preachers claiming the position and authority of elders when they 
begin regular work at a place, 

A few preachers are so careless in the Scriptures as to claim to be 
an "Automatic Elder" when they move to a certain place to begin regular 
work there. They argue this way: The elders labor in word and doctrine 
(I Tim. 5:17); the preacher also labors in word and doctrine, and 
since the preacher always labors in this field, and it is the work of 
elders, it follows that the preacher is automatically an elder where ever 
he labors. That is the real argument. Just such reasoning! One might as 
well argue as follows: The elders are to "teach" (Titus 1:9), but women 
also are required to "teach" (Titus 2:4), therefore, women are auto- 
matically elders. Would not this argument be as strong as the one above? 

There are some things wrong with this system. (1) This would 
completely disregard the qualifications for an elder as given by^ the : Bible. 
Just any 'boy-preacher would be an elder where ever he preaches. The 
qualifications for an elder might as well be scratched from the Bible. 
(2) In a congregation where elders have never been appointed this 
young preacher would be THE ELDER — a one man rule. (3) This 

280 



would put a fence around the preacher that would block any move 
regarding his discharge from the pulpit, and also many of his other 
obligations. He would be in position to "block" any move by "the other 
elders" to do anything opposed by him, This would actually reduce itself 
to a one-man-rule. 

Some preachers have actually contended that since it is the duty of 
the elders to feed the flock (Acts 20:28), and since some preachers do 
more feeding than the elders, the preacher MUST be one of the 
elders to have a scriptural arrangement. But it is also the business of 
preachers to feed (I Cor. 3;2). Just because some of the responsibilities 
of elders and preachers are very much the same, if not the same, is no 
reason to conclude that the one is equal to the other in all things. It 
was a responsibility of an apostle to teach, and it is also the responsibility 
of any Christian to teach the truth. Are we to conclude that every 
Christian is an apostle? 

D. Preachers exercising oversight in the place of the eldership, 

Some preachers follow the practice of denominationalism to make 
themselves THE PASTOR of the congregation where they preach. Why 
do some evangelists take this oversight? We give here three reasons for 
this practice. 

1. In some places the elders are irresponsible and do not perform 
their work. This necessarily leaves the duties upon the shoulders of some- 
one else, usually the preacher. He begins little by little to assume their 
work until finally he is acting as the eldership, even though he did not 
seek it in the beginning, then he tries to justify his practice in some way, 

2. In some places there are no men qualified to become elders 
and either the membership places all responsibility and authority upon 
the preacher, or the preacher thinks he must assume the oversight in 
order for the work to go forward. 

3. In some places the elders insist that the preacher take the 
leading part and make most of the decisions for them. It often forces 
the preacher into" a position that he is not really seeking. But in all 
cases the evangelist of a congregation has no scriptural authority to take 
the oversight under any condition. . 

E. Preachers exercising oversight over the elders. 

This is the most extreme claim toward popery we have found to 
date in the church of Christ. It is contended that preachers are not only 
EQUAL to the elders in the oversight, but are ABOVE them! Imagine 
a gospel preacher claiming OVERSIGHT over the elders of the church! 
But that is not the end. Imagine a gospel preacher claiming OVERSIGHT 
over not just one group of elders, but over SEVERAL elderships at the 
same time ! This makes the preacher a sort of ARCHBISHOP. 

281 



■ . In an article entitled Over and Under The Eldership, by I. C. Nance 
in the Gospel Broadcast of February 24, 1949, page 141, we find the 
following': .''Whereas it cannot be shown that either Titus or Timothy, 
evangelists, were, ever under any eldership after they began their work 
of evangelism, it can be definitely shown that both of them were over 
the eldership of at least one (and that's enough). Timothy was placed 
over the eldership at Ephesus by apostolic authority. And, Ephesus was 
an old, large, and established church Which had had elders for years 
tvherithis happened. Read all of First Timothy, understanding^. Titus, 
on the other hand, just a plain evangelist, was placed, by apostolic 
authority over all the churches in Crete. Among "his duties was the 
appointment of elders. Since an evangelist is given power to exercise 
'all authority' over a number of churches and, whereas, an elder has only 
partial authority in only one congregation, it follows that the authority 
of the evangelist supersedes that of the elder or the eldership. . Hence, 
Titus was ovpr any eldership you might name in Crete. If riot, why not?" 

The direction of thought in this article is wrong and scripturally 
untrue. The Bible teaches that the elders have the OVERSIGHT of the 
flock which is among them. If the evangelist is among the flock he is 
under the oversight of the. elders. Titus and Timothy would be included. 
No passage in all the Bible teaches that any evangelist, as such, ever 
had the oversight of one person in the church, must less a congregation 
or several congregations, Timothy and Titus included. Titus was told to 
"rebuke with all authority" (Titus 2:15), but that is a far cry from 
"oversee with all authority." The authority of an evangelist is toward the 

f reaching of the word. This, indeed, is a most dangerous doctrine and 
eads directly to the popery of Romanism. This dereliction of plain truth 

by those who wear the appellation Gospel Preacher is deplorable. 

E. Elders exercising too much authority over preachers. 

Many times elders will keep placing their own responsibilities upon 
the preacher until he is actually trying to do all the work of the eldership. 
This is taking too much authority on the part of the eldership. Christ 
did not give the elders authority to delegate their responsibilities to 
others. They may assign certain work to others to do, but the OVER- 
SIGHT and responsibilities for such can never be assigned to another. 

Then some elders try to control a preacher when he is beyond the 
bounds of their authority. Some have asked: "Do the elders of one 
congregation have the oversight of a preacher who regularly works with 
them but goes away for a meeting to another locality? Are the elders 
still over him while he .works there?" The answer is, NO. And the 
simple reason is that the. elders cannot oversee ANY WORK beyond 
the local church of which they are elders. The. elders where he is in the 
meeting, at the time he is there have the oversight , over him and his 
work. A congregation may send a preacher into a. new, field of labor 
and support him, but they do not exercise the oversight over him or 

282 



those converts where he is preaching in that work, They may discipline 
him for an unchristian conduct while away in a meeting after he returns, 
or they may withdraw their support from him and mark him as a false 
teacher if he does not continue true to the word while at some other 
place preaching, but that is the extent of their authority over an evange- 
list whom they may be supporting when he is not laboring among them, 
When we study the scope of authority of elders this truth will become 
more evident, 



283 



THE ELDERSHIP AND APQSTASY 

I. THE MEANING OF APOSTASY 

The word apostasy is not found in the Bible by that .term, but. the 
expression, "depart from the faith" is exactly what Webster says apostasy 
means. In I Timothy 4:1 we read: "Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, 
that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to 
seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils." This is a prediction of an 
apostasy to come during the latter times, but here it does not tell where 
and how it will come — only WHEN. But Paul tells us that this apostasy 
— "the mystery of iniquity" — was already at work as he wrote the 
second letter to the Thessalonians (2:7). 

We ask, WHERE will the departing from the faith begin, and 
HOW will it develop? Does the Bible tell us? We read where Paul 
called the elders from Ephesus to meet him at Miletus and there he gave 
them the charge to watch themselves and all the flock among them 
(Acts 20:28). He then adds: "For I know this," (this was a prophecy 
which Paul knew by revelation,) "that after my departing" (after his 
death, for he spoke of his departure being near as death approached — 
2 Tim. 4:6) shall grievous wolves enter in among you, not sparing 
the flock. Also of your own selves shall men arise, speaking perverse 
things, to draw away disciples after them." 

As to WHERE this apostasy would come, Paul said it would come 
from among the elders of the church. All real apostasy from truth begins 
there directly or indirectly. The eldership creates, or allows to be created, 
some innovation in the church. They become divided over matters and 
carry it to the whole church for settlement; or they become weak in the 
discipline and allow worldliness to corrupt the flock of God. As long 
as the eldership is pure and godly the church in that place will be strong. 

As to the HOW, Paul said it would come by "grievous wolves" 
entering to devour the flock by false teaching; and some of the elders 
themselves will speak perverse things to lead away disciples after them. 
History gives us the full picture of this prophecy of Paul. The apostasy 
depicted in the New Testament was to come "in the latter times," 
through the eldership of the church, and by false teaching and decep- 
tion, even within and from among the eldership. 

There is a very close relationship between corruption in the eldership 
of the church and the apostasy. Great care should he taken in selecting 
and appointing men to be elders because the wrong men can lead to a 
complete departing of the whole congregation from the faith. That is 

284 ' 



one reason why this matter is of a most serious nature to the purity of 
the church of Christ. 

II. HOW APOSTASY DEVELOPED AMONG THE ELDERS 

Apostasy is a slow working of error, It is a slow departure from the 
truth, One does not realize that he is drifting, in most cases, until he 
has gone into apostasy or very near it, Its working is like the facial 
change of a man. We take a picture and in ten years take another and 
notice the radical change in the face and features of a man, yet we do 
not really see the change from day to day because it is so gradual, Apos- 
tasy may well be called the cancer of the soul. Like this horrible disease 
of the body, it begins small and unnoticed and gradually works its way 
through and around the vital parts of the body until, by its slow working 
and growth, the body succumbs to its deadly work. It is often too late 
when the disease is located. The best and only safe-guard against this 
evil power in the church is a periodical and complete check-up often, 
This slow persistent working of apostasy is what devoured the early 
church, and it is what hinders the church today. 

Apostasy follows three well defined steps. (1) A change in the 
divine pattern for the oversight of the church. The governing power 
must be changed before anything else can be changed. As long as the 
proper authority remains in the proper place and proper way in the 
church, apostasy is impossible. (2) The second step is to go .beyond the 
word of God. These corrupt practices religiously must come from some 
authority beyond the Bible. Something must be added. Once the govern- 
ing part of the local church is set aside and another substituted, the 
next step may be taken, and this consists of adding some practice which 
is not authorized in the Bible, or changing some doctrine of the Bible 
to suit man's desires. (3) The third step is into complete departure 
from the truth of God. If one change in the divine order is allowed, 
who can stop further changes? Paul warned against any advance beyond 
what is written. (I Cor, 4:6). The first step beyond what is written 
opens the way for any number of steps one would desire to take, and 
the person who takes the first step can never criticise or censure the 
one who takes ten or twenty, or even goes completely away from the 
Bible. How can the man who takes the first step from God's authority 
by disregarding the divine organization of the church justly censure or 
correct the man who has gone further and denied the divinity of Jesus, 
or has denied the inspiration of the Bible? Is not one as much in 
disobedience as the other? Regarding this very principle James said to 
keep all the law, yet to disobey in one point is the same as disobeying in 
all points. (James 2:10), How many commandments of God must one 
disobey to be lost? It can be easily answered by the principle James gives. 

Let us notice briefly just how this apostasy worked in the eldership 

285 



of the early church. The following is a very brief summary of the working 
of many years. If the reader is interested in a more thorough study of 
the development of the various denominational systems in their departure 
from God's order, he is referred to any good, authoritative church his- 
torian or any contemporary writer with these events. 

A. The first step was taken when the bishops of a congregation 
decided to elect a chairman or spokesman for them, and gradually allowed 
this chairman or spokesman to become their chief. After £ few years of 
this arrangement it was easy to drift into the practice of all other elders 
of that congregation submitting in most . matters to the judgment and 
demands of the chief elder. This became the general practice' in the; 
larger congregations and finally developed into the office of archbishop.: 
No doubt this did not appear to those involved to be a serious thing;.' 
It was just an "expedient," a method to increase the efficiency of the 
eldership. But it was a step toward apostasy. 

B. This move that created the office of ARCHBISHOP led to an- 
other departure. After a few years the archbishop in the larger cities 
began to reach out and take under control the smaller churches in sur- 
rounding towns. Two reasons may be given for this arrangement: (1) 
The educational and influential superiority of the city bishops over the 
country bishops. (2) The financial and numerical pre-eminence of the 
city churches over the country churches. This action came as a direct 
result of the archbishop idea. The same idea is in process of development 
within the churches today. The elderships of "big" churches are having 
the elderships of "little" churches channel their money and authority 
through the "big" churches to do "big" things. Anything larger than the 
local church is not the New Testament church. The second step was to 
have ONE elder over several churches. 

C. The third step was to organize the archbishops. These chairman 
bishops of several towns were organized into a "diocese" or county. From 
the archbishops a chief was appointed. This developed into the office 
of Cardinal or chief archbishop. This act puts one elder over a section 
of the country. 

D. Still later one of the cardinals was elected from the group to 
become the chief elder over the church universal, now called the Pope. 
When this step was taken, the next naturally led to claiming authority 
for this chief, elder which has never been given to any man, not even the 
apostles. This, is the system of departure that started among the elders 
in a small way. No doubt it seemed to them such a small thing that one 
would have been branded a "crank" or "hobby-rider" to voice an objec- 
tion to it. The departure was so gradual that it was not noticed by the 
majority, of people. The same can be true in the church today. 

286 



III. SCRIPTURAL ELDERS ARE THE SAFEGUARD 
AGAINST APOSTASY 

There is a NEED for elders today in the church. Many things must 
be decided about the work and worship of the church. The time of 
assembling, the place of meeting, the order in the worship, the prepara- 
tion for the worship, who shall preach and teach, and many other 
decisions are important. Somebody must do this directing. Is it to be 
decided by a majority vote, by the preacher or by the eldership? The 
latter is to make such decisions and is responsible to God for them 
being done scripturally, We need elders today in the church to do the 
work of overseeing the flock. 

There is no greater work nor higher responsibility than that of the 
bishops of the church. When one reaches the good degree of Christianity 
that is required of the elders he has reached the very peak of usefulness 
in the church. 

The elders need a pat on the back and a word of encouragement 
from the members of the church when they do a good work. We all 
need encouragement, but especially so when the heavy responsibility of 
the oversight is laid upon the shoulders of a man. The elders would 
work much harder and more earnestly if we would give them the en- 
couragement they deserve when their work is well executed. 

There must always be a plurality of elders in each congregation. 
This is one of the best safeguards against apostasy. The following pass- 
ages of Scripture will show that there was a plurality of elders in each 
church; Acts 11:29, 30; 14:23; 15:4; 20:17; Phil, 1:1; I Tim. 4:14; 
5:17 Titus 1:5; James 5:14; I Peter 5:1, 2. 

There can never be less than two elders in each local church. Some 
ask, How many should there be in a congregation? The answer is, "If 
ANY man ..." Any and all men in each congregation who can qualify 
should be appointed. The more qualified men appointed, the more work 
can be done and the more efficiently it can be done. 

Another question of interest: If all the elders die except one, can 
he remain an elder in that congregation? He can if others are appointed 
to take the places of those who have died, but he cannot be scripturally 
THE ELDER. That is exactly what he would be if he remained the 
only elder. There is no place in all the New Testament that teaches a 
one man rule in the local church. This would not disqualify him as an 
elder but it would disqualify his rule as THE ELDER. 

Each church must be autonomous (self -governed). If one congrega- 
tion drifted from the truth, others would not be affected by govern- 
mental ties. With each church governed by its own elders it safeguards 
against apostasy of the whole church. 

287 



A plurality of elders in each church -will provide a supply for the 
deficiency in any one man. The strong, spiritual characteristics of several 
men blended together is a safer oversight than just one man. 

IV. WHY MORE MEN ARE NOT QUALIFIED TO BE ELDERS 

No doubt the first reason to mention why many are not qualified 
elders is the lack of energy and will tp develop the godly: characteristics 
needed to be a scriptural elder. It is not easy to obtain a good knowledge 
of the Bible, to live a life above reproach, and to govern and guide a 
family so as to keep them in the way of the Lord. That is what one 
must do to become an elder. 

A second reason is that there has been such mass substitutions for 
the eldership today, that many have grown to, disregard Bible instructions 
for the elders. , Many churches have substituted an office called . Leaders 
to take the place' of the eldership. These leaders do not have to be 
qualified according to the Bible, and since they hold the same office, 
the qualifications/are considered Unimportant. 

A third reason is the abuse of the eldership in some quarters. This 
has caused men not. to desire the work. When they do not desire the 
office of a bishop, they will make no effort to qualify. The reason many 
do not desire this work of oversight; is because they have seen and 
heard the continual abuse and complaining of churches toward the elders. 
They have heard members speak of them in an unchristian way. They 
have seen them accused of many things of which they were not guilty. 
The lack of respect and honor for the bishops has caused many young 
men never to set their goal to be an elder. 

The work of efficient elders is the highest, most noble and needed 
work among us today, The mart who qualifies and does the work of an 
elder is as near God as he can get on this earth. They are deserving of 
the deepest and greatest of our love and respect, for "they watch for 
your souls, as they that must give account." 

The fourth reason is that the lack of preaching and teaching on 
the subject has caused many to fail to qualify. Many preachers have 
purposely tried to keep men from reaching the point to be recognized 
as qualified men for the eldership. Others have been so unlearned on the 
subject that they could not preach the truth on the eldership. They do 
not want to lose any power or control over the church where they preach. 
In some places the membership of the churches have never heard a 
gospel sermon on the subject of the qualifications for the eldership. One 
might as well leave out any other phase of scriptural teaching as this one. 

288-' 



Special Studies 

by 
W. Carl Ketcherside 

Used by permission. 



MUST ELDERS BE MARRIED? 



"Mias gunaikos andra." These are 
words of Paul. They were written to both 
Timothy and Titus. They constitute one 
qualification for an elder. What do they 
mean? The King James Version trans- 
lates them "the husband of one wife," 
The Revised Standard Version says "mar- 
ried only once." Does the expression mean 
that marriage is essential to being a 
bishop? Almost before the last apostle 
died this was a matter of controversy. It 
has continued to be so in every genera- 
tion since. This question bothered the 
reformers of the nineteenth century, both 
here and abroad. 

On Wednesday, August 4, 1880, the 
annual conference of Churches of Christ 
in Great Britain met at Huddersfield. 
Brother G. Y. Tickle presented a paper on 
"The Eldership." Later, he published it 
in The Christian Advocate, of which he 
was editor. Here is an excerpt from the 
printed version: 

"I respectfully submit that there is nothing 
in the directions given to either Timothy or 
Titus to make it imperative that they should 
be married men, and that they should have 
children. . . . The one, as opposed to plural- 
ity, is evidently the emphatic word. But it 
may be asked, Does it not even in that case 
include the injunction that he must be a 
married man? Most assuredly not. If the 
apostle has before him a man with a plurality 
of wives and intends to exclude him from 
the eldership on that ground, you have no 
right to say that is equal to having a single 
man before him who is to be excluded simply 
on the ground of his being unmarried or a 



widower— for to be consistent the language 
must exclude both." 

At the same time, Bro. David King was 
editor of the Ecclesiastical Observer. He 
took exception to the speech made at the 
conference. This provoked Bro. Tickle to 
write in the next edition of his paper as 
follows: 

"When we presented our paper on "The 
Eldership' to the Annual Meeting we did not 
expect, and had no desire that it should 
escape the sifting of a full and fair criticism, 
We know that it is only by such means that 
the question can be lifted out of the ruts 
which a superficial exegesis has sunk for it, 
and be made to move forward on broad apos- 
tolic lines. That the Editor of the Ecclesias- 
tical Observer should allow the whole of our 
positions, some of them so widely divergent 
from those he has accepted so many years as 
unassailable, to pass unchallenged, was not 
at all to be expected. We have felt, therefore, 
no surprise either as to the points of his 
attack, or to the manner in which the attack 
has been made, but we are bound to say we 
have never known the Editor so rash and 
heedless as he has shown himself in this 
critique on our paper." 

After another rebuttal by Bro. King, the 
controversy was suspended by Bro. Tickle 
in these words: 

"We do not think it would be profitable to 
enter into further controversy on this subject. 
D. K. intimates that he is not satisfied with 
the reply in our last issue. We were not 
altogether satisfied with his attack and are 
not at all satisfied with his rejoinder. If we 
answered in the same vein, we are sure dis- 
satisfaction would be increased on both sides. 
So we prefer to let the matter rest where it is, 
in the hope that the brethren may be en- 
abled to look away from the men and their 



289 



little contention to the question in its differ- 
ent phases and on its merits, carefully weigh- 
ing all that has been advanced in the way of 
argument in the balances of truth and right 
reason." 

Interest in the issue has been height- 
ened in some sections of the disciple 
brotherhood in this country in the last 
two years. A Pennsylvania reader posed 
the following question to a fellow editor: 

"If a man has all the qualifications to be 
an elder except that he has no children, his 
wife being childless and thus he has no chil- 
dren through no fault of his own, would that 
in itself bar him forever to serve as elder?" 

The reply as published went far beyond 
the original question, for it would appear 
that the querist assumed that an elder 
must be married. But the editor re- 
sponded in these words: 

"If brethren generally will be gracious 
enough not to hang me on Haman's gallows, 
I would like to say that I think we have 
stretched the domestic qualifications for 
bishops out of proportions. Paul's stipulations 
to Timothy and Titus deal with a 'normal' 
situation, and normally men old enough to be 
bishops are married and have children. But 
does Paul draw the line on bachelors or child- 
less married men? I think not. Our straight- 
laced interpretations would bar even Paul 
himself from being an elder. The 'husband 
of one wife' qualification literally means 'a 
one-woman man,' which is likely a moral re- 
striction against polygamy. Most all scholars 
take this view, if that means anything. The 
'Church of Christ' stands almost alone in its 
idea that bishops must be married men, an 
interpretation that is linguistically weak. 
With such a liberal view I would, of course, 
say No to the above question. I am always 
amazed at brethren who think a man must 
be a husband and father in order to oversee 
a church, and yet believe that an evangelist 
who sets the church in order and trains men 
to be bishops can be either single or child- 
less." 

I was not disturbed by this reply. But 
I must admit that I was amazed at the 
reaction of many. They actually became 
emotionally upset and agitated. Instead 
of bringing forward proof to sustain their 
position and to show any fallacy in the 
reasoning of the editor, they began to 
whisper that he was unsound and unsafe. 
Some quit taking his paper on the ground 
that they did not want to read anything 
which disagreed with their position. My 
attitude is just the opposite of that. I 
have long ago determined that I do not 



learn by reading after those in perfect 
agreement with me. Those who are not, 
present things to challenge my thinking. 
They force me to re-evaluate my convic- 
tions. I am thus made to test all things 
so that I may retain what is good. Ac- 
cordingly, when I read such an article I 
invariably follow a three-point program. 
First, I read it over very carefully to ascer- 
tain just what the author intends to con- 
vey; secondly, I examine such proofs as 
he presents by the proper criterion; 
thirdly, I formulate my own convictions 
in the light of my personal investigation. 

For several months in Mission Mes- 
senger I have been conducting a survey 
of the eldership. Having considered the 
moral qualifications of the presbyters, I 
have arrived at the place where I must 
deal with the domestic requirements. The 
first question is . whether or not a man 
must be married to qualify.. Strictly speak- 
ing, the question is what Paul intended to 
convey in the expression "mias gunaikos 
andra." That is what should concern us. 
We ought not to be interested primarily, 
in whether these words confirm a quali- 
fication we have set up. We must seek to 
find what qualification they set up. Since 
I am dealing at such length with an 
issue which may appear to my readers to 
be of minor importance, I offer as justifi- 
cation the fact that I am of the sober 
opinion that we can never restore the 
church of God to its ancient order with- 
out restoring the polity ordained by the 
holy apostles. Any matter related to the 
government of the congregation of saints 
is important. This particular one has 
taken on added importance at this time. 

I am deeply indebted to, and apprecia- 
tive of, the great scholars who have done 
so much in clearing the ground for those 
of us possessed of humbler intellects. I 
doubt that any person now living has a 
more profound respect for scholarship 
than the writer. Yet, I recognize that the 
mere fact that the "Church of Christ" 
stands almost alone in its idea that 
bishops must be married men, is not in 
itself, proof of either correctness or error 
in thinking. I shall seek to be objective 
and not concerned with the idea of any 



290 



"church." What did the inspired envoy 
of the Lord say, and what did he mean? 
"Mias gunaikos andra." In generations 
past men of great learning have held con- 
flicting views. These words have been 
said to have the following connotations: 

1. To forbid concubinage. 

2. To forbid polygamy. 

3. To forbid remarriage fter divorce, 

4. To forbid digamy, or deuterogamy (a 
second marriage after the death of the 
mate), 

5. To demand that elders be married 
men. 

At the outset, it must be admitted that 
most all scholars positively reject the last 
as being a proper interpretation. There 
are some notable exceptions to which we 
will later call attention. But it is likewise 
true that a careful poll of the same schol- 
ars may prove that a majority of them 
reject the idea that Paul was opposing 
polygamy by his statement. They believe 
rather that he was opposing deuterogamy, 
that is, a second marriage after death of 
a companion. 

Goodspeed translates: "Only once mar- 
ried." James Moffatt: "He must be mar- 
ried only once." The Berkeley Version: 
"One wife's husband," with an added 
footnote: "If married at all." The New 
Testament in Plain English has "Married 
only once." The Revised Standard Ver- 
sion reads: "Married only once," with the 
footnote: "Greek the husband of one 
wife." 

On the original language itself, Ken- 
neth S. Wuest, in his book on The Pas- 
toral Epistles has this to say: 

"The two nouns are without the definite 
article, which construction indicates character 
or nature. The entire context is one in which 
the character of the bishop is being discussed. 
Thus one can translate 'a one-wife sort of 
husband' or 'a one-woman sort of man.' We 
speak of the Airedale as a one-man dog. We 
mean, by that, that it is his nature to become 
attached to only one man, his master. Since 
character is emphasized by the Greek con- 
struction, the bishop should be a man who 
loves only one woman as his wife. It should 
be his nature to thus isolate and centralize 
his love." 

Edmund J. Wolff, D.D., Professor of 
Church History and New Testament Ex- 



egesis in the Theological Seminary, 
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, says: 

"Public sentiment at the time looked with 
disfavor upon the contraction of marriage 
after the death of one's consort. It was held 
to be unseemly, if not immoral. To forego a 
second wedlock was regarded as a mark of 
high moral strictness. Even the heathen 
deemed it unbecoming for a widow, It, there- 
fore, behooved one about to step on the high 
pedestal of pastoral oversight to conform to 
public sentiment — as long as it was not sin- 
ful, and to set an example of self-restraint." 

Henry Alford, D.D., one time Dean of 
Canterbury, concurs in this view as 
shown by his statement: 

"The view then which must I think be 
adopted is that ... St. Paul forbids second 
marriage. He requires of them pre-eminent 
chastity, and abstinence from licence which is 
allowed to other Christians, How far such a 
prohibition is to be considered binding on us, 
now that the Christian life has entered into 
another and totally different phase, is of 
course an open question for the present Chris- 
tian church at any time to deal with, It must 
be as a matter of course understood that reg- 
ulations, in all lawful things, depend, even 
when made by an Apostle, on circumstances; 
and the superstitious observance of the letter 
in such cases is often pregnant with mischief 
to the people and the cause of Christ." 

The reader is no doubt familiar with 
Vincent's Word Studies in the New Tes- 
tament. In espousing the above position, 
the author says: 

"The opposition to second marriage became 
very strong in the latter part of the second 
century. It was elevated into an article of 
faith by the Montanists, and was emphasized 
by Tertullian, and by Athenagoras, who 
called second marriage 'a spurious adultery.' " 

Among the commentators who believe 
that the apostle was forbidding second 
marriages are Bloomfield, Wiesinger, Van 
Oosterzee, Huther, Ellicott, Wordsworth, 
and Faussett. There are a number of 
others who dissent from this view, among 
them H. H. Harvey, D.D., of Hamilton 
Theological Seminary, who declares: 

"It seems clear, therefore, that the disqual- 
ification here intended is not remarriage after 
the death of a wife, but polygamy, or the 
having at the same time more than one living 
wife." 

To complicate this explanation, Alfred 
Plummer, M.A., D.D., affirms that: 

"Polygamy in the Roman Empire must 
have been very rare. It was forbidden by 
Roman law, which did not allow a man to 



291 



have more than one lawful wife at a time, 
and treated every simultaneous marriage, not 
only as null arid void, but infamous. When 
it was practiced, it must have been practiced 
secretly. It is possible that when St. Paul 
wrote to Timothy and Titus, not a single 
polygamist had been converted to the Chris- 
tian faith. Polygamists were exceedingly rarii 
inside the Empire, and the Church had not 
yet spread beyond it." 

As to the rarity of polygamy in .the days 
of the apostles we have the testimony, of 
E. F. Scott, Professor of Biblical Theol- 
ogy, Union Theological Seminary, New 
York. 

"This has sometimes been taken, to imply 
that only married men were, eligible, but a 
rule of this kind Would be contrary to the 
whole passage, which deals; with character 
rather than status. Neither can it be polyg- 
amy which is forbidden, for this was never 
practiced in the civilized regions of Asia 
Minor. Perhaps Moffatt is right in translat- 
ing he must be married only once. . . . But 
perhaps the meaning is simply that a bishop 
must show an example of strict morality. As 
a man of mature years he would presumably 
be married, and in the married relation, above 
all others, he must be above reproach.". 

Edward, Hayes Plumptree, D.D., Pro- 
fessor in King's College, London,, sug- 
gests another alternative: 
■ "A third explanation is, perhaps, more 
satisfactory. The most prominent fact in the 
social life of both; Jews and Greeks at this 
period was the frequency of divorce. This, as 
we know, Jewish teachers, for the most part, 
sanctioned on even trifling grounds (Matt. 5: 
31, 32; 19:3-9). The apostle, taking up the 
law which Christ had laid down, infers that 
any breach of that law (even in : the case 
which made marriage after divorce just per- 
missible) would at least so far diminish' a 
man's claim to respect as to disqualify , him 
for office." 

Walter Lock, D.D., in The Interna- 
tional Critical Commentary, reaches 
about the same conclusion: 

"To be unmarried would incur no re- 
proach: such a requirement (marriage) Would 
be scarcely consistent with the teaching of 
our Lord (Matt. 19: 12) and of St. . Paul 
(1 Cor. 7:7, 8); so the writer is only think- 
ing of the character of a bishop, if married; 
as in verse 4 he deals only with his children, 
if he has children. ... It also implies, and 
was probably meant to imply, not divorcing 
one wife and marrying another," 

Paul E. Kretzmann, Ph.D., D.D., in 
Popular Commentary of the Bible, offers 
the following: 

"That a pastor lead a chaste and decent 



life, confining his attentions to his wife, if 
he have one, as he normally, will, not Hying, 
in concubinage or bigamy, or rejecting a wo- 
man to whom, he is lawfully betrothed for 
another." 

• N. J. D. White, D.D;, in The Exposi- 
tor's Greek Testament sets forth the view: 
"It does not mean that the episcopus must 
be, or have been married. What is here for- 
bidden is digamy under arly circumstances." 

Nothing is more apparent to the re- 
searchist than the wide ared of disagree- 
ment among the scholars. THey are riot 
agreed upon what the apostle meant. 
They are not even agreed upon what he 
did not mean. It is true that a majority 
take the position that Paul did not intend 
to set up the 1 married state as requisite to 
office^ .On- this point, we quote: from 
R. C. H. Lenski, who says: 

"The emphasis is on one wife's husband, 
and the sense is that he have nothing .to do 
with any other woman. He must be a man 
who cannot be taken hold of on the score of 
sexual promiscuity or laxity. ■ Ii" 'is plain that 
Paul does not say here that none but married 
men. may enter the ministry, that every pas- 
tor must be married." 

John Peter Lange, in his comments 
upon the passages under consideration, 
says: . - 

"The. view that Paul speaks here only of 
the married state, as a conditio sine qua rwn 
for, the episcopoi, or that he merely discour- 
ages! anything unusual, immoral,! or .illegal in 
the married life of such officers, does not fully 
explain his language." . ' 

. Scott's , Bible agree with the , thought 
expressed by Lange and others, with 'trie 
words: " ' ' 

"Some have inferred from this text, that 
stated pastors ought to- be married, as a pre- 
requisite to their office; but this seems to be 
a mistake of a genera! permission, connected 
with a restriction, for an , express command." 

A. S, Peake, M.A., D.D., lends the 
weight of his opinion to the same view, 
saying of the passages: ',', '' ; 

"Sometimes wrongly interpreted as' allud- 
ing to polygamy or, adultery, or of forbidding 
Celibacy." 

Professor T. Crpskery, D.D., in The 
Pulpit Commentary, also declares: : , 

"It does not necessarily compel pastors to 
marry, like the Greek church. . . . It seems to 
mean that the pastor was to be 'the husband 
of one wife,' avoiding the polygamy that 'was 
then common .among the Jews, and the sys- 
tem of divorce still so common in , that . age, 



292 



and remaining faithful to the wife of his 
choice." 

We need to be careful, lest we leave 
the impression that all of the commenta- 
tors and historians are united in the view 
that Paul did not set up marriage as a 
qualification, Carlstadt, the illustrious 
contemporary of Luther, and the fiery re- 
former, who advocated that a destructive 
process was the only method of reform, 
was a notable exception. This man, who 
was anxious to introduce into ecclesias- 
tical and civil affairs an unconditional 
adherence to the obvious and literal con- 
struction of the Scriptures, steadfastly 
contended that the bishops should be 
married men. 

Thomas M. Lindsay, D.D., Principal of 
Glasgow College, in his book, "The 
Church and The Ministry in the Early 
Centuries," says: 

"Titus is told that a presbyter or elder 
must be a man who is above suspicion, who 
is a faithful husband, and whose children are 
Christians of well-regulated lives." 

In a footnote on the same page is con- 
tained the following explanation: 

" 'A faithful husband' appears to be the 
best translation of mias gunaikos andra, one 
who acts on the principles of Christian mo- 
rality and is not led astray by the licentious 
usages of the surrounding heathenism." 

But Macknight in his work on "The 
Epistles" dissents from this view, in this 
language: 

"The direction I have been considering 
does not make it necessary, to one's being a 
bishop, that he be a married person. . . . But 
the apostle's meaning is, that if such a person 
be married, he must, as was observed above, 
have only one wife at a time." 

Albert Barnes concludes that the apos- 
tle intended to prohibit polygamy, but 
writes: 

"This need not be understood as requiring 
that a bishop should be a married man." 

In the face of all of this contradictory 
material what is the honest student to 
do? What did the apostle actually mean 
by the terms he used? It is possible we 



may not be able, at this late date, to 
definitely determine, in the absence of 
more complete testimony. Certainly we 
should not be arbitrary or dogmatic in 
our personal views. We need to proceed 
with caution and becoming humility, lest 
we advance an interpretation, then make 
of it a creed, and proceed to disfellowship 
others because they will not bow to our 
will. There is a difference between what 
the apostle said and what men think that 
he meant. 

It is an easy matter for us to ignore 
the results of research and investigation 
and cling to a traditional view without 
regard to its validity. But this is not 
an honest approach to the revealed word 
of heaven. One of our greatest difficulties 
is that, having taught a thing for so long, 
we become lifted up with pride. We feel 
that we cannot change for this would be 
an admission of error! Or, perhaps, we 
learn better, but conclude that silence is 
the better part of valor. If we remain 
still and say nothing on the issues that 
are raised, we can retain the plaudits of 
the masses; whereas, if we speak out 
boldly we may be hated and hounded as 
troublers of Israel. 

The writer does not feel that he should 
suppress his honest views in order to 
please men. In the next issue those views 
will be clearly set forth and the reasons 
given for them. Those reasons may not 
satisfy all of our readers. They may be 
deemed as insufficient to justify the con- 
clusion reached, but they will be pre- 
sented in kindness and love, and those 
who differ will not be castigated nor 
driven out by the, editor. It is our very 
fervent prayer that you shall read this 
review again very carefully and save this 
issue until the next appears. In the mean- 
time, we believe that there is one thing 
of which all may be certain, and that is 
that the enforced celibacy of the Roman 
Church is contrary to the word of God. 



In our first article on this subject, pub- 
lished in Mission Messenger last month, 
we reviewed the positions taken by vari- 
ous scholars, We urge you to read it as 



a preparation for this second article. It 
will demonstrate the great differences 
that exist as to the meaning of the lan- 
guage used by the apostle. It will also 



293 



show that only a small minority of schol- 
ars entertain the view that marriage is' 
a requisite for the* eldership. 

Those of us who. have always con- 
tended that a bishop "must be married 
should face up courageously to the diffi- 
culties which must be met in the defence 
of that position. Let me cite but a few. 
Jesus speaks with commendation of those 
who "have made themselves eunuchs for 
the sake of the kingdom of heaven" 
(Matt. 19: 12). I understand this to refer 
to those who desist from marriage to ad- 
vance the kingdom. Is it logical that one 
who deprives himself of marriage for the 
sake of the kingdom, should be deprived 
of an office or function iri that kingdom, 
on the basis that he is not married? 
Again, we learn from the scriptures that 
continency is a gift (Matt. 19: 11) and 
that, it is a special gift from God (1 Cor. 
7:7). Shall a man be barred from the 
eldership becauses he exercises this gift, 
or, if he desires the office of bishop, must 
he deny the gift of God? 

The expression "husband of one wife" 
as. relates to the bishop, is on par witfe 
the expression "wife of one husband" as 

pertains to the widow in 1 Timothy 5: 9. 
It is generally conceded, we believe,, that, 
the latter expression means that a widow 
is not to have married again after the 
death of her husband. In view of this, is. 
it not implied that Paul, instead of setting 
up marriage as a qualification, was sim- 
ply stating that no twice married man 
could qualify? If it be agreed that "hus- 
band of one wife" is a correct rendering, 
is the emphasis to be placed upon "hus- 
band" or "one." If we were laying down 
a qualification of marriage for a position, 
would we say that a man had to be the 
husband of one wife? If Paul intended 
to establish marriage as a requisite to 
office, why did he not use the word for 
"married" since he was familiar with it 
and employed it frequently? 

On the other hand, we should not feel 
that this is the only position beset with 
problems. Those who settle upon other 
meanings also have difficulties which they 
must meet. Certainly the language em- 



ployed by- the' apostle meant something, 
and it meant just one thing when written. 
It is not a fair or wise approach to say 
that it could have included a number of 
various things, for this spirit would do 
despite to. all interpretation, and it is the 
resort of shallow thinkers and surface 
reasoners who do not handle the word 
skilfully. 

In presenting my own view as to the 
question in our heading, I must admit 
that I do so with some reluctance which 
I did not feel five years ago. Always be- 
fore, when writing upon this topic, I 
have been, bold, : forward and positive. I 
merely stated my position derived from 
years of traditional teaching. It never 
occurred to me that any person would be, 
so rash as to question it. I admit that I 
did not strive to find out what the apos- 
tle meant, for I thought I: already knew. 
Now that I am again faced with the 
necessity of, declaring my thoughts I find 
myself , both humbled and. hesitant. Yet 
I cannot be true to my readers without 
expressing my feelings. 

My conclusion is that a bishop should 
be a married man. This is in opposition 
to the world's scholarship. It may seem 
presumptuous to array myself against the 
battery, of great reasoners whose opinions 
I have cited. Surely I must present the 
bases for arriving at such a conclusion. 
I know these will be. attacked and siftqd, 
and they should be. It may be proven 
that they are inadequate and insufficient 
to justify my position. I submit them in 
all honesty and sincerity. They are my 
own. I have not consulted with others 
on the matter. No one else need be 
charged with them. My only justification 
in disagreeing with the .scholars is that 
"God hath chosen the foolish to confound 
the wise," Here are the reasons which 
lead me to believe that bishops should be 
married. 

1. The primitive community of saints, 
being Jewish, was patterned after the 
synagogue in government. It is my per- 
sonal feeling that the synagogue, which 
was a spontaneous production of the 
Babylonian exile, was used of God to 



294 



cushion the shook of transition from Juda- 
ism to Christianity. This theme I hope to 
develop in a future book if God spares my 
life, At the present, it is sufficient to say 
that all scholars of note agree that the 
congregation in Jerusalem was a Mes- 
sianic synagogue, with its permanent form 
of government developing along the lines 
with which the people were familiar. Out 
of the great bulk of material before me, 
I present statements from two writers of 
note. 
The first quotation is from Arthur Pen- 

rhyn Stanley, D.D„ Dean of Westmin- 
ster, in his "Lectures on the History of 
the Jewish Church," Vol. 3, Page 409: 

"And thus, inasmuch as the synagogue ex- 
isted where the Temple was unknown, and 
remained when the Tempie fell, it followed 
that from its order and worship, and not from 
that of the Temple, were copied, if not in all 
their details, yet in the general features, the 
government, the institutions, and the devo- 
tions of those Christian communities, which 
springing directly from the Jewish, were in 
the first instance known as 'synagogues' . . , 
and afterward by the adoption of an almost 
identical word 'Ecclesia,' assembly house." 

The second quotation will be found in 
"The Temple Dictionary of the Bible" by 
W. Ewing, M.A., and J. E. H. Thomson, 
D.D., under the article "Synagogue." 

"It is not difficult to trace the foundation 
and practice of the Apostolic Church to the 
Synagogue system, and to see that we have 
nothing to do with the Temple worship, 
which was meant to be unique and to be de- 
voted to the sacrificial ritual. . . . Every de- 
tail of the Primitive Church organization is 
synagogal — the equality of elders and rulers 
(Acts 20: 17, 28), the episcopal power vested 
in the presbyters, the daily ministration 
(Acts 6: 1), the matter of collections, the use 
of the word angel (Rev. 2: 1) for the presid- 
ing elder, and the general order of Christian 
worship: all are synagogal and presbyterian." 

It should not be necessary to tell the 
serious student that the last word in the 
quotation has no reference to a denomi- 
nation in the Protestant world, but to a 
form of government. 

The Jewish disciples were familiar with 
the rule of elders in the synagogue. (See 
Mission Messenger, June 1957, page 8). 
It is conceivable that when the apostles 
visited a synagogue and reasoned from 
the Jewish Scriptures, proving that Jesus 



of Nazareth was the Messiah, the entire 
synagogue might be converted, in which 
case there would be no necessity of a 
change of government, worship or pro- 
cedure, except the addition of the Lord's 
Supper. But the Jews had a high regard 
for the married state and the home. For 
that reason they taught that a priest 
should be neither unmarried or childless, 
lest he be unmerciful. 

Dr. Alfred Edersheim, D.D., Ph.D., in 
an article on "Marriage Among the He- 
brews," says: 

"Thus viewed, marriage was considered al- 
most a religious duty, that is, not from lust, 
nor for beauty, nor yet merely for wealth. 
For whatever woman was, either for good or 
bad, she was always superlatively. Stringing 
together several portions of Scripture, it was 
argued that an unmarried man was without 
any good (Gen. 2: 18), without joy (Deut. 
14:26), without blessing (Ezek, 44:30); with- 
out protection (Jer. 31:22), without peace 
(Job 5: 24) ; indeed, could not properly be 
called a man (Gen. 5:22)." 

The same writer in his "Jewish Social 
Life in the Days of Christ" has this to 
say: 

"We can understand how, before the com- 
ing of the Messiah, marriage should have been 
looked upon as of religious obligation. Many 
passages of Scripture were at least quoted in 
support of this idea. Ordinarily, a young 
man was expected to enter the wedded state 
(according to Maimonides) at the age of 
sixteen or seventeen, while the age of twenty 
:may be regarded as the utmost limit conceded, 
unless study so absorbed time and attention 
as to leave no leisure for the duties of mar- 
ried life. Still it was thought better even to 
neglect study than to remain single." 

In the same book, the author, himself 
a Jew who came to believe in the Messiah, 
has this to say about those who had 
•charge of the conduct of public worship, 
as well as of the government and disci- 
pline of the synagogues: 

"They were men learned in the law and 
of good repute, whom the popular voice desig- 
nated, but who were regularly set apart by 
''the laying on of hands,' or the 'Semichah,' 
which was done by at least three, who had 
themselves received ordination. . . . The spe- 
cial qualifications for the office of Sanhedrist, 
mentioned in the Rabbinical writings, are 
such as to remind us of the directions of St, 
Paul to Timothy (1 Tim. 3:1-10)." 

Our next authority is C. D. Ginsburg, 



295 



LL.D., who writes in "Early Attendance 
at the Sanctuary" as follows: 

"It was deemed most desirable that he who 
acts as the mouthpiece of the people should 
be able to sympathize with the wants of the 
people, and should possess those moral and 
mental qualifications which became so holy 
a mission. The canon law, therefore, laid it 
down that 'even if an elder or sage is present 
in the congregation, he is not to be asked to 
officiate before the ark; but that man is to be 
delegated to officiate who has children, whose 
family are free from vice, who has a proper 
beard, whose garments are decent, who is 
acceptable to the people, and who has a good 
and amiable voice, who understands to read 
properly the Law, the Prophets, and the 
Hagiographa, and who knows all the bene- 
dictions of the service' (Mishno Toanith, 
2:2). How strikingly this illustrates the 
apostolic injunction, 'A bishop must be blame- 
less, the husband of one wife, vigilant, sober, 
of good behavior, and modest . . . one that 
ruleth well his own house, having his children 
in subjection with all gravity, . . . not a 
novice, ... he must have a good report of 
them that are without' (1 Tim. 3: 1-7, with 
Titus 1:1-9)." 

It would not have been necessary to set 
forth marriage as one of the qualifications 
for the presbyters who were selected by 
the congregation at Jerusalem and ap- 
pointed to administer the affairs of the 
community of saints.' The brethren who 
constituted that community were all 
Jews. They regarded themselves as a 
synagogue of disciples of the Nazarene. 
Their superintendents and administrators 
selected by popular voice would be mar- 
ried men. And we believe that this pat- 
tern would be followed in other congre- 
gations, even those remote from Pales- 
tine. "For ye, brethren, became followers 
of the churches of God which in Judea 
are in Christ Jesus" (1 Thess. 2: 14). 

2. The whole tenor of the teaching 
seems to indicate that a presbyter will be 
a married man. It may be argued that 
a definite rule of marriage based upon the 
mere statement "mias gunaikos andros" is 
linguistically weak, but we do not think 
it will be seriously disputed that the con- 
text relates to one who is domestically 
situated as the head of a household. And 
just as a gem loses part of its luster out 
of the setting designed for it, so it is some- 
times difficult to appreciate fully a pas- 



sage isolated from the general frame in 
which it is placed. 

Edward Hayes Plumptre, D.D., Profes- 
sor in King's College, London, has this 
to say: 

"Both this verse and verse 4 appear to take 
marriage for granted. It. is obvious that in a 
community much exposed to the suspicions br 
the slanders of the heathen, this would be a 
safeguard against many of the perils to which 
a celibate clergy have always been exposed." 

Much along the same vein is the state- 
ment of J. R. Dummelow, M.A., Queen's 
College, Oxford, who says the expression 
probably means that a presbyter must be 
faithful to his wife, "a man of one wo- 
man." He adds, "In any case the pres- 
byter or bishop is, contemplated as a mar- 
ried man." 

3. The Holy Spirit presents an analogy 
in which the home, or household, sus- 
tains a relation to the congregation of 
God, and it is in ruling the first that one 
demonstrates his ability to govern the 
second. A presbyter must "rule well his 
own house." He must have "his children 
in subjection with all gravity." The pur- 
pose of this qualification is not to deter- 
mine his ability to beget offspring but to 
afford a demonstration of his ability to 
govern them. The argument is that "If 
he know not how to rule his own house 
how shall he take care of the church of 
God?" The word for house is oikos "the 
inmates of a house, all the persons form- 
ing one family, a household." A part of 
this family are children. In ruling them, 
the candidate for the eldership shows his 
ability to govern. If he is not married 
and has no children how can he' demon- 
strate this ability? How can the congre- 
gation know he will be able to take care 
of the church of God if they have never 
seen a demonstration of his ability in a 
household? Can a congregation select a 
man to govern the church of God who 
has not demonstrated ability to rule his 
own house, including his children? 

But what about the argument that by 
setting up marriage as a qualification, 
Paul would render himself, Barnabas, 
and Timothy, disqualified for the office? 
We propose to allow David King to an- 
swer this. 



296 



"We consider that either polygamy or 
celibacy disqualifies for the eldership, It has 
been urged that celibacy cannot do so, as, in 
that case, Paul and Timothy would have 
been disqualified; certainly they would, and 
there is no evidence they were not. No one 
can produce proof that they were qualified for 
the elder's office, and nowhere are we taught 
that the qualifications for an apostle, an evan- 
gelist, and an elder are the same. On the 
point now immediately under notice, nothing 
could be more fitting than that apostles and 
evangelists, whose work largely required them 
to move from place to place, and generally 
rendered impossible a settled home, should be 
unmarried; while on the other hand, nothing 
is more seemly and desirable than that over- 
seers in one church, whose duties require 
settled residence and involve frequent inter- 
position between husband and wife, parents 
and children, should themselves be married 
men, who have given evidence that they un- 
derstand and rightfully deport themselves in 
that relationship. No one can fail to see 
that such, other circumstances being equal, 
could not but present a fitness for the office 
which the unmarried are without. This is our 
conclusion after years of thoughtful investi- 
gation, and after reading, perhaps, all that 
can be said on either side." 

What should be our attitude toward 
brethren who honestly differ from us and 
who think that we make a rigid interpre- 
tation without proper justification? Here 
is how Brother King resolved that issue. 

"Still the fact remains, that thoughtful, 
learned, pious brethren conclude that it is 
not certain that the intention is wider than 
the exclusion of the polygamist, and, there- 
fore, they decline to reject an unmarried man 
who is, in all other respects, qualified. Now, 
we are not prepared to say that these breth- 
ren must of necessity be wrong. That they 
are wrong we have little or no doubt, but the 
impossibility of their being right is not here 
affirmed. How then shall the difficulty be 
met? Each church must meet it for itself, 
and the understanding of the majority must 
prevail. Not- that the church shall decree 
what the interpretation shall be; but that 
each member determine for himself, whether 
the person, or persons, named has, or have, 
the required qualifications; each to determine 
this according to his own understanding of 
the terms, and the declared will of the ma- 
jority must be taken as the church-recogni- 
tion or non-recognition of the fitness of the 
men submitted for their judgment. But just 
here comes in an important consideration, 
which to some extent should influence the 
decision. There is perfectly safe and certain 
ground. If only those are ordained who pos- 
sess the other qualifications and who also are 
married, everyone will know that the re- 



quirements are fully met. Thus perfectly safe 
and reliable ground invites to occupation," 

What course shall I pursue personally? 
Since starting this series I have learned 
of a group of brethren in another part of 
the world who do not consider marriage 
as a necessary qualification. They will 
not reject a man who is otherwise quali- 
fied but has never married. Suppose I 
should visit them and labor among them, 
as I have been invited to do. Would I 
seek to divide them over this issue? In- 
deed I would notl If asked to explain my 
position I would offer my interpretation 
in meekness and humility. I would avoid 
becoming dogmatic or arbitrary. I would 
not tell them that I could not worship 
with them, nor serve under an eldership, 
with one or more constituents unmarried. 
I could not conscientiously appoint such 
a brother to office with my present atti- 
tude, but I would not make an unwritten 
creed of my interpretation and divide 
brethren into "a married elder faction," 
and "an unmarried elder faction." If I 
have not grown much in knowledge in 

recent years I trust that I have at least 
grown in grace. 

To any of my brethren, at home or 
abroad; to those who fellowship me and 
those who do not; I would like to say 
that I will be pleased to read anything 
you have to say on this issue which may 
help to throw additional light on the 
matter. I do not solicit your personal 
opinions, for I have more of my own than 
I know what to do with. But if there is 
some scripture I have overlooked, or some 
point of logic or reasoning I have failed 
to see, you will be my friend if you point 
out my shortcoming, and call my mis- 
takes to my attention. I want to be right 
above all things else. I am willing to 
learn from any person who can teach me. 

God willing, I shall deal with the ques- 
tions concerning the children of bishops 
in my next issue. I trust that you will 
look forward to that, and that God may 
bless us all with a deeper insight into 
His revelation of truth. 



297 



ELDERS AND CHILDREN 



The question of whether or not elders 
must have children in order to qualify has 
long been discussed. The editor humbly 
submits his views on this issue in the 
form of questions and answers. 

1. Is it your position that a man must 
be married to qualify as an elder? 

Yes, and I gave my reasons for so think- 
ing in the November edition of this paper. 
I admit there are difficulties presented by 
this position, but it seems to fulfill the 
requirements better than any other. Those 
who desire to study the opposite view, 
and all should do so, may see it set forth 
by Bro. Ralph Graham, in Bible Talk. 

2. Do you think that an elder must 
have children? 

Yes, I do, because he is contemplated 
as the head of a family, or household, 
and he must demonstrate his ability to 
take care of the church of God by ruling 
his own family well (1 Tim. 3:5). In 
connection therewith, it is said he must 
have his children in subjection with all 
gravity. 

3. Does the term children imply a 
plurality, or could a man with one child 
serve, if he possesses the other qualifica- 
tions? 

The word "children" does not necessi- 
tate a plurality. It is used in its common 
application, and neither legally, nat- 
urally, or in the Old and New Testaments 
does it convey the idea of a compulsory 
plurality. 

4. Can you illustrate what you mean 
by "legally" and "naturally"? 

Yes. In this state, there is a law which 
stipulates that "All parents having chil- 
dren under the age of sixteen years must 
enroll them in school." Could parents 
having only one child evade that law? 
Indeed not! 

In normal conversation we use the term 
"children" in the same fashion. If the 
Parent-Teachers Association invites to a 



meeting all parents who have children 
enrolled in the school, it certainly would 
not be limited to those who had two or 
more in school. 

5. Give us examples in the Old and 
New Testaments to illustrate your view. 

A good case in point is that of Sarah, 
at the birth of Isaac. "And she said, Who 
would have said unto Abraham, that 
Sarah should have given children suck? 
for I have born him a son in his old 
age" (Gen. 21:7). Here the term "chil- 
dren" is certainly equivalent to "a son." 

In 1 Timothy 5: 4 "any widow who has 
children" is to be supported by them. 
This certainly would not eliminate one 
son or daughter from any obligation, for 
that would contradict verses 8 and 16 
where the singular is employed. Such ex- 
amples could be multiplied far beyond 
our space to accommodate them. 

6. If a couple having no children of 
their own, adopt children, would this 
satisfy the requirements? 

Certainly it would. The qualification 
is not based upon a man's physical abil- 
ity to beget offspring, but upon his abil- 
ity to rule or govern the family circle. A 
wife might be sterile even though her 
husband was not. If a couple adopts chil- 
dren and they demonstrate ability to rear 
them in subjection, the qualification is 
met. 

7. Then why could not a man qualify 
by teaching public school and govern- 
ing children? 

Because the relationship sustained in a 
school is different than that in a home, 
and the government of a congregation is 
analogous to that of a home. There is 
more to "ruling a household" than main- 
taining youngsters in subjection. That is 
but one phase of it. An elder will be 
called upon to counsel and advise in do- 
mestic difficulties involving husbands and 



298 



wives, parents and children, employers 
and employees, etc. It is to qualify him 
to deal objectively with all such cases 
that he must be the head of a household 
so he may know "how to care for the 
church of God." 

8. Do the scriptures teach that an 
elder's children must be members of 
the church, in order for him to qualify? 

I do not think so. I believe that the 
statement "having faithful children" in 
Titus 1:6, is misunderstood by a lot of 
people. Of course, I may be in error 
about it myself, but I merely give my view 
of it, after making very careful and ear- 
nest study, as objectively as I know how 
to do so. 

9. Do not most of the modern trans- 
lations imply that the expression means 
"children who are Christians"? 

Yes. Some of them even use the expres- 
sion. For instance, The Twentieth Cen- 
tury New Testament says, "Whose chil- 
dren are Christians." But this is not a 
translation. It is a commentary. It ex- 
presses what the translators thought the 
apostle meant, not what he said. There 
is no word for "Christian" in the text, 
and it is not a translation to use this word 
for the term that does appear. 

10. Does not Thayer in his lexicon say 
the term means one who has become 
convinced that Jesus is the Messiah and 
the author of salvation? 

Actually, Thayer does not say that, He 
merely translates the words of Prof. 
Grimm to that effect. Strictly speaking, 
belief in Jesus is not included in this 
word at all. It simply means "trust- 
worthy, of good fidelity," and relates to 
one who can be relied upon. There is 
not one thing in the term itself to indi- 
cate belief in any specific person, propo- 
sition or thing. 

I I. Then why did the lexicographers 
assign it a specific application? 

That is easily understood. The term 
pi'stos appears in a New Testament frame- 
work or background. In many cases, it 
has to do with a state of conviction rela- 



tive to Jesus as the Messiah, The lexi- 
cographers of New Testament usage 
would obviously slant their thinking in 
that direction in any case of question, I 
think they have done so here, They 
thought the contextual usage justified it; 
I do not think so, The term is applied 
to God, Christ, servants, stewards, and the 
word, as well as to children, 

12. Do you have some justifiable basis 
for disagreeing with these authorities? 

That all depends upon who is to be the 
judge of what constitutes a justifiable 
basis. The Bible says "Every way of a 
man is right in his own eyes," but it also 
says, "The way of a fool is right in his 
own eyes." I think that I am correct in 
my conviction that a man may be ap- 
pointed to the eldership before his chil- 
dren are old enough to accept the gospel 
and assume the responsibility of the 
Christian life. 

13. On what ground do you reach 
that conclusion? 

First, let it be remembered that the 
strict meaning of the term pistos is "trust- 
worthy, reliable," Qualifications relating 
to the children were written by the apos- 
tle to Timothy at Ephesus, and Titus at 
Crete. I do not think they differ. What- 
ever was required of children in one place 
would be required in both. If an expres- 
sion used in writing to Titus is obscure 
or ambiguous, it may be explained in the 
language to Timothy, or vice versa. The 
statement to Titus is "having faithful 
children," and to Timothy, it is, "having 
his children in subjection." I conclude, 
then, that faithful children are children 
in subjection to the will or rule of the 
father. Faithful children are those who 
are trustworthy and reliable because they 
are in subjection to paternal government. 
Paul defines what he means when he says 
"Faithful children not accused of riot or 
unruly." This is the negative attribute, 
while trustworthy is the positive. 

14. Is it not to be presumed that chil- 
dren who are reared by Christian pa- 
rents will obey the Lord when they get 
old enough? 



299 



That does not necessarily follow. God 
said, "I have nourished and brought up 
children, and they have rebelled against 
me" (Isaiah 1: 2) and I do not think that 
earthly parents are any better than God. 
The fact that God's children rebelled 
against him is no reflection against the 
way in which he nourished and brought 
them up. We need to be careful in as- 
suming that a profligate child is always 
a. reflection against the parents, lest we 
reflect against the fatherhood of, God. 

15- If a man had one or more chil- 
dren, under subjection, yet none were 
old enough to become Christians, I 
take it yog would ordain him as elder. 

Of course, that is not the only qualifi- 
cation. But if a man was fully qualified 
otherwise, and his children were under 



subjection and obedient to, his discipline, 
I would appoint him as elder, if the con- 
gregation selected him. The qualification 
is not the ability to get your children into 
the church, as desirable as that may be, 
but to govern and control the family cir- 
cle. I know a man who reared his fam- 
ily in a denominational influence, and 
they were always very close as a family. 
All became members of the denomina- 
tion. When the father was somewhat ad- 
vanced fn years, he and his Wife became 
convinced that denominationalism was 
wrong, and obeyed the pure go'sel, The 
children, all being married, would not 
leave the denomination in which they 
were reared. But this faithful, godly mail 
could qualify as a bishop over the flock 
of God.: 



300 



Extracts by FRANK HAMILTON from 

The 

BIBLE 

and 

WINE 



BY THE LATE 

FERRAR FENTON, M.R.A.S., M.C.A.A., Etc., Etc. 

(Translator of the Complete Bible into Modern English) 



301 



A. & C. Black, Ltd. 

4, 5 & 6 Soho Square, London, W. 1. 

13th July, 1938. 

Frank Hamilton, Esq., 
6701 Atlantic Avenue, 
Ventnor, N. J. 

Dear Sir: — 

We shall have no objection to your reprinting this 
as you suggest, provided that the reference to the 
Translator of the Complete Bible appears on the title- 
page as in proof which we are returning herewith. 

Yours very truly, 

A. & C. BLACK, Ltd. 
(h. a. g.) 



302 



The Bible and Wine 



"Thus saith Jehovah: As the new wine is found in the cluster, 

and one saith, Destroy it not, for a blessing is in it: 

so will J do for my servants' sake, that I may 

not destroy them all" — Isa. 65: 8. 

(See also Deut. 32: 14 end Jer. 48: 33.) 

Having now completed the examination of the Old Testa- 
ment, and its teachings upon the uses of fruits as foods or 
drinks, I proceed to do the same by a careful survey of the 
Greek text of the New Testament, and the methods in which 
the old Greek and Mediterranean nations prepared the fruit 
of the vine-plant for use in their domestic life. This latter, 
of course, can only be learned as to technical details from 
writers outside the Gospels, who treated the subject as one of 
agriculture and manufactures, but who, by living at the same 
period as the Evangelists and Apostles, were personally 
acquainted with the matter to which both refer. 



GREEK TEXTS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT 
Oinos, Oinon, Texts in Greek. 

Oinon, the Grape-tree or Vine-plant. 

Oinion, the fruit of the Vine or Grape-plant. It is also used 
to denote various kinds of drinks or confections of other suc- 
culent fruits, such as the date and lotus fruit, according to 
Liddell and Scott's Lexicon. According to Professor Samuel 
Lee, of Cambridge University, the root of the Greek word is 
undoubtedly the Hebrew vocable, Yain, Wine; which, as I have 
before shown, under the sections of my essay devoted to the 
philology of that Hebrew noun, was not confined to an intoxi- 
cating liquor made from fruits by alcoholic fermentation of 
their expressed juices, but more frequently referred to a thick, 

303 



non-intoxicating syrup, conserve, or jam, produced by boiling, 
to make them storable as articles of food, exactly as we do at 
the present day. The only difference being that we store them 
in jars, bottles, or metal cans, whilst the Ancients laid them 
up in skin bottles, as Aristotle and Pliny, and other classic 
writers upon agricultural and household affairs describe. Con- 
sequently the contention of some of my correspondents that 
the Greek oinos, always meant fermented and intoxicating 
liquor is totally inaccurate, and only arises from ignorance, or 
prejudice in favour of the delusion of the commentators of the 
Dark Ages, who fancied drunkenness was the highest delight, 
and intoxication an imperative Christian practice; because 
Mohammedan Arabians were a sober people. 

Oine, and Oinon, the Grape, or Vine-plant. Oinos, wine, or 
drink made from any fruit or grain, such as dates, apples, 
pears, barley, the lotus seed. If specially indicated as made 
from Grapes it is called Oinos 'ampelinos. 

As in the Hebrew "Yain," the word does not in Greek always 
signify fermented intoxicating drink, but grapes as fresh fruit, 
dried as raisins, or prepared as jam, or preserved by boiling for 
storage, or as thick syrup for spreading upon bread as we do 
butter; and that syrup dissolved in water for a beverage at 
meals, as described in the Hebrew Bible by Solomon and 
others, and amongst Greek writers by Aristotle, and Pliny 
amongst the Roman ones. This mixing of the syrup with 
water ready for use at meals is alluded to in more than one of 
our Lord's parables. The liquid was absolutely non-alcoholic 
and not intoxicating. Grape-juice was also prepared by heat- 
ing it, as soon as possible after it had been squeezed in the 
press,, by boiling, so as to prevent fermentation, and yet pre- 
serve its thin liquid form as a drink. To ensure this certain 
resinous gums were dissolved in the juice, or sulphate of lime, 
or what is commonly called gypsum, was put into it, as is now 
done in Spain, to make the liquid clear and bright, and per- 
vent subsequent fermentation arising from changes of atmos- 
phere. All these plans for producing a non-intoxicating wine 
are still followed extensively in every grape-growing country 
of Southern Europe and Asia, as of old. Similar wines made 
in France can now be obtained in London from Ingersoll and 
Melluish, of 10 Eastcheap, E. C. This is not a paid advertise- 

304 



ment, but noted because I believe it may benefit some readers 
to know the fact, and to support my statements in the text. 

It should never be forgotten that when reading in the Bible 
and the classic pagan writers of "Wine," we are seldom deal- 
ing with the strongly intoxicating and loaded liquids to which 
that name is alone attached in the English language, but usually 
with beverages such as above described. They were as harmless 
and sober as our own teas, coffees, and cocoas. Had they 
not been so, the ancient populations would have been per- 
petually in a more or less pronounced state of drunkenness, 
for they had none of our above-noted herb-made drinks to use 
as a part of their dietary. These facts should never be for- 
gotten when we read of "wine" there, — for it was simple fruit 
syrup, except where especially stated to be of the intoxicating 
kinds, which latter the Prophets and Legislators always con- 
demn. 

Leaving further exposition, I now turn to the New Testa- 
ment. 

REFERENCE IN ST. MATTHEW 

St. Matthew 9: 17: "Neither do they pour new wine (fresh 
grape-juice) into old wine-skins; for if they did, the skins 
would burst, and the wine (grape-juice) be spilt, and the skins 
destroyed. On the contrary, they pour fresh juice into new 
skins, and both are safe together." 

Only a determination to misread this metaphorical illustra- 
tion of the subject which Jesus was discussing with the dis- 
ciples of John, can pervert this passage into a recommendation 
or sanction for habitual use of intoxicating liquors. That the 
oinon, that is "fresh grape-juice" (if literally translated), 
referred to had not been fermented to the still liquid form is 
clear, for if it had been so it would not "burst the old wine 
skins" by beginning to ferment in them on account of the 
yeast or acid with which the old skins were saturated, setting 
up the alcoholic action. To keep the juice of the grapes sweet 
and wholesome it needed to be specially prepared before being 
poured into new sweet skins, when it would keep pure and 
benefit men as an article of diet, as His auditors knew well, as 
a syrup or jam, such as the ancient writers upon agriculture 
and domestic economy inform us were in common daily use. 

305 



Jesus wished to show John's disciples that before He could 
form an Organization or Church to be the instrument of con- 
tinuing His doctrines, He had to prepare His disciples by a 
course of mental education to receive His spiritual teaching, 
Ireed from the "dead rituals" of the Sadducean priesthood of 
Jerusalem, and then inspire them with a newly-created Organ- 
ization to preserve and serve out the Gospel doctrines to man- 
kind. 

The interpretation put upon His parable by the ignorant 
commentators of the Dark Ages, that He was insisting upon 
the drinking of intoxicants, is little short of blasphemy, and it 
is a disgrace to our better informed age that writers should 
Say that "Christianity has given a sacred character to wine 
and its Use," as some I have read declare, "in opposition to the 
Mohammedan condemnation of it." By "wine" this writer 
clearly says he meant alcoholic liquor. 

REFERENCES IN ST. MARK 

St. Mark 2 : 22 : "Nobody pours new wine into old wine- 
skins; but if done, then the new wine (that is, the fresh un- 
prepared grape-juice) would burst the skins, and both the 
Wine and the skins would be wasted. On the contrary, new 
wine must be put into new skins." 

To this passage my preceding comment will apply; but the 
following citation will demand a special consideration from 
both myself and readers, for it has been curiously distorted 
by commentators from its true bearing. It is — 

St. Mark 15: 20-24: "And when they had insulted Him they 
took off from Him the purple robe, and clad Him in His own 
attire, and led Him out for crucifixion. Then they seized a 
passerrby, who was coming up from the country — Simon the 
Cyrenian, the father of Alexander and Rufus — forcing him to 
accompany them, to carry the cross, and took Him to Golgotha 
(which means Skull-field), where they offered Him wine medi- 
cated with myrrh: but He refused to drink it. There they 
crucified Him,; and divided His clothing among themselves, 
casting lots as to what part each should take." 

The question suggested in the above, to which no one seems 
to have found an answer, is: Why did Jesus refuse to drink 

306 



the wine, medicated with a narcotic by the Centurion, out of 
a feeling of mercy to the victim, whom he knew had been un- 
justly condemned to death upon a false accusation, and that 
Pilate had been driven to condemn him by terror for his own 
personal safety, after the Sadducean priests had threatened to 
accuse him to the Emperor at Rome as a confederate with 
Christ to incite a revolt of the Jews against the Empire, unless 
he did hand Jesus over to their will to be crucified? This nar- 
cotized liquor does not seem to have been offered to the two 
robbers who had been convicted of real crime, and therefore 
we must conclude, as I have done, that it was an act of mercy 
from the Centurion who commanded the detachment of sol- 
diers, specially to Jesus. Then why should Christ not have 
drank it? He would know the kindness of heart of the soldier, 
and the nobility of soul that inspired the feeling of mercy, 
Then why did He not accept the act of mercy? 

"Oh!" is the only answer I have ever read, or heard spoken, 
"Our Saviour refused the narcotic wine because He did not 
wish to diminish in the slightest degree the cruel tortures of 
the death He was about to suffer for mankind!" 

As to the bodily torments, He was only to suffer the same 
as the two miserable robbers, His companions in the method 
of death. Consequently there must have been a far more 
powerful reason for His refusal than that commonly given. 
What was it? 

Was it not the following? — Upon that day Jesus the Messiah 
had entered upon His office of the Eternal High Priest of Man- 
kind, and was about to sacrifice the Paschal Lamb, His earthly 
body, upon the cross. St. Paul, commenting upon the fact, 
wrote: "Do you not know that a little ferment ferments the 
whole mass? Clean out the old ferment, so that you may 
be a sweet mass, and thus you will be unfermented. For Christ, 
our Passover, was sacrificed for us, so that we might keep a 
Festival, not with an old ferment, neither in a ferment of filth 
and wickedness, but, on the contrary, with unfermented purity 
and truth" (1 Cor. 5: 6-8). By this we can perceive that the 
Crucifixion not only occurred during the Passover week, but 
was done by Christ "offering Himself," that is, His body upon 
the cross at the Passover to free mankind from sin, but He 

307 



was also spiritually the High Priest fulfilling the duties of 
His office of Sacrifice (Heb. 10:22-28). 

As the officiating High Priest was, by the Law given through 
Moses, prohibited from "drinking intoxicating wine" during 
the period of his ministration, before entering the Sanctuary, 
or whilst engaged in its duties, to refresh my reader's memory 
I give the whole passage from Leviticus, chap. 10, vers. 8-11. 

"Then Moses spoke to Aaron and commanded: 'You or your 
sons with you shall not drink Of wine or an intoxicant when 
you are going to the Sanctuary, so that you may not die. This 
is an everlasting institution for your posterity. 

" 'For you shall distinguish between the sacred and the 
common, and between sin and purity, so that you may teach 
the sons of Israel'." 

These Divine Laws, and the statements of the Apostles, 
show why Jesus refused to drink of the drugged wine offered 
to Him by the pagan but merciful Centurion, or by his order; 
the wine was the ration liquor served out to the Roman sol- 
diery as part of their dietary, and was fermented as well as 
drugged, and so was an intoxicant, and forbidden to Christ as 
our High Priest, and also as an Israelite humanly; and the 
whole nation was also prohibited during the seven days' Prep- 
aration for the Passover from having any fermented thing in 
their dwellings or to drink fermented liquors,— and Jesus came 
to "fulfil the whole law." He obeyed it absolutely, and re- 
fused both as Priest and as an Israelite to drink the intoxicant 
offered to Him. He did not abstain with the object of securing 
to Himself the utmost of bodily agony; nor is any such motive 
suggested in the Gospels. As a further illustration of the 
continuous force of this command in regard to the ministering 
priesthood from the Hebrew Church of God to the Christian 
one, I now subjoin the striking passage from St. Luke's Gospel 
in chap. 1, vers. 11-16 :— 

REFERENCES IN ST. LUKE 

"Then a messenger of the Lord appeared, standing at the 
right of the altar of incense. And on seeing him, Zacharias 
was struck with awe, and gave way to fear. 

308 



" 'Fear not, Zacharias, said the messenger, addressing him, 
'for your supplications have been heard, and your wife Eliza- 
beth will give birth to a son for you, and you shall give him the 
name of John. He will be a joy and delight to you, and many 
will exult at his birth, for he shall be distinguished in the pres- 
ence of the Lord, and shall drink no wine or strong drink,* 
But he shall be full of the spirit of holiness, even from his 
birth, and shall turn many of the sons of Israel back to the 
Lord their God, and will advance in His presence in the spirit 
and power of Elijah'." 

Upon the above no comment is needed. 

Luke 5:37: "No one pours new (that is, fresh grape- juice) 
wine into old wine-skins; for if he did the new wine would 
burst the skins and the wine be spilt, and the skins destroyed. 
On the contrary, new juice must be stored in fresh wine-skins, 
and both will be preserved." 

This may seem in contradiction of the foregoing, but that 
it is not the reader can ascertain if he turns to my exposition 
of the equivalent text of Matthew's Gospel, chap. 9, ver. 17, 
upon page 5 of this essay. 

Luke 7:33: "To what, therefore,' He added, 'shall I liken 
the men of this generation? They are like children sitting in 
a market-place, and shouting out to one another, 

"We piped to you, and you did not dance; — 
We wailed, and you did not weep!" 

For John the Baptizer came neither eating bread nor drinking 
wine; and you say, "A demon possesses him!" The Son of 
Man comes eating and drinking; and you say, "Look at Him! 
— an eater and drinker of wine, — a friend of taxgatherers and 
profligates!" Wisdom, however, will be justified by all her 
children'." 

In this striking passage from the Gospel there is not the 
slightest encouragement for the habitual use of intoxicants of 
any kind, by whatever name they may be called. The whole 
force of the reproof of our Lord to the men of His day lay 
in the falsehood of the statements of His and John's critics. 

*See Num. 4:2-4. 

309 



That is, that the charge against John, the Nazarite, was a 
lie, and the libel against Jesus was also a lie, both invented by 
malicious adversaries, because the two inspired teachers de- 
nounced the hypocrisy and vices of that age, and of all suc- 
ceeding ones. Only a perverse effort to justify themselves in 
drunkenness could ever have made commentators distort the 
narrative into a command to Christians to drink alcoholic 
liquors as a sacred duty, and to impose them upon all the con- 
verts they make from amongst hereditarily sober nations or 
tribes. 

Luke 10:29-37: "A lawyer . . asked . . 'Who is my neighbor?' 

"Jesus in reply to him said, 'There was a man who, on going 
down from Jerusalem to Jericho, fell among robbers, who both 
stripped and wounded him, and went away, leaving him half 
dead. 

" 'It happened also that a priest was going down the same 
road, but seeing him, he passed on the other side. And in the 
same way a Levite also, when he got to the same place, looked 
at him and passed along. But a certain Samaritan on a jour- 
ney came to where he was, and seeing him, took pity, and 
went to him and dressed his wounds, making use of oil and 
wine. Then, setting him upon his own beast, he conveyed 
him to an inn, and took care of him. And as he was leaving 
the following day, he threw down two denarii, and said to 
the host, "Attend to him; and whatever more you spend I 
will repay you upon my return." Which, therefore, of these 
three do you think proved a neighbor to him who fell amongst 
the thieves?' 

" 'He who pitied him,' was the reply. 

"Jesus then said, 'Go you and do the same'." 

Wine is certainly mentioned in this beautiful illustration of 
what constitutes true humanity and neighborly kindness, but 
there is not in it any command to drink intoxicants, or state- 
ment that the 'wine' used with the oil . to prevent inflamma- 
tion of the wounds was a fermented alcoholic liquor. There- 
fore it cannot justify missionaries in teaching the converts they 
make from the habitually sober Mohammedan and Hindu 
peoples, or from barbarous tribes in Africa or elsewhere, that 
the Christian Faith demands they should, as one of the first 



310 



acts to prove their adoption of it, drink intoxicating wine in 
its most sacred rite of the Holy Sacrament, and to habitually 
do so in domestic life to show they are not influenced by their 
former religions, with the result always following, according 
to very wide testimony, that those converts become, as did 
the converts of those ardent missionaries who of old "crossed 
sea and desert to make even one proselyte," and by the exam- 
ple of their personal vices made the convert a double "child 
of Hell" to what he had been as a heathen, instead of becoming 
a son of God. To justify my comment, the reader (and the 
missionary) have only to read the history of the extermination 
of the New Zealanders, the Sandwich Islanders, and the Fijians 
under the curse of intoxicants, and fornication, its attendant, 
within thirty to fifty years after their profession of the Chris- 
tian religion. These are facts, not wild assertions, and it is 
shameful that our missionaries should shut their eyes to the 
terrible history, and refuse, when their attention is directed 
to it, to inquire into the cause. 

REFERENCES IN ST. JOHN 

St. John 2: 1-10: "There was a marriage at Cana in Galilee; 
and the mother of Jesus was present; and Jesus was invited 
to the marriage with His disciples. And when the wine ran 
short, Jesus was spoken to by His mother, who said to Him: — 

" 'They have no more wine.' 

"Jesus said to her in reply : — 

" 'What is that to you and Me, mother? Has not My time 
yet come?' 

"His mother then said to the attendants, 'Whatever He bids 
you, let it be done.' 

"Now, there were standing there, for the Jewish purifications, 
six stone water- jars, holding from two to three firkins. 

"Jesus said to them, 'Fill the jars with water.' 

"They accordingly filled them to the brim. He then said to 
them, — 

311 



"Now draw out, arid take to the master of the feast. 

"They accordingly did so. And when the master of the 
festival had tasted the water which had become wine — (not 
knowing where it came from, although the servants who had 
drawn the water knew)— he called the bridegroom, and said 
to him:— 'A man usually serves out the best wine at the be- 
ginning, reserving the inferior until the. guests have tasted, but 
you have kept the best wine until now'." 

Probably the above is one of the most misunderstood, and 
misrepresented passages in the whole of the Gospels. 

The misunderstanding has arisen from imposing upon the 
ancient Greek text, and ancient Jewish habits of food and 
drink, entirely the modern and Northern European conception, 
that the word "wine" always means intoxicating liquor. 
Amongst the old Orientals and the Romans, such an idea was 
not attached to "wine" as a universal conception. On the 
contrary, their "best wines" were not fermented at all, as I 
have shown from the Old Testament above, and will now go 
on to do with Roman classical writers. 

The ordinary drink of the Romans, learned writers tell us, 
was juice of the grape, which they mixed with water, both hot 
and cold— (the same as the "mingled" or "mixed" Wine of 
Solomon, and the parable of Jesus about the royal feast at 
the King's son's marriage), and sometimes with spices. Fer- 
mented wine was rare in early Roman times; was. only used 
as an act of worship in the temples, and men under thirty 
years of age, and women all their lives, were forbidden to use 
it, except at the sacrifices. 3 

Fresh grape- juice was called mustum, and to make it keep 
without, fermentation it was boiled until it became thick, like 
our treacle, or molasses, and in that state was named defrutum, 
that is, "made from fruit," and stored away in large jars for 
future use, to be eaten spread upon bread, as we do butter or 
treacle, or mixed and stirred up in. water, as we do sugar in 
tea, to make a drink, as stated above. The Greek scientist, 
Aristotle, says that by keeping for a time in the skins or jars, 

3 Valerius Maximus, Book ii. 1, 5; vi. 3; Aulus Gellius, Book x. 23; 
Pliny xiv. 13. 

312 



it became as thick as butter, and had to be cut out by spoons. 
The Roman writer, Pliny, records that when the grape-juice 
was boiled down to one-third of its bulk, to secure the finest 
flavor,— that is, to be made into the "best wine,"' — it was 
called sapa, from which word comes our vocables, "sapid," 
well-flavored, and "savory," delicious in taste.* 

To give variety of flavor, herbs and spices were often boiled 
in the juice during its preparation. 

Such was the "best wine" of the Ancients, the sweetest and 
nicest flavored to the taste, — not as we imagine and mean, the 
most intoxicating, when we speak of "best wine." 

It is practically certain that the "wine" created by Christ 
at Cana was of the non-intoxicating kind, which, as I have 
shown by the references to them, the ancient writers upon 
agriculture and domestic economy say was, "the ordinary 
drink of the people" in daily life. The knowledge of tha't 
fact disposes of the argument I have heard even good ministers 
of religion found upon the narrative, asserting that the guests 
were all drunk before the miraculous wine was produced, and 
therefore that Jesus decided to make them more so, to show 
His disciples and the people the sacred nature of intoxicants. 

I am not exaggerating when I state this, for I have more 
than once had that very argument brought against me in 
private discussion over the subject. And indeed the old trans- 
lations seem to justify their contention. I need not add that 
these old versions were made innocently by men ignorant both 
of the Greek and Hebrew domestic habits, and therefore of 
the idiomatic powers and import of their languages. 

REFERENCES BY ST. PAUL 

Rom. 14: 21-23; chap. 15: 1-3: "It is noble not to eat flesh, 
or to drink wine, or anything by which your brother is made 
to stumble, or is offended, or is weakened. 

"You have faith? Have it by yourself before God — he is 
happy who does not convict himself by what he approves! and 
all not originating from faith is sin. And we, the strong, ought 

* Pliny, Book. 

313 



to support the weakness of the feeble, and not to indulge our- 
selves. Let each make himself pleasant to his neighbor to 
promote loving-kindness. For Christ did not indulge Himself." 

What a loving but forcible reproof the above is to our mis- 
sionaries, whose mania for denouncing the Mohammedan and 
Hindu peoples for not habitually drinking intoxicating liquors 
is notable. Nay, I may add, forcing their converts to drink 
them as the first and most essential sign that they have become 
Christians, until, as a fact, the names "Christian" and "drunk- 
ard" are held in the popular mind of Asia and Africa to have 
the same meaning,—" AH the Sahibs' servants in Calcutta are 
'Christian' now," said Mr. Bayard Taylor's native attendants 
to him during his travels in India, "for they all drink brandy!" 
And that is the popular idea of the essence of Christianity. I 
know this from personal acquaintance with educated Asiatics, 
and it is painful to hear them speak on the subject — at least, 
to my feelings. 

"I did not know our religion had spread so much in India," 
the American statesman says he answered. 

"Oh, yes, it has," was his attendant's reply, "for they all 
drink brandy!" 

I surely need not ask our missionaries to reflect on this 
record. 

Ephesians 5: 18-21: "Be not drunk with wine, in which there 
is folly; but instead be full of the Spirit, speaking to yourselves 
in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and dancing 
in your hearts to the Lord; giving thanks at all times for 
everything, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, to the God 
and Father, — and supporting one another in a reverence of 
Christ." 

The Apostle here refers to intoxicating drink, which he con- 
demns, not to the simple unfermented grape-juice he did in 
Rom. 14:21, which I quote immediately above. Surely I 
need not add a comment. 

1 Tim. 3:8: "Deacons should be grave; not deceitful, or 
addicted to much wine, nor greedy for money, but they should 
preserve the secret of the faith with a pure understanding." 

314 



In this rule for the ministers of the Church there is no indi- 
cation whether the Apostle speaks of the ordinary domestic 
unfermented wine of his day commonly used then in domestic 
life, as I have shown, or of the same juices fermented so as to 
be intoxicating. Probably he meant the latter, which he clearly 
forbids. 

1 Tim. 5: 23: "No longer drink water alone, but use with a 
little wine for the stomach, because of your frequent in- 
firmities." 

This advice of the Apostle to his friend is the favorite field 
of battle of those who claim the habit of using intoxicating 
drinks to be commanded to Christians. But St. Paul could 
hardly have so contradicted himself in his prohibition of the 
habitual use of intoxicating wine to the ministers of the Church 
as he had done (see 3:8 above), and a few lines afterwards 
have ordered Timothy, who held an Apostolic position in it, 
to regularly drink such liquor? It is only gross ignorance of 
the customs of olden times, and of the idiomatic use of the 
Greek language that originated the absurd import thus put 
upon St. Paul's words. "Stomach wine," or "wine for the 
stomach," the old writers upon Greek medicine tell us, was 
grape-juice, prepared as a thick, unfermented syrup, for use 
as a medicament for dyspeptic and weak persons, and there 
cannot be a doubt but that was the "wine for the stomach," 
the Apostle told his friend to "use" a little of mixed with water, 
which it is evident that Timothy, like other pious Jews of that 
period, restricted himself to, and had drunk previously, so as 
to avoid breaking the Levitical command against priests drink- 
ing "wine or strong drink" during the course of their ministry. 

However, as the passage has been made, by mistranslation 
and perversion, a serious stumbling-block, I venture to give it 
as in the Greek: 

"No longer drink water alone, but use with a little wine for 
the stomach, because of your frequent infirmities." 

The Apostle's use of the dative case, which must be ren- 
dered in English by the adverb "with," indicates that "a little 
stomach wine" should, as a medicament, be mixed, or "min- 
gled" as in other parts it is translated, with water, as the 

315 



syrup anciently prepared from grapes and other fruits was 
done for use as a tonic to the stomach in cases of dyspepsia, 
When : this : fact is known, the absurdity of teaching that this 
bit of advice is a sacred, sanction for always drinking intoxicant 
wine, in the place of water as a beverage, will be seen. Mis- 
sionaries to pagan nations ought especially to avoid repeating 
the false rendering of the versions of this Epistle, which are 
unfortunately by irreflection put into their hands. 

Among the recommendations of this book is the following 
from the Dean of Durham, D.D.; "The book is full of the 
most interesting matter, and I feelsure that you have rescued 
the Biblefrom the degrading imputations of taking sides with 
the disciples of drink. I wish the truths contained irt it could 
be forced into people's heads. It ought to be spread broad- 
cast."' 7 " 



316 



Part Two 

INTOXICATING WINE AT THE HOLY COMMUNION 

Extracts by Frank Hamilton from 
THE BIBLE AND WINE by Ferrar Fenton. 



The Anglican bishops at the Lambeth Conference also de- 
clared, "That the example of our Lord necessitates the use 
of fermented (and therefore alcoholic and intoxicating) wine 
in the administration of the Lord's Supper." This is indeed 
a strange statement for bishops of the Church of God to have 
made. I ask, What historical or other facts have the bishops 
in proof of this God-dishonouring statement? and I answer, 
None. They have simply made it because the Roman, Greek, 
and Anglican Churches have used intoxicating drink for com- 
memorating Christ's great act of atonement for the sins of 
men for generations. But their using it is no proof that Jesus 
Christ used it at the first institution, or that it was used by 
the Apostles and the sub- Apostolic Churches. If Christ did 
use it, it never should have been used; and there is not a 
trace of evidence to show that His "fruit of the vine" was 
intoxicating. We know that at the end of the second cen- 
tury and onwards heathen customs were gradually introduced 
into the Christian system, and took the place of Apostolic 
usages. 

There is no divine authority for the use of wine at all, 
fermented or unfermented, at the Passover; and at what 
period it was introduced by the Jewish priests no one appears 
to know. But all agree that Almighty God absolutely for- 
bade even the presence of bharm (yeast, ferment, leaven) at 
the Passover, because it is the cause of putrefaction. It pu- 

317 



trefies or rots fruit, corn, vegetables, etc., etc., and is the 
emblem of corruption, disease, and death, and not of life. 
Fermentation is putrefaction, and it would be almost, if not 
quite, impossible in our Lord's time to have found any fer- 
mented wine that did not contain bharm (leaven). And 
therefore, according to the teaching of the bishops, Jesus 
Christ, the divine Son of God, Used and sanctioned the use of 
the very thing which had been strictly forbidden to be even 
present in the dwellings of the people at the Passover! 

Now, Jesus Christ described the wine that was being used 
at His Passover as the "fruit of the vine," e.g., the off- 
spring of the vine, or that which is borne of the vine. Now, 
the vine does not bear intoxicating drink. The fruit of the 
vine is not intoxicating. There is no alcohol in the fruit of 
the vine. It is pure, good, wholesome, and health-giving, a 
beautiful emblem of the life and strength-giving grace of our 
Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. Intoxicating wine is the em- 
blem of disease, sin, and death. Moreover, just think of the 
condition the party keeping the Passover must have been in; 
for the Jewish Mishna (chap. 10) says: "A person shall not 
have less than four cups of wine, even if they be given to him 
from the fund devoted to the charitable support of the very 
poor. Each cup must contain the quarter of a quarter of a 
hin — that is three gills English measure— so that the four 
cups would contain twelve gills, or a bottle and a-half (three 
pints)." So Dr Lightfoot tells us. (Vol. 9, p. 151). If the 
wine used was fermented grape-juice, the four cups Would 
contain about six ounces of pure alcohol, equal to twelve 
ounces of proof spirit; and when we remember that each 
member of the family of twelve years of age and upwards 
had to drink four cups, twelve gills, it is certain that, if the 
wine was intoxicating, they must have been drunk at the end 
of the feast, especially the women and the boys and girls who 
were not accustomed to the use of intoxicating wine. How 
terrible to think of the mass of drunkenness in the Jewish 
families on the Passover night! 

It is perfectly revolting to think that our Lord and Saviour 
could countenance or sanction such a man-injuring and God- 
dishonoring system. 

318 



Jesus Christ was God's High Priest. And Almighty God 
had strictly forbidden the priests to use intoxicating wine 
when ministering before Him. In Lev. 10:8-10 it is writ- 
ten: "The Lord spake unto Aaron, saying, Drink no wine nor 
strong drink, thou nor thy sons with thee, when ye go into 
the tent of meeting, that ye die not: it shall be a statute for 
ever throughout your generations: and that ye may put 
difference between the holy and the common, and between 
the unclean and the clean." God had also forbidden the pres- 
ence of all fermented things at the Passover Service. It was 
therefore impossible for His Incarnate Son to act contrary 
to the Father's will, for He said, "I am come not to destroy 
the law, but to fulfil it" (Matt. 5:17). 

Although the customs of the Jews are no certain guide 
to Christians in this matter, yet it is an undeniable fact that 
vast numbers of pious Jewish families have used unfermented 
wine at the Passover all down the ages, and are using such 
wine now year by year. It is simply "the fruit of the vine." 
They cut up a quantity of raisins and place them in an earthen 
vessel, and add water to them, and allow them to simmer 
in the oven for a time, then separate the juice from the skins 
and pips, then put it in the Passover vessel, and they use the 
wine (juice) for the Passover Service. 

In our Lord's time there was always an ample supply of 
the pure "fruit of the vine," which was preserved in an un- 
fermented state. 

The theologians have taught, and alas, still teach, that the 
contents of the cup which our Lord said was His blood was 
of the same nature as the thing which the Scriptures had said 
was as the poison of serpents — as the adder's poison. How can 
such a death-producing thing be a fit emblem of the life- 
giving power of the blood of Jesus Christ? 

It is painful to realize how the Churches have erred, and 
misrepresented Christ, and misled the nations by forcing the 
use of intoxicating wine on the Lord's table and upon man- 
kind. 

The general word for wine, oinos, is never used in Holy 
Scripture to describe the wine used at the Lord's Supper. 

319 



Is this by chance, or is it of design? Surely it is of design, 
because vinos might be intoxicating, but the fruit of the vine 
never is. 

According to God's command (Lev. 10:9) and the teach- 
ing of, the Jewish Mishna, they were not allowed to drink in? 
toxicating wine when serving before the Lord. How terri- 
ble it is to be taught by Christian theologians that Christ 
broke the divine law, and taught His infant Church to break 
the, law He Himself had made, for He was the lawgiver wijh 
the Father and the Holy Ghost. 

If the wine Which was used at the first institution was 
intoxicating, then the great body of Nazarites, Rechabites, 
the. followers , of John the Baptist, and especially the Essenes 
(a vast, multitude of the best of the. people), would be 
prevented partaking, because they never used intoxicating 
wine of any kind, Jeremiah's description of the Nazarites 
might fairly be used to describe these holy people. They 
"were purer than snow, whiter than milk, more ruddy in 
body than rubies" (Lam. 4:7). These people were all ab- 
stainers, from intoxicating drink, and were in much favor 
with the Lord. Surely it is not. possible that the Lord of life 
would cause all these people, who were the cream of society 
in that day in Jerusalem, to violate their consciences by forc- 
ing upon them the intoxicating cup. 

It is most trying to many communicants who are abstainers 
to be forced either to partake of the intoxicating wine or 
to pass the cup, It is especially trying for them to have to 
take their children to the holy table, where they will taste 
intoxicating drink for the first time. And some of it is most 
intoxicating, having not less than from 10 to 30 per cent 
alcohol in it. 



320 



The four passages in the New Testament (R.V.), in which is 
given the account of the Institution of the Lord's Supper. 



ST. MATTHEW 
26: 26 to 29. 

16 And as they were 
sating, Jesus took 
tread, and blessed, 
ind brake it; and he 
[ave to the disciples, 
ind said, Take, eat; 
his is my body. 27 
Ind he took a cup, 
ind gave thanks, 
ind gave to them, 
laying, 28 Drink ye 
ill of it; for this is 
ny blood of the 
lovenant, which is 
hed for many unto 
emission of sins. 
9 But I say unto 
'ou, I will not drink 
lenceforth OF THIS 
■RUIT OF THE 
ANE, until that day 
yhen 1 drink it new 
vith you in my Fa- 
her's kingdom. 



ST, MARK 
14:22 to 25, 

22 And as they were 
eating, he took 
bread, and when he 
had blessed, brake 
it, and gave to them, 
and said, Take ye: 
this is my body. 23 
And he took a cup, 
and when he had 
given thanks, he 
gave to them: and 
they all drank of it. 
24 And he said unto 
them, This is my 
blood of the cove- 
nant, which is shed 
for many. 25 Verily, 
I say unto you, I 
will no more drink 
OF THE FRUIT OF 
THE VINE, until 
that day when I 
drink it new in the 
kingdom of Cod. 



ST. LUKE 
22; 15 to 20. 

15 And he said unto 
them, With desire I 
have desired to eat 
this passover with 
you before I suffer: 

1 6 For I say unto 
you, I will not eat 
it, until it be ful- 
filled in the kingdom 
of God. 17 And he 
received a cup, and 
when he had given 
thanks, he said, 
Take this, and di- 
vide it among your- 
selves, 18 For I say 
unto you, I will not 
drink from hence- 
forth OF THE 
FRUIT OF THE 
VINE, until the 
kingdom of God 
shall come. 19 And 
he took bread, and 
when he had given 
thanks, he brake it, 
and gave to them, 
saying, This is my 
body which is given 
for you: this do in 
remembrance of me. 
20 And the cup in 
like manner after 
supper, saying, This 
cup is the new cov- 
enant in my blood, 
even that which is 
poured out for you. 



1 CORINTHIANS 
11:23 to 26. 

23 For I received of 
the Lord that which 
also I delivered unto 
you, how that the 
Lord Jesus in the 
night in which he 
was betrayed took 
bread; 24 and when 
he had given thanks, 
he brake it, and said, 
This is my tyody, 
which is for you; 
this do in remem- 
brance of me. 25 In 
like manner also the 
cup after supper, 
saying, This cup is 
the new covenant in 
my blood: thi» do, 
as oft as ye drink it, 
in remembrance of 
me. 26 For as often 
as ye eat this bread, 
and drink the cup, 
ye proclaim the 
Lord's death till he 
come. 



NOTE. — In no one of these four passages does the word oinos, "wine," occur. 

321 



The fruit of the Vine before and after it is fermented. 



THE COMPONENT PARTS of 

THE FRUIT OF THE VINE, 

UNFERMENTED. 



.: THE COMPONENT PARTS of 
THE ALCOHOLIC LIQUOR into which 
• the Fruit of the Vine is 
CHANGED BY FERMENTATION. 



Gluten. \ 


'Alcohol. 


Gum. j 


Acetic Acid. 


Aroma. J 


OEnanthic Ether 


. ; 


Extractive. 




Succinic Acid. 




Glycerine. 


Albumen. 


Bouquet 


Sugar. 




Tannin. 


Albumen. 


Tartaric Acid: 


Sugat. 


Malic Acid, 


Twain. 


Potash. 


T&rtaric Acid. 


Lime. 


Malic Acid. 


Sulphur. 


Potash. 


Phosphorus. 


Lime. 



Sulphur. 

Phosphorus. 



EXPLANATION.— The reader will observe at the top of the 
Left Table, in a bracket, the names of three constituents, Gluten, 
Cum and Aroma, which do not appear in the Right Table, These 
are the constitutents of the grape which are wholly destroyed by 
fermentation. 

At the top of the Right Table will be seen in italics, seven con- 
stituents, Alcohol, Acetic Acid, OEnanthic Ether, Extractive, Succinic 
Acid, Glycerine, and Bouquet, which are not constituents of the grape, 
and do not appear in the Left Table. These are entirely new prod- 
ucts, generated out of the three constituents of the Left Table, which 
have been destroyed by fermentation (putrefaction). 

Other constituent? appear in both Tables. The introduction of 
the italic letters in the Right Table is intended to indicate that the 
proportions of the constituents in which they occur have been 
materially diminished in the transformation of grape-juice into alco- 
holic liquor. The thick black letters represent what is left of the 
original grape after fermentation. 



322 



Thus it will be seen that by a triple process of destruction, addition, 
and abstraction— the result of fermentation — grape-juice loses all the 
essential qualities of "THE FRUIT OF THE VINE." It should be 
specially noted that, in parting with its gluten and gum, and with 
nearly the whole of its sugar and albumen, the nutritive and life- 
sustaining qualities of the fluid are destroyed, for it is to these 
constituents that grapes owe their value as human food, 



Thus it is demonstrated that 
ALCOHOLIC WINE is not the "FRUIT OF THE VINE." 



There are Thirteen different words or vocables used (in 
the Bible) ; Nine in the Hebrew and Chaldee, and Four in the 
Greek, all of which are rendered by the European translators 
indiscriminately as "Wine or Strong Drink," although all in- 
trinsically are solid substances, but which may be turned into 
intoxicants by human ingenuity. When, however, we ex- 
amine the passages where these words are used, we find the 
sacred writers speak, in the most numerous cases, of them, 
not as intoxicants, but as foods, which was their ordinary 
form of consumption. Where distinct reference is made to 
them as means after human manipulation of intoxication, 
drunkenness, and debauchery, their use in that form is in- 
variably condemned and vehemently denounced by the 
Prophets and Moralists of the Bible as the causes of personal 
sin and national ruin. Their use in these forms of alcoholic 
liquors, or fermented wine, was absolutely forbidden in the 
religious ordinances of the Temple or Altars, and especially 
from the sacred rites of the Passover, and to all priests during 
the period of their ministrations. 



323 



Grape Juke, unfermented, is "WINE," and a latvful emblem. 

STY CYPRIAN, A.D. 230.— "When the Lord gives the name Of His 
body to bread, composed of the union of many particles, He indicates 
that our people, whose sins He bore, are united. And when He 
calls WINE SQUEEZED OUT FROM BUNCHES OF GRAPES 
His blood, He intimates that our flock axe similarly joined by the 
varied admixture of a united multitude." — Epst. 75 ad Magnum. 

THE FOURTH COUNCIL OF BRAGA, held A. D. 675.— 
Reference being made to some who used no other wine but what 
they pressed out of the cluster at the Lord's Table, and to others 
who communicated with the unpressed cluster, the Council condemned 
the use of uncrushed grapes with water — thus, by implication, allow- 
ing the use of expressed grape-juice, (Dupin Eccl. His. p. 20, 3rd. 
Edition, pub. 1724. Bingham, Ant. of the Christ, Ch. v. 410). 

THOMAS AQUINAS, 13th, Century.— "In unripe grapes the 
juice is still in process of being developed, and has not, yet the form 
of wine:, therefore this Sacrament cannot be fulfilled in the juice of 
unripe grapes" 

"The juice of ripe grapes, on the other hand, has already the form 
of wine; for its sweet taste evidences a mellowing change, which is its 
completion by natural heat (as it is said in the Meteorologica, iv. 3, 
not far from the beginning) ; and for that reason this Sacrament can 
be fulfilled with the juice of ripe grapes." 

ST. ANSELM, Archbishop of Canterbury, A. D. 1096.— "He be- 
haved so that all men loved him as their father. He bore with even 
mind the ways and weaknesses of each. To each he supplied what 
he saw they wanted. Oh, how many, given over in sickness, has he 
brought back to health by his loving care!. You found it so, Hereward, 
in your helpless old age, when disabled by years, as well as by heavy 
infirmity, you had lost all power in your body except in your tongue, 
and were fed by his hand, and refreshed by wine squeezed from the 
grapes into his other hand, from which you drank it, and were at 
last restored to health. For no other drink, as you used to say, could 
you relish, nor from any other hand." (Quoted from Eadmer by 
DEAN CHURCH, in his life of St. Anselm, p. 81, new ed., 
Lond., 1882.) 

324 



There is much danger to some Communicants in 
Communicating in Fermented Wine. 

Dr. B. W. RICHARDSON, F.R.S.— "Dr. Kerr has drawn no 
imaginary picture of the danger menacing reformed drunkards 
in taking the Communion in Fermented Wine. I say the danger 
is very great indeed in regard to a considerable number of people. 
The physician's room is, in fact, a confessional. Very often state- 
ments are made to us physicians which are made to no others. In 
respect of this very question, hardly a month passes but some one 
speaks to me on this very point. I could at this moment, if it were 
right to do so, name at least ten persons who wish to accept the 
Communion, and who do not go to it from the fear lest they should 
fall back into those ways from which they have been rescued." — 
CHAIRMAN'S speech, Church Homiletical Society, Chapter House 
of St. Paul's, London, Nov. 1st, 1881. 

The REV. NEWMAN HALL, LL.B.— "Unfermented Wine has 
been adopted at Christ Church, Lambeth, for the Holy Communion, 
by the unanimous opinion of the minister and elders. The Rev. N. 
Hall explained from the pulpit the reasons for this decision. There 
were many reclaimed drunkards in our churches, who feared that 
the taste of alcohol might act upon them like a spark to gunpowder. 
This was no idle fear. He had been told in Edinburgh, on good 
authority, of two elders of churches who had thus fallen. The 
previous week he had been told by a brother minister of a drunkard 
in the West of England who was frequently taken home in a wheel- 
barrow from the public-house. He became a teetotaller, and, as 
was hoped, a Christian. He joined a Congregational Church. The 
next Sunday again he tasted the intoxicating cup, and that very 
week was taken home intoxicated. Mr. N. Hall referred to his own 
father, who, as deacon of an Independent Church, and then as elder 
of Surrey Chapel, during 30 years, handed the cup to others, but 
never tasted it himself." 

A young minister of the Orthodox Presbyterian Church changed 
from unfermented to fermented wine at his communion services, 
because he was taught that otherwise he would dishonor his Lord, 
who made, drank and used intoxicating wine. 

325 



DID THE LORD JESUS CHRIST DRINK 
INTOXICATING WINE? 



The theologians have taught all down the ages that our 
blessed Lord and Saviour did drink intoxicating drink as His 
ordinary everyday drink, because they say there was no such 
thing as unintoxicating wine in His, day. But the eyes of 
some of the most learned of our day appear to be opening 
wide enough to see that the theologians were wrong. 

Dr. Kynaston, Professor of Greek at Durham University, 
says: "We cannot prove from the words in the Bible that 
our Lord did Or did not drink intoxicating wine." This is a 
step in the right direction. The theologians have also taught 
equally definitely that oinos always meant intoxicating wine; 
but Sir Richard Jebb, Professor of Greek at Cambridge Uni- 
versity said that "oinos is a general term, and might include 
all kinds of beverages." 

Anacreon, who wrote some five hundred years, B.C., Ode 
Hi, says: 

"Only males tread the grapes, . 
Setting free the oinos (wine)." 

Here, at this early period, we see that the juice in the grapes 
was called (wine) oinos. And all sane persons know that the 
juice in the grapes is not intoxicating. Nothing is clearer to 
those who have studied this question than that the Hebrew 
word yain and the Greek word oinos were, as Professor Sir 
R. Jebb says of oinos, general words in those early days, and 
were used to describe sometimes the fruit on the vines, the 
juice in the grapes, the juice when it was being pressed out, 
when it was preserved in an unfermented state and there- 
fore unintoxicating, and when it was fermented and intoxi- 
cating 

326 



There is overwhelming proof that there has been in use 
all down the centuries, in all grape-growing countries, grape- 
juice fermented and intoxicating, and also an abundance of 
grape-juice preserved in an unfermented state, and there- 
fore not intoxicating; and both have been called wine. 

But the unintoxicating, in addition to being called wine, 
has been called by various other names, such as glukus, 
vinum, mustum, sapa, careum, siraeum, hepsema, pekmez, 
new wine. A great many more names might be added, but a 
full description may be seen in Dr. Norman Kerr's book on 
Wines, Scriptural and Ecclesiastical, also in the Temperance 
Bible Commentary by Dr. F. R. Lees and Dr. Dawson Burns. 
These words mainly describe a wine made from grape- juice 
by reducing the juice to a sweet liquid by boiling. It was 
too thick and too sweet to drink pure. And this is a main 
reason why the Greeks and Romans added so much water to 
it before drinking, and also why water was added to it be- 
fore it was used at the Lord's Supper. Water was also added 
to the intoxicating wine to reduce its intoxicating power. 

Varro speaks of "gathering wine." 

Cato of "hanging wine" (grapes on the vine) . 

Columella of "unintoxicating wine." 

Celsus says: "Gather the berries of the myrtle, and from 
them express wine." 

Ovid says: "And scarce can the grapes contain the wine 
they have within." 

Ibycus says : 

"And new born clusters teem with wine, 
Beneath the shadowy foliage of the vine." 

Goethe beautifully says: 

"And bending down, the grapes o'erflow 
With wine into the vat below." 

There is therefore clearly no justification whatever for the 
misleading statements of the theologians, viz., that there was 

■327 



no such thing as unintoxicating wine in the days of our Lord. 
And it is equally clear that there is no proof, either in holy 
Scripture or out of it, that our Lord ever drank intoxicating 
wine. 

It is no more true to say that the word "wine" always 
meant intoxicating wine than it is to say that the word "bread'' 
always meant fermented bread just as the word "bread" some- 
times meant fermented bread and sometimes unfermented. 
So the word oinos (wine) sometimes was used to describe the 
grape-juice when it was fermented and sometimes when it 
was unfermented. St. Matthew 26: 26, "Jesus took bread and 
blessed it." Here it is not stated whether the bread was 
fermented or not, but we know it was unfermented 
(unleavened), because it was the Passover bread. Haggai 
1: 11, "I called for drought upon the corn, and upon the 
new wine, and upon the oil." It is clear that the new wine 
in this verse means the growing grapes, for if the wine was 
in the casks or skin bottles the drought could have no effect 
upon it. The translation in this passage, like many others, 
is misleading; instead of "new wine" it should be "vine- 
fruit" (Thirosh). Thank God! there is therefore not even a 
trace of evidence to prove that our Saviour Jesus Christ ever 
drank or sanctioned the use of intoxicating drink, 



328 



HISTORY SHOWS THAT THERE HAS BEEN 
UNFERMENTED WINE ALL DOWN THE AGES 



The theologians have denied the existence of unfermented 
wine and have asserted that all drinks described by the words 
shekar, thirosh, yain, or oinos were fermented and intoxicat- 
ing. This theory I have already controverted, but it is most 
important in this discussion to show that unfermented wine 
has been well known, and has been drunk and used more or 
less for sacramental purposes all down the ages. 

It has been known by many names, but the thing itself 
has existed, and does exist, in many countries at this day. 
In fact, all the grape-juice the earth produces could be pre- 
served in an unfermented state. 

I have shown that it was well known and much used by 
the Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans. Isaiah says: "Buy yain 
(wine) and milk." Aristotle says: "Oinos glukus" (thick sweet 
wine) is wine, though it is not so in reality, for its taste is 
not vinous, therefore it does not intoxicate." 

Columella speaks of "unintoxicating good wine." He ialso 
gives the following recipe for preserving it unfermented, i.e., 
"That your must may always be as sweet as when it is new, 
thus proceed. Before you apply the press to the grapes 
take the newest must from the lake, put it into a new am- 
phora, bung it up and cover it up very carefully with pitch, 
lest any water should enter, then sink it in a cistern or 
pond of pure cold water, and allow no part of the amphora to 
remain above the surface. After forty days take it out; it 
will remain sweet for a year" (Book 12; ch. 29). And if for 
one year, it is equally true to say it will remain sweet for 
many years. 

329 



Rev. S. Robinson, Missionary at Damascus, when writing 
on the food of the country, says: "The fruit of the vine is a 
substantial part of the people's food from August to Decem- 
ber. Bread and grapes are substantially the food of the people. 
The fruit of the vine is preserved in substance as thick as 
honey, and called dibs." 

Pliny, who lived in the apostolic age, says: "The first of 
the artificial wines has wine for its basis; it is called ady- 
namon (i.e., without strength), and is made in the following 
manner: twenty sextarii of white must are boiled down with 
half that quantity of water until the amount of the water is 
lost by evaporation. This beverage is given to invalids 
(stomach wine that Timothy was advised to take a little of) 
to whom it is apprehended that wine (i.e., fermented Wine) 
may prove injurious" (Book 14: ch. 19). 

Dr. H. Adler, Chief Rabbi of the British Empire, says: 
"I know of no authority for limiting the use of the word 'wine' 
to fermented wine" (Speech, Medical Society, London, Feb. 
20th, 1883). 

Sir James Miller, Professor at Edinburgh, Surgeon to Queen 
Victoria, said to an extensive wine-grower on the Moselle: 
"Have you any unfermented wine — juice of the grape?" And 
received for reply: "Tuns, ten years old" (Nephalism, pp. 
147, 148). 

The juice of the grape has been preserved in an unfer- 
mented state in all grape-growing countries, and in some for 
3,000 years, and it has been called "wine." It is called "wine" 
by nearly all the great travellers and in ancient and modern 
dictionaries. It is sometimes called "new or sweet wine" in 
the Bible. 

A short time ago I met a missionary who is laboring in 
Syria, and I said, "Do the natives preserve their grape- juice 
in an unfermented state and use it as drink and food?" And 
the answer was, "Yes, they do; it is thick and very sweet, and 
is in common use in the villages in Syria. They make us pres- 
ents of it, and we eat it with porridge and drink it mixed 
with milk, also use it as you use golden syrup with bread." 
Here we have the very custom continued to our day, referred 

330 



to by the prophet Isaiah (55: 1), where he says, "Come, buy 
wine and milk without money and without price." I have 
drunk some of this myself, and it is a delightful drink. It is 
simply the Greek glukus, or the Latin tnustum or defrutum, 
mixed with milk, 



331 



Philip Sidersky, a Christian Jew, told 
Mrs. Hamilton that at the Passover Supper 
the Jews squeeze the jujce from a bunch 
of grapes into the chalice. 

Frank Hamilton. 



332